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The Mineralogy of Bromine

General Properties
Symbol:Br
Atomic Number:35
Standard atomic weight (Ar):79.904(1)
Electron configuration:[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p5
Photos
<
Bromine sample for teaching
>
Atomic Properties
Electronegativity (Pauling scale):2.96
Atomic Radius:94 pm
Ionic Radius:196 pm (-1)
Van der Waals Radius:185 pm
1st Ionization energy:1140 kJ/mol
1st Electron affinity:-325 kJ/mol
Oxidation States:-1,1,3,4,5,7
Physical Properties
Standard State:liquid
Bonding Type:covalent network
Melting Point:266 K
Boiling Point:332 K
Density:3.12 g/cm3
Metal/Non-Metal:halogen
Main isotopes of Bromine
Isotope% in NatureHalf LifeDecay typeDecay product
76Brsynthetic16.2(2)hβ+76Se
77Brsynthetic57.036(6)hβ+77Se
79Br50.6%stable
81Br49.31%stable
82Brsynthetic35.282(7)hβ−82Kr
Main ions of Bromine
NameIonExample minerals
bromideBr-Bromargyrite
Other Information
Year Discovered:1825
Discovered By:
Antoine Jérôme Balard
Leopold Gmelin


Antoine Jérôme Balard and Leopold Gmelin
Year Isolated:1825
Isolated By:Antoine Jérôme Balard and Leopold Gmelin
Named For:Greek: bromos - "stench", due to its characteristic smell
CPK color coding:#A62929
External Links:WikipediaWebElementsLos Alamos National LaboratoryTheodore Gray's PeriodicTable.com
Simple Compounds
Fluoridesbromine fluorideBrF+1
bromine trifluorideBrF3+3
bromine pentafluorideBrF5+5
Oxidesbromine dioxideBrO2+4
dibromine oxideBr2O+1
Mineral Diversity of Bromine
2. Sulfides And Sulfosalts 2 valid mineral species
3. Halides6 valid mineral species
Total:8 valid species containing essential Bromine
Geochemistry of Bromine
Goldschmidt classification:Lithophile
Elemental Abundance for Bromine
Crust (CRC Handbook)2.4 x 10-6mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Kaye & Laby)4.0 x 10-6mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Greenwood)2.5 x 10-6mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Ahrens/Wänke)6.95 x 10-6mass fraction, kg/kg
Sea Water (CRC Handbook)6.73 x 10-5mass per volume fraction, kg/L
Sea Water (Kaye & Laby)6.7 x 10-5mass per volume fraction, kg/L
Solar System (Kaye & Laby)1.2 x 10-5atom mole fraction relative to Si=1
Solar System (Ahrens)1.18 x 10-5 (19%)atom mole fraction relative to Si=1 (% uncertainty)
Element association of Bromine in the Mineral World
This table compares the known valid mineral species listed listed with Bromine and the other elements listed based on the official IMA formula. Note that unlike other sections on this page this includes non-essential elements.

The first data column contains the total number of minerals listed with Bromine and the element listed for that row.

The second data column lists this number as a percentage of all minerals listed with Bromine.

The final data column compares this percentage against the percentage of all minerals that contain the element listed in each row.

Click on a heading to sort.
ElementValid Minerals listed with element and Bromine% of Br mineralsRelative to % in all minerals
Chlorine35 minerals with Br and Cl74.47%898.39% higher
Mercury31 minerals with Br and Hg65.96%3,499.68% higher
Oxygen25 minerals with Br and O53.19%34.07% lower
Iodine15 minerals with Br and I31.91%5,647.87% higher
Sulfur13 minerals with Br and S27.66%31.32% higher
Hydrogen12 minerals with Br and H25.53%54.62% lower
Silver9 minerals with Br and Ag19.15%453.27% higher
Nitrogen6 minerals with Br and N12.77%484.53% higher
Copper4 minerals with Br and Cu8.51%35.60% lower
Thallium3 minerals with Br and Tl6.38%378.99% higher
Antimony3 minerals with Br and Sb6.38%28.68% higher
Arsenic3 minerals with Br and As6.38%48.22% lower
Bismuth3 minerals with Br and Bi6.38%48.65% higher
Carbon3 minerals with Br and C6.38%18.47% lower
Potassium3 minerals with Br and K6.38%32.51% lower
Fluorine3 minerals with Br and F6.38%18.66% lower
Lead1 mineral with Br and Pb2.13%79.32% lower
Periodic Table
1H 2He
3Li 4Be 5B 6C 7N 8O 9F 10Ne
11Na 12Mg 13Al 14Si 15P 16S 17Cl 18Ar
19K 20Ca 21Sc 22Ti 23V 24Cr 25Mn 26Fe 27Co 28Ni 29Cu 30Zn 31Ga 32Ge 33As 34Se 35Br 36Kr
37Rb 38Sr 39Y 40Zr 41Nb 42Mo 43Tc 44Ru 45Rh 46Pd 47Ag 48Cd 49In 50Sn 51Sb 52Te 53I 54Xe
55Cs 56Ba 57La 72Hf 73Ta 74W 75Re 76Os 77Ir 78Pt 79Au 80Hg 81Tl 82Pb 83Bi 84Po 85At 86Rn
87Fr 88Ra 89Ac 104Rd 105Db 106Sg 107Bh 108Hs 109Mt 110Ds 111Rg 112Cn 113Nh 114Fl 115Mc 116Lv 117Ts 118Og
 
58Ce 59Pr 60Nd 61Pm 62Sm 63Eu 64Gd 65Tb 66Dy 67Ho 68Er 69Tm 70Yb 71Lu
90Th 91Pa 92U 93Np 94Pu 95Am 96Cm 97Bk 98Cf 99Es 100Fm 101Md 102No 103Lr
Default Categories CPK Electronegativity Atomic Radius Lowest Oxidation Highest Oxidation Crustal Abundance Goldschmidt Mineral Species Minerals with Br Relative Frequency
Selenium << Bromine >> Krypton


Most widespread minerals containing Bromine
This list of minerals containing Bromine is built from the mindat.org locality database. This is based on the number of localities entered for mineral species and is therefore slanted towards minerals interesting to collectors with less coverage of common rock-forming-minerals so it does not give an undistorted distribution of Bromine mineral species. It is more useful when comparing rare species rather than common species.
NameFormulaCrystal SystemMindat Localities
BromargyriteAgBrIsometric226
Kuzminite(Hg2+2)(Br,Cl)2Tetragonal3
GrechishcheviteHg2+3S2(Br,Cl,I)2Tetragonal2
Photos

Localities with greatest number of different Bromine mineral species
map should go here
4Arzak Hg occurrence (Arzakskoye), Uyuk Range, Pii-Khem District, Tuva, Russia3 Br minerals
3Kadyrel' Hg occurrence, Oorash-Khem River Valley, Uyuk Range, Pii-Khem District, Tuva, Russia3 Br minerals
5Kintore opencut, Broken Hill South Mine (BHS Mine; South Mine), Broken Hill, Broken Hill district, Yancowinna Co., New South Wales, Australia1 Br minerals
6Chañarcillo, Copiapó Province, Atacama Region, Chile1 Br minerals
Bad Ems, Rhein-Lahn-Kreis, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany1 Br minerals
8Batopilas, Andres del Rio District, Mun. de Batopilas, Chihuahua, Mexico1 Br minerals


Spotted a mistake/omission? - These pages are a work in progress, so please send all comments/corrections to jolyon@mindat.org. Thank you.

Constants and physical property data from:

David R. Lide (ed.), CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 85th Edition. CRC Press. Boca Raton, Florida (2005).
Kaye and Laby Tables of Physical & Chemical Constants (2005). Section 3.1.3, Abundances of the elements
A. Earnshaw, N. Greenwood, Chemistry of the Elements, 2nd edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, (1997)
Thomas J. Ahrens (ed.), Global Earth Physics : A Handbook of Physical Constants, American Geophysical Union (1995)
L.B. Railsback, An Earth Scientist's Periodic Table of the Elements and Their Ions : Geology 31:9 p737-740 (2003)
Emsley, J. Nature's Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements. New York: Oxford University Press (2001)
Mineral and/or Locality  
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