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The Mineralogy of Bromine

General Properties
Atomic Number:35
Standard atomic weight (Ar):79.904(1)
Electron configuration:[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p5
Bromine sample for teaching
Atomic Properties
Electronegativity (Pauling scale):2.96
Atomic Radius:94 pm
Ionic Radius:196 pm (-1)
Van der Waals Radius:185 pm
1st Ionization energy:1140 kJ/mol
1st Electron affinity:-325 kJ/mol
Oxidation States:-1,1,3,4,5,7
Physical Properties
Standard State:liquid
Bonding Type:covalent network
Melting Point:266 K
Boiling Point:332 K
Density:3.12 g/cm3
Main isotopes of Bromine
Isotope% in NatureHalf LifeDecay typeDecay product
Main ions of Bromine
NameIonExample minerals
Other Information
Year Discovered:1825
Discovered By:
Antoine Jérôme Balard
Leopold Gmelin

Antoine Jérôme Balard and Leopold Gmelin
Year Isolated:1825
Isolated By:Antoine Jérôme Balard and Leopold Gmelin
Named For:Greek: bromos - "stench", due to its characteristic smell
CPK color coding:#A62929
External Links:WikipediaWebElementsLos Alamos National LaboratoryTheodore Gray's
Simple Compounds
Fluoridesbromine fluorideBrF+1
bromine trifluorideBrF3+3
bromine pentafluorideBrF5+5
Oxidesbromine dioxideBrO2+4
dibromine oxideBr2O+1
Mineral Diversity of Bromine
2. Sulfides And Sulfosalts 2 valid mineral species
3. Halides6 valid mineral species
Total:8 valid species containing essential Bromine
Geochemistry of Bromine
Goldschmidt classification:Lithophile
Elemental Abundance for Bromine
Crust (CRC Handbook)2.4 x 10-6mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Kaye & Laby)4.0 x 10-6mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Greenwood)2.5 x 10-6mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Ahrens/Wänke)6.95 x 10-6mass fraction, kg/kg
Sea Water (CRC Handbook)6.73 x 10-5mass per volume fraction, kg/L
Sea Water (Kaye & Laby)6.7 x 10-5mass per volume fraction, kg/L
Solar System (Kaye & Laby)1.2 x 10-5atom mole fraction relative to Si=1
Solar System (Ahrens)1.18 x 10-5 (19%)atom mole fraction relative to Si=1 (% uncertainty)
Element association of Bromine in the Mineral World
This table compares the known valid mineral species listed listed with Bromine and the other elements listed based on the official IMA formula. Note that unlike other sections on this page this includes non-essential elements.

The first data column contains the total number of minerals listed with Bromine and the element listed for that row.

The second data column lists this number as a percentage of all minerals listed with Bromine.

The final data column compares this percentage against the percentage of all minerals that contain the element listed in each row.

Click on a heading to sort.
ElementValid Minerals listed with element and Bromine% of Br mineralsRelative to % in all minerals
Chlorine13 minerals with Br and Cl76.47%917.47% higher
Mercury11 minerals with Br and Hg64.71%3,658.51% higher
Oxygen9 minerals with Br and O52.94%30.52% lower
Sulfur5 minerals with Br and S29.41%50.89% higher
Iodine5 minerals with Br and I29.41%6,255.29% higher
Hydrogen4 minerals with Br and H23.53%56.16% lower
Silver3 minerals with Br and Ag17.65%432.57% higher
Nitrogen2 minerals with Br and N11.76%517.02% higher
Copper2 minerals with Br and Cu11.76%5.85% lower
Thallium1 mineral with Br and Tl5.88%420.93% higher
Antimony1 mineral with Br and Sb5.88%20.37% higher
Arsenic1 mineral with Br and As5.88%48.25% lower
Bismuth1 mineral with Br and Bi5.88%44.44% higher
Carbon1 mineral with Br and C5.88%20.36% lower
Potassium1 mineral with Br and K5.88%39.13% lower
Fluorine1 mineral with Br and F5.88%29.23% lower
Lead1 mineral with Br and Pb5.88%38.42% lower
Periodic Table
1H 2He
3Li 4Be 5B 6C 7N 8O 9F 10Ne
11Na 12Mg 13Al 14Si 15P 16S 17Cl 18Ar
19K 20Ca 21Sc 22Ti 23V 24Cr 25Mn 26Fe 27Co 28Ni 29Cu 30Zn 31Ga 32Ge 33As 34Se 35Br 36Kr
37Rb 38Sr 39Y 40Zr 41Nb 42Mo 43Tc 44Ru 45Rh 46Pd 47Ag 48Cd 49In 50Sn 51Sb 52Te 53I 54Xe
55Cs 56Ba 57La 72Hf 73Ta 74W 75Re 76Os 77Ir 78Pt 79Au 80Hg 81Tl 82Pb 83Bi 84Po 85At 86Rn
87Fr 88Ra 89Ac 104Rd 105Db 106Sg 107Bh 108Hs 109Mt 110Ds 111Rg 112Cn 113Nh 114Fl 115Mc 116Lv 117Ts 118Og
58Ce 59Pr 60Nd 61Pm 62Sm 63Eu 64Gd 65Tb 66Dy 67Ho 68Er 69Tm 70Yb 71Lu
90Th 91Pa 92U 93Np 94Pu 95Am 96Cm 97Bk 98Cf 99Es 100Fm 101Md 102No 103Lr
Default Categories CPK Electronegativity Atomic Radius Lowest Oxidation Highest Oxidation Crustal Abundance Goldschmidt Mineral Species Minerals with Br Relative Frequency
Selenium << Bromine >> Krypton

Most widespread minerals containing Bromine
This list of minerals containing Bromine is built from the locality database. This is based on the number of localities entered for mineral species and is therefore slanted towards minerals interesting to collectors with less coverage of common rock-forming-minerals so it does not give an undistorted distribution of Bromine mineral species. It is more useful when comparing rare species rather than common species.
NameFormulaCrystal SystemMindat Localities

Localities with greatest number of different Bromine mineral species
map should go here
1Arzak Hg occurrence (Arzakskoye), Uyuk Range, Pii-Khem District, Tuva Republic, Eastern-Siberian Region, Russia3 Br minerals
2Kadyrel' Hg occurrence, Oorash-Khem River Valley, Uyuk Range, Pii-Khem District, Tuva Republic, Eastern-Siberian Region, Russia3 Br minerals
3Kintore opencut, Broken Hill South Mine (BHS Mine; South Mine), Broken Hill, Yancowinna Co., New South Wales, Australia1 Br minerals
4Chañarcillo, Copiapó Province, Atacama Region, Chile1 Br minerals
Bad Ems District, Lahn valley, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany1 Br minerals
6Batopilas, Andres del Rio District, Mun. de Batopilas, Chihuahua, Mexico1 Br minerals
7Cole Mine (Cole shaft; Cole No. 3), Bisbee, Warren District, Mule Mts, Cochise Co., Arizona, USA1 Br minerals
8Shattuck Mine (Shattuck-Denn Mine; Shattuck-Arizona Mine; Denn Mine), Bisbee, Warren District, Mule Mts, Cochise Co., Arizona, USA1 Br minerals

Spotted a mistake/omission? - These pages are a work in progress, so please send all comments/corrections to Thank you.

Constants and physical property data from:

David R. Lide (ed.), CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 85th Edition. CRC Press. Boca Raton, Florida (2005).
Kaye and Laby Tables of Physical & Chemical Constants (2005). Section 3.1.3, Abundances of the elements
A. Earnshaw, N. Greenwood, Chemistry of the Elements, 2nd edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, (1997)
Thomas J. Ahrens (ed.), Global Earth Physics : A Handbook of Physical Constants, American Geophysical Union (1995)
L.B. Railsback, An Earth Scientist's Periodic Table of the Elements and Their Ions : Geology 31:9 p737-740 (2003)
Emsley, J. Nature's Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements. New York: Oxford University Press (2001)
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