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The Mineralogy of Calcium

General Properties
Symbol:Ca
Atomic Number:20
Standard atomic weight (Ar):40.078(4)
Electron configuration:[Ar] 4s2
Photos
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Calcium pieces
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Atomic Properties
Electronegativity (Pauling scale):1
Atomic Radius:194 pm
Ionic Radius:100 pm (+2)
1st Ionization energy:590 kJ/mol
1st Electron affinity:-2 kJ/mol
Oxidation States:2
Physical Properties
Standard State:solid
Bonding Type:metallic
Melting Point:1115 K
Boiling Point:1757 K
Density:1.55 g/cm3
Metal/Non-Metal:alkaline earth metal
Main isotopes of Calcium
Isotope% in NatureHalf LifeDecay typeDecay product
40Ca96.941%>5.9×1021yβ+β+ ?40Ar
41Catrace1.03×105yε41K
42Ca0.647%stable
43Ca0.135%stable
44Ca2.086%stable
45Casynthetic162.7d45Sc
46Ca0.004%>8.8×1022yβ-β- ?46Ti
47Casynthetic4.536dβ−47Sc
48Ca0.187%4.3×1019yβ-β-48Ti
β− ?48Sc
Main ions of Calcium
NameIonExample minerals
calciumCa2+Calcite, Anorthite, Gypsum
Videos
Other Information
Year Discovered:Ancient
Year Isolated:1808
Isolated By:
Humphry Davy
Named For:from Latin: calx - "lime"
CPK color coding:#3DFF00
External Links:WikipediaWebElementsLos Alamos National LaboratoryTheodore Gray's PeriodicTable.com
Simple Compounds and Mineral Names
Nitridestricalcium dinitride Ca3N2+2
Sulfidescalcium sulphideCaS+2Oldhamite
Selenidescalcium selenideCaSe+2
Telluridescalcium tellurideCaTe+2
Hydridescalcium dihydrideCaH2+2
Hydroxidescalcium hydroxideCa(OH)2+2Portlandite
Fluoridescalcium difluorideCaF2+2Fluorite
Chloridescalcium dichlorideCaCl2+2Aquasidite
calcium dichloride dihydrateCaCl2 · 2H2O+2Sinjarite
calcium dichloride tetrahydrateCaCl2 · 4H2O+2Ghiaraite
calcium dichloride hexahydrateCaCl2 · 6H2O+2Antarcticite
Iodidescalcium diiodideCaI2+2
Oxidescalcium oxideCaO+2Lime
calcium peroxideCaO2+2
Carbonatescalcium carbonateCaCO3+2Calcite, Aragonite, Vaterite
calcium carbonate monohydrateCaCO3 · H2O+2Monohydrocalcite
calcium carbonate hexahydrateCaCO3 · 6H2O+2Ikaite
Nitratescalcium nitrateCa(NO3)2+2
calcium nitrate tetrahydrateCa(NO3)2 · 4H2O+2Nitrocalcite
Sulfatescalcium sulfateCaSO4+2Anhydrite
calcium sulfate hemihydrateCaSO4 · 0.5H2O+2Bassanite
calcium sulfate dihydrateCaSO4 · 2H2O+2Gypsum
Silicatescalcium silicateCaSIO3+2Wollastonite
Mineral Diversity of Calcium
2. Sulfides And Sulfosalts 5 valid mineral species
3. Halides26 valid mineral species
4. Oxides 75 valid mineral species
5. Carbonates 67 valid mineral species
6. Borates64 valid mineral species
7. Sulfates 48 valid mineral species
8. Phosphates, Arsenates, Vanadates227 valid mineral species
9. Silicates 470 valid mineral species
10. Organic Compounds8 valid mineral species
Total:990 valid species containing essential Calcium
Geochemistry of Calcium
Goldschmidt classification:Lithophile
Ca2+ was one of the ions least depleted from the mantle in the formation of the crust.
Ca2+ is enriched in Ca-Al-rich inclusions in meteorites relative to the composition of the solar system.
Ca2+ enters early-forming phases in igneous rocks.
Ca2+ is one of the eight most abundant solutes in average river water.
Ca2+ solute can be a limiting nutrient in the growth of bacteria.
Ca2+ solute is a macronutrient on land.
Ca2+ is essential to nutrition of at least some vertebrates ('essential minerals').
Elemental Abundance for Calcium
Crust (CRC Handbook)4.15 x 10-2mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Kaye & Laby)5.1 x 10-2mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Greenwood)4.6600 x 10-2mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Ahrens/Taylor)5.2900 x 10-2mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Ahrens/Wänke)4.9200 x 10-2mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Ahrens/Weaver)3.4000 x 10-2mass fraction, kg/kg
Upper Crust (Ahrens/Taylor)3.0000 x 10-2mass fraction, kg/kg
Upper Crust (Ahrens/Shaw)2.9500 x 10-2mass fraction, kg/kg
Sea Water (CRC Handbook)4.12 x 10-4mass per volume fraction, kg/L
Sea Water (Kaye & Laby)4.1 x 10-4mass per volume fraction, kg/L
The Sun (Kaye & Laby)6.4 x 10-2atom mole fraction relative to Si=1
Solar System (Kaye & Laby)6.1 x 10-2atom mole fraction relative to Si=1
Solar System (Ahrens)6.11 x 10-2 (7.1%)atom mole fraction relative to Si=1 (% uncertainty)
Element association of Calcium in the Mineral World
This table compares the known valid mineral species listed listed with Calcium and the other elements listed based on the official IMA formula. Note that unlike other sections on this page this includes non-essential elements.

The first data column contains the total number of minerals listed with Calcium and the element listed for that row.

The second data column lists this number as a percentage of all minerals listed with Calcium.

The final data column compares this percentage against the percentage of all minerals that contain the element listed in each row.

Click on a heading to sort.
ElementValid Minerals listed with element and Calcium% of Ca mineralsRelative to % in all minerals
Oxygen1313 minerals with Ca and O99.02%27.58% higher
Hydrogen937 minerals with Ca and H70.66%29.26% higher
Silicon669 minerals with Ca and Si50.45%78.84% higher
Aluminium426 minerals with Ca and Al32.13%59.22% higher
Sodium415 minerals with Ca and Na31.30%62.71% higher
Iron312 minerals with Ca and Fe23.53%1.44% higher
Magnesium244 minerals with Ca and Mg18.40%31.51% higher
Fluorine205 minerals with Ca and F15.46%82.59% higher
Manganese200 minerals with Ca and Mn15.08%28.39% higher
Phosphorus191 minerals with Ca and P14.40%28.38% higher
Potassium188 minerals with Ca and K14.18%44.03% higher
Carbon138 minerals with Ca and C10.41%38.32% higher
Titanium125 minerals with Ca and Ti9.43%34.38% higher
Arsenic113 minerals with Ca and As8.52%26.40% lower
Boron113 minerals with Ca and B8.52%64.93% higher
Chlorine110 minerals with Ca and Cl8.30%8.35% higher
Sulfur110 minerals with Ca and S8.30%58.22% lower
Cerium78 minerals with Ca and Ce5.88%75.25% higher
Niobium75 minerals with Ca and Nb5.66%64.80% higher
Barium71 minerals with Ca and Ba5.35%13.58% higher
Uranium70 minerals with Ca and U5.28%8.51% higher
Strontium70 minerals with Ca and Sr5.28%84.18% higher
Zirconium69 minerals with Ca and Zr5.20%112.27% higher
Yttrium65 minerals with Ca and Y4.90%84.36% higher
Copper56 minerals with Ca and Cu4.22%66.82% lower
Beryllium56 minerals with Ca and Be4.22%86.63% higher
Vanadium51 minerals with Ca and V3.85%8.54% lower
Zinc42 minerals with Ca and Zn3.17%41.68% lower
Lead36 minerals with Ca and Pb2.71%72.10% lower
Lanthanum35 minerals with Ca and La2.64%52.15% higher
Thorium27 minerals with Ca and Th2.04%124.96% higher
Lithium22 minerals with Ca and Li1.66%27.29% lower
Tantalum18 minerals with Ca and Ta1.36%1.39% lower
Neodymium17 minerals with Ca and Nd1.28%30.74% higher
Antimony17 minerals with Ca and Sb1.28%74.25% lower
Tin15 minerals with Ca and Sn1.13%39.41% lower
Chromium13 minerals with Ca and Cr0.98%41.58% lower
Tellurium10 minerals with Ca and Te0.75%75.61% lower
Scandium10 minerals with Ca and Sc0.75%149.95% higher
Tungsten8 minerals with Ca and W0.60%21.97% lower
Nickel8 minerals with Ca and Ni0.60%81.72% lower
Molybdenum8 minerals with Ca and Mo0.60%48.40% lower
Cobalt8 minerals with Ca and Co0.60%57.90% lower
Bismuth6 minerals with Ca and Bi0.45%89.09% lower
Nitrogen6 minerals with Ca and N0.45%76.70% lower
Caesium6 minerals with Ca and Cs0.45%0.02% lower
Iodine4 minerals with Ca and I0.30%36.01% lower
Gadolinium3 minerals with Ca and Gd0.23%99.96% higher
Selenium2 minerals with Ca and Se0.15%93.65% lower
Germanium2 minerals with Ca and Ge0.15%72.42% lower
Dysprosium2 minerals with Ca and Dy0.15%99.96% higher
Cadmium1 mineral with Ca and Cd0.08%85.19% lower
Silver1 mineral with Ca and Ag0.08%97.77% lower
Praseodymium1 mineral with Ca and Pr0.08%99.96% higher
Ytterbium1 mineral with Ca and Yb0.08%33.35% lower
Samarium1 mineral with Ca and Sm0.08%33.35% lower
Periodic Table
1H 2He
3Li 4Be 5B 6C 7N 8O 9F 10Ne
11Na 12Mg 13Al 14Si 15P 16S 17Cl 18Ar
19K 20Ca 21Sc 22Ti 23V 24Cr 25Mn 26Fe 27Co 28Ni 29Cu 30Zn 31Ga 32Ge 33As 34Se 35Br 36Kr
37Rb 38Sr 39Y 40Zr 41Nb 42Mo 43Tc 44Ru 45Rh 46Pd 47Ag 48Cd 49In 50Sn 51Sb 52Te 53I 54Xe
55Cs 56Ba 57La 72Hf 73Ta 74W 75Re 76Os 77Ir 78Pt 79Au 80Hg 81Tl 82Pb 83Bi 84Po 85At 86Rn
87Fr 88Ra 89Ac 104Rd 105Db 106Sg 107Bh 108Hs 109Mt 110Ds 111Rg 112Cn 113Nh 114Fl 115Mc 116Lv 117Ts 118Og
 
58Ce 59Pr 60Nd 61Pm 62Sm 63Eu 64Gd 65Tb 66Dy 67Ho 68Er 69Tm 70Yb 71Lu
90Th 91Pa 92U 93Np 94Pu 95Am 96Cm 97Bk 98Cf 99Es 100Fm 101Md 102No 103Lr
Default Categories CPK Electronegativity Atomic Radius Lowest Oxidation Highest Oxidation Crustal Abundance Goldschmidt Mineral Species Minerals with Ca Relative Frequency
Potassium << Calcium >> Scandium


Most widespread minerals containing Calcium
This list of minerals containing Calcium is built from the mindat.org locality database. This is based on the number of localities entered for mineral species and is therefore slanted towards minerals interesting to collectors with less coverage of common rock-forming-minerals so it does not give an undistorted distribution of Calcium mineral species. It is more useful when comparing rare species rather than common species.
NameFormulaCrystal SystemMindat Localities
CalciteCaCO3Trigonal25216
FluoriteCaF2Isometric9302
DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2Trigonal7534
Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)Monoclinic7520
GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2OMonoclinic5970
ScheeliteCa(WO4)Tetragonal4615
TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)OMonoclinic4427
DiopsideCaMgSi2O6Monoclinic3607
Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2Monoclinic3105
AragoniteCaCO3Orthorhombic3018
Photos

Localities with greatest number of different Calcium mineral species
map should go here
1Caspar quarry, Bellerberg volcano, Ettringen, Mayen, Eifel, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany91 Ca minerals
2Poudrette quarry (Demix quarry; Uni-Mix quarry; Desourdy quarry; Carrière Mont Saint-Hilaire; MSH), Mont Saint-Hilaire, La Vallée-du-Richelieu RCM, Montérégie, Québec, Canada90 Ca minerals
3Långban, Filipstad, Värmland, Sweden70 Ca minerals
Hatrurim Formation, Negev, Israel69 Ca minerals
5Franklin Mine, Franklin, Franklin Mining District, Sussex Co., New Jersey, USA63 Ca minerals
6Fuka mine, Fuka, Bicchu-cho (Bitchu-cho), Takahashi City, Okayama Prefecture, Chugoku Region, Honshu Island, Japan62 Ca minerals
7Sterling Mine, Sterling Hill, Ogdensburg, Franklin Mining District, Sussex Co., New Jersey, USA58 Ca minerals
8Wessels Mine (Wessel's Mine), Hotazel, Kalahari manganese field, Northern Cape Province, South Africa55 Ca minerals


Important industrial minerals containing Calcium
The most important industrial minerals containing calcium are the carbonate family - rocks such as limestone, dolomite and marble are quarried for their calcium carbonate content, heated to produce quick lime (CaO) which is used for cement and many other industrial purposes.

Calcium sulfides - gypsum and anhydrite, are used for creating plasterboard for construction along with many other uses.

Fluorite is used primarily as a flux, it's also used as a source of fluorine to create hydrofluoric acid. See the fluorine page for more details.
NameFormulaCrystal System
CalciteCaCO3Trigonal
AragoniteCaCO3Orthorhombic
GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2OMonoclinic
AnhydriteCaSO4Orthorhombic
FluoriteCaF2Isometric
Photos


Spotted a mistake/omission? - These pages are a work in progress, so please send all comments/corrections to jolyon@mindat.org. Thank you.

Constants and physical property data from:

David R. Lide (ed.), CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 85th Edition. CRC Press. Boca Raton, Florida (2005).
Kaye and Laby Tables of Physical & Chemical Constants (2005). Section 3.1.3, Abundances of the elements
A. Earnshaw, N. Greenwood, Chemistry of the Elements, 2nd edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, (1997)
Thomas J. Ahrens (ed.), Global Earth Physics : A Handbook of Physical Constants, American Geophysical Union (1995)
L.B. Railsback, An Earth Scientist's Periodic Table of the Elements and Their Ions : Geology 31:9 p737-740 (2003)
Emsley, J. Nature's Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements. New York: Oxford University Press (2001)
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