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The Mineralogy of Cadmium

General Properties
Symbol:Cd
Atomic Number:48
Standard atomic weight (Ar):112.411(8)
Electron configuration:[Kr] 4d10 5s2
Photos
<
A crystal cadmium bar.
>
Atomic Properties
Electronegativity (Pauling scale):1.69
Atomic Radius:161 pm
Ionic Radius:95 pm (+2)
Van der Waals Radius:158 pm
1st Ionization energy:868 kJ/mol
Oxidation States:2
Physical Properties
Standard State:solid
Bonding Type:metallic
Melting Point:594 K
Boiling Point:1040 K
Density:8.65 g/cm3
Metal/Non-Metal:transition metal
Main isotopes of Cadmium
Isotope% in NatureHalf LifeDecay typeDecay product
106Cd1.25%>4.1x1020yβ+β+ ?106Pd
107Cdsynthetic6.5hε107Ag
108Cd0.89%>4.1x1017yβ+β+ ?
109Cdsyn462.6dε109Ag
110Cd12.49%-Spontaneous fission ?
111Cd12.8%-Spontaneous fission ?
112Cd24.13%-Spontaneous fission ?
113Cd12.22%7.7x1015yβ−113In
113mCdsynthetic14.1yβ−113In
Isomeric transition113Cd
114Cd28.73%>6.4x1018yβ-β- ?114Sn
115Cdsynthetic53.46hβ−115In
116Cd7.49%3.1x1019yβ-β-116Sn
Main ions of Cadmium
NameIonExample minerals
cadmium(II)Cd2+Greenockite
Other Information
Year Discovered:1817
Discovered By:
Karl Samuel Leberecht Hermann
Friedrich Stromeyer


Karl Samuel Leberecht Hermann and Friedrich Stromeyer
Year Isolated:1817
Isolated By:Karl Samuel Leberecht Hermann and Friedrich Stromeyer
Named For: Greek "calamine", a cadmium-bearing mixture of minerals
CPK color coding:#FFD98F
External Links:WikipediaWebElementsLos Alamos National LaboratoryTheodore Gray's PeriodicTable.com
Simple Compounds and Mineral Names
Nitridestricadmium dinitrideCd3N2+2
Sulfidescadmium sulphideCdS+2Greenockite, Hawleyite
Selenidescadmium selenideCdSe+2Cadmoselite
Telluridescadmium tellurideCdTe+2
Hydridescadmium dihydrideCdH2+2
Fluoridescadmium difluorideCdF2+2
Chloridescadmium dichlorideCdCl2+2
Iodidescadmium diiodideCdI2+2
Oxidescadmium oxideCdO+2Monteponite
cadmium peroxideCdO2+2
Mineral Diversity of Cadmium
1. Elements 1 valid mineral species
2. Sulfides And Sulfosalts 9 valid mineral species
4. Oxides 2 valid mineral species
5. Carbonates 1 valid mineral species
7. Sulfates 4 valid mineral species
8. Phosphates, Arsenates, Vanadates5 valid mineral species
Total:22 valid species containing essential Cadmium
Geochemistry of Cadmium
Goldschmidt classification:Chalcophile
Elemental Abundance for Cadmium
Crust (CRC Handbook)1.5 x 10-7mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Kaye & Laby)1.8 x 10-7mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Greenwood)1.6 x 10-7mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Ahrens/Taylor)9.8 x 10-8mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Ahrens/Wänke)1.00 x 10-7mass fraction, kg/kg
Upper Crust (Ahrens/Taylor)9.8 x 10-8mass fraction, kg/kg
Sea Water (CRC Handbook)1.1 x 10-10mass per volume fraction, kg/L
Sea Water (Kaye & Laby)1.1 x 10-10mass per volume fraction, kg/L
The Sun (Kaye & Laby)2.0 x 10-6atom mole fraction relative to Si=1
Solar System (Kaye & Laby)1.6 x 10-6atom mole fraction relative to Si=1
Solar System (Ahrens)1.61 x 10-6 (6.5%)atom mole fraction relative to Si=1 (% uncertainty)
Element association of Cadmium in the Mineral World
This table compares the known valid mineral species listed listed with Cadmium and the other elements listed based on the official IMA formula. Note that unlike other sections on this page this includes non-essential elements.

The first data column contains the total number of minerals listed with Cadmium and the element listed for that row.

The second data column lists this number as a percentage of all minerals listed with Cadmium.

The final data column compares this percentage against the percentage of all minerals that contain the element listed in each row.

Click on a heading to sort.
ElementValid Minerals listed with element and Cadmium% of Cd mineralsRelative to % in all minerals
Sulfur17 minerals with Cd and S62.96%223.01% higher
Oxygen15 minerals with Cd and O55.56%27.09% lower
Hydrogen12 minerals with Cd and H44.44%17.18% lower
Copper11 minerals with Cd and Cu40.74%226.05% higher
Arsenic6 minerals with Cd and As22.22%95.51% higher
Lead6 minerals with Cd and Pb22.22%132.64% higher
Zinc4 minerals with Cd and Zn14.81%177.88% higher
Chlorine3 minerals with Cd and Cl11.11%47.84% higher
Iron3 minerals with Cd and Fe11.11%51.20% lower
Selenium2 minerals with Cd and Se7.41%217.58% higher
Bismuth2 minerals with Cd and Bi7.41%81.89% higher
Potassium2 minerals with Cd and K7.41%23.34% lower
Phosphorus2 minerals with Cd and P7.41%32.75% lower
Silver2 minerals with Cd and Ag7.41%123.55% higher
Antimony1 mineral with Cd and Sb3.70%24.21% lower
Tin1 mineral with Cd and Sn3.70%102.10% higher
Indium1 mineral with Cd and In3.70%1,329.10% higher
Manganese1 mineral with Cd and Mn3.70%67.89% lower
Fluorine1 mineral with Cd and F3.70%55.44% lower
Aluminium1 mineral with Cd and Al3.70%81.30% lower
Carbon1 mineral with Cd and C3.70%49.86% lower
Germanium1 mineral with Cd and Ge3.70%589.91% higher
Calcium1 mineral with Cd and Ca3.70%84.91% lower
Periodic Table
1H 2He
3Li 4Be 5B 6C 7N 8O 9F 10Ne
11Na 12Mg 13Al 14Si 15P 16S 17Cl 18Ar
19K 20Ca 21Sc 22Ti 23V 24Cr 25Mn 26Fe 27Co 28Ni 29Cu 30Zn 31Ga 32Ge 33As 34Se 35Br 36Kr
37Rb 38Sr 39Y 40Zr 41Nb 42Mo 43Tc 44Ru 45Rh 46Pd 47Ag 48Cd 49In 50Sn 51Sb 52Te 53I 54Xe
55Cs 56Ba 57La 72Hf 73Ta 74W 75Re 76Os 77Ir 78Pt 79Au 80Hg 81Tl 82Pb 83Bi 84Po 85At 86Rn
87Fr 88Ra 89Ac 104Rd 105Db 106Sg 107Bh 108Hs 109Mt 110Ds 111Rg 112Cn 113Nh 114Fl 115Mc 116Lv 117Ts 118Og
 
58Ce 59Pr 60Nd 61Pm 62Sm 63Eu 64Gd 65Tb 66Dy 67Ho 68Er 69Tm 70Yb 71Lu
90Th 91Pa 92U 93Np 94Pu 95Am 96Cm 97Bk 98Cf 99Es 100Fm 101Md 102No 103Lr
Default Categories CPK Electronegativity Atomic Radius Lowest Oxidation Highest Oxidation Crustal Abundance Goldschmidt Mineral Species Minerals with Cd Relative Frequency
Silver << Cadmium >> Indium


Most widespread minerals containing Cadmium
This list of minerals containing Cadmium is built from the mindat.org locality database. This is based on the number of localities entered for mineral species and is therefore slanted towards minerals interesting to collectors with less coverage of common rock-forming-minerals so it does not give an undistorted distribution of Cadmium mineral species. It is more useful when comparing rare species rather than common species.
NameFormulaCrystal SystemMindat Localities
GreenockiteCdSHexagonal565
HawleyiteCdSIsometric60
RamdohritePb5.9Fe0.1Mn0.1In0.1Cd0.2Ag2.8Sb10.8S24Monoclinic33
OtaviteCdCO3Trigonal25
ČernýiteCu2(Cd,Zn,Fe)SnS4Tetragonal7
NiedermayriteCdCu4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 4H2OMonoclinic7
MonteponiteCdOIsometric5
CadmiumCdHexagonal4
CadmoseliteCdSeHexagonal3
KeyiteCu2+3Zn4Cd2(AsO4)6 · 2H2OMonoclinic2
Photos

Localities with greatest number of different Cadmium mineral species
map should go here
1Esperanza Mine, Lavrion (Laurion; Laurium), Lavrion District Mines, Lavrion District (Laurion; Laurium), Attikí Prefecture (Attica; Attika), Greece9 Cd minerals
2Block 14 opencut, Broken Hill, Yancowinna Co., New South Wales, Australia7 Cd minerals
3Tsumeb Mine (Tsumcorp Mine), Tsumeb, Otjikoto Region (Oshikoto), Namibia5 Cd minerals
4Niujiaotang Cd-Zn deposit, Duyun Co., Qiannan Autonomous Prefecture, Guizhou Province, China4 Cd minerals
Yana River Basin, Verkhoyansk, Sakha Republic (Saha Republic; Yakutia), Eastern-Siberian Region, Russia3 Cd minerals
6Sounion Mine No. 19 ("Chloridstollen"), Sounion Mines, Sounion area, Lavrion District Mines, Lavrion District (Laurion; Laurium), Attikí Prefecture (Attica; Attika), Greece3 Cd minerals
7Sterling Mine, Sterling Hill, Ogdensburg, Franklin Mining District, Sussex Co., New Jersey, USA3 Cd minerals
8Goldstrike Mines, Lynn District, Eureka Co., Nevada, USA2 Cd minerals


Important ores of Cadmium
The primary ore of cadmium is the zinc mineral sphalerite - in which cadmium is often a small, but significant, impurity.
NameFormulaCrystal System
SphaleriteZnSIsometric
Photos


Other significant minerals containing Cadmium
NameFormulaCrystal System
GreenockiteCdSHexagonal
HawleyiteCdSIsometric
Photos


Spotted a mistake/omission? - These pages are a work in progress, so please send all comments/corrections to jolyon@mindat.org. Thank you.

Constants and physical property data from:

David R. Lide (ed.), CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 85th Edition. CRC Press. Boca Raton, Florida (2005).
Kaye and Laby Tables of Physical & Chemical Constants (2005). Section 3.1.3, Abundances of the elements
A. Earnshaw, N. Greenwood, Chemistry of the Elements, 2nd edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, (1997)
Thomas J. Ahrens (ed.), Global Earth Physics : A Handbook of Physical Constants, American Geophysical Union (1995)
L.B. Railsback, An Earth Scientist's Periodic Table of the Elements and Their Ions : Geology 31:9 p737-740 (2003)
Emsley, J. Nature's Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements. New York: Oxford University Press (2001)
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