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The Mineralogy of Cerium

General Properties
Atomic Number:58
Standard atomic weight (Ar):140.116(1)
Electron configuration:[Xe] 4f1 5d1 6s2
Cerium under Argon in a vial
Atomic Properties
Electronegativity (Pauling scale):1.12
Atomic Radius:181.8 pm
Ionic Radius:102 pm (+3)
1st Ionization energy:534 kJ/mol
1st Electron affinity:-50 kJ/mol
Oxidation States:2,3,4
Physical Properties
Standard State:solid
Bonding Type:metallic
Melting Point:1071 K
Boiling Point:3633 K
Density:6.69 g/cm3
Main isotopes of Cerium
Isotope% in NatureHalf LifeDecay typeDecay product
136Ce0.185%>3.8x1016yβ+β+ ?136Ba
138Ce0.251%>1.5x1014yβ+β+ ?138Ba
140Ce88.450%-Spontaneous fission ?
142Ce11.114%>5x1016yβ-β- ?142Nd
α ?138Ba
Main ions of Cerium
NameIonExample minerals
Other Information
Year Discovered:1803
Discovered By:
Martin Heinrich Klaproth
Jöns Jakob Berzelius
Wilhelm Hisinger

Martin Heinrich Klaproth, Jöns Jakob Berzelius, Wilhelm Hisinger
Year Isolated:1839
Isolated By:
Carl Gustaf Mosander
Named For:
the asteroid Ceres
CPK color coding:#FFFFC7
External Links:WikipediaWebElementsLos Alamos National LaboratoryTheodore Gray's PeriodicTable.com
Simple Compounds and Mineral Names
Nitridescerium nitrideCeN+3
Sulfidescerium sulphideCeS+2
dicerium trisulphideCe2S3+3
Hydridescerium dihydrideCeH2+2
Fluoridescerium difluorideCeF2+2
cerium trifluorideCeF3+3Fluocerite-(Ce)
cerium tetrafluoride CeF^44
Chloridescerium trichlorideCeCl3+3
cerium trichloride trihydrateCeCl3 · 3H2O+3
cerium trichloride heptahydrateCeCl3 · 7H2O+3
Iodidescerium diiodideCeI2+2
cerium triiodideCeI3+3
Oxidescerium dioxideCeO2+4
dicerium trioxideCe2O3+3
Mineral Diversity of Cerium
3. Halides4 valid mineral species
4. Oxides 8 valid mineral species
5. Carbonates 22 valid mineral species
6. Borates2 valid mineral species
7. Sulfates 2 valid mineral species
8. Phosphates, Arsenates, Vanadates13 valid mineral species
9. Silicates 55 valid mineral species
10. Organic Compounds2 valid mineral species
Total:108 valid species containing essential Cerium
Geochemistry of Cerium
Goldschmidt classification:Lithophile
Ce4+ was one of the ions least depleted from the mantle in the formation of the crust.
Ce3+ was one of the ions least depleted from the mantle in the formation of the crust.
Ce4+ is enriched in Ca-Al-rich inclusions in meteorites relative to the composition of the solar system.
Ce3+ is enriched in Ca-Al-rich inclusions in meteorites relative to the composition of the solar system.
Ce4+ is concentrated in residual soils and sediments (less certainty.)
Ce3+ is concentrated in residual soils and sediments (less certainty.)
Elemental Abundance for Cerium
Crust (CRC Handbook)6.65 x 10-5mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Kaye & Laby)8.3 x 10-5mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Greenwood)6.6 x 10-5mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Ahrens/Taylor)3.3000 x 10-5mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Ahrens/Wänke)5.4200 x 10-5mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Ahrens/Weaver)5.7000 x 10-5mass fraction, kg/kg
Upper Crust (Ahrens/Taylor)6.4000 x 10-5mass fraction, kg/kg
Upper Crust (Ahrens/Shaw)6.5000 x 10-5mass fraction, kg/kg
Sea Water (CRC Handbook)1.2 x 10-12mass per volume fraction, kg/L
Sea Water (Kaye & Laby)1.2 x 10-12mass per volume fraction, kg/L
The Sun (Kaye & Laby)1.0 x 10-6atom mole fraction relative to Si=1
Solar System (Kaye & Laby)1.1 x 10-6atom mole fraction relative to Si=1
Solar System (Ahrens)1.136 x 10-6 (1.7%)atom mole fraction relative to Si=1 (% uncertainty)
Element association of Cerium in the Mineral World
This table compares the known valid mineral species listed listed with Cerium and the other elements listed based on the official IMA formula. Note that unlike other sections on this page this includes non-essential elements.

The first data column contains the total number of minerals listed with Cerium and the element listed for that row.

The second data column lists this number as a percentage of all minerals listed with Cerium.

The final data column compares this percentage against the percentage of all minerals that contain the element listed in each row.

Click on a heading to sort.
ElementValid Minerals listed with element and Cerium% of Ce mineralsRelative to % in all minerals
Oxygen487 minerals with Ce and O97.79%22.45% higher
Hydrogen270 minerals with Ce and H54.22%2.66% lower
Silicon233 minerals with Ce and Si46.79%66.04% higher
Calcium214 minerals with Ce and Ca42.97%76.35% higher
Sodium160 minerals with Ce and Na32.13%68.29% higher
Carbon130 minerals with Ce and C26.10%236.83% higher
Lanthanum129 minerals with Ce and La25.90%2,180.35% higher
Fluorine126 minerals with Ce and F25.30%225.69% higher
Iron123 minerals with Ce and Fe24.70%13.00% higher
Titanium118 minerals with Ce and Ti23.69%246.72% higher
Aluminium85 minerals with Ce and Al17.07%14.85% lower
Phosphorus64 minerals with Ce and P12.85%9.94% higher
Strontium61 minerals with Ce and Sr12.25%380.97% higher
Niobium61 minerals with Ce and Nb12.25%315.25% higher
Manganese61 minerals with Ce and Mn12.25%11.05% higher
Barium58 minerals with Ce and Ba11.65%155.29% higher
Magnesium53 minerals with Ce and Mg10.64%19.10% lower
Neodymium48 minerals with Ce and Nd9.64%1,543.98% higher
Thorium38 minerals with Ce and Th7.63%967.88% higher
Yttrium38 minerals with Ce and Y7.63%220.36% higher
Boron34 minerals with Ce and B6.83%31.67% higher
Zirconium31 minerals with Ce and Zr6.22%171.80% higher
Arsenic25 minerals with Ce and As5.02%58.86% lower
Uranium21 minerals with Ce and U4.22%18.67% lower
Beryllium17 minerals with Ce and Be3.41%53.98% higher
Tantalum14 minerals with Ce and Ta2.81%136.06% higher
Sulfur13 minerals with Ce and S2.61%87.48% lower
Potassium13 minerals with Ce and K2.61%72.12% lower
Chlorine12 minerals with Ce and Cl2.41%67.37% lower
Copper12 minerals with Ce and Cu2.41%81.58% lower
Vanadium8 minerals with Ce and V1.61%64.07% lower
Chromium8 minerals with Ce and Cr1.61%9.61% lower
Tungsten8 minerals with Ce and W1.61%94.84% higher
Lead6 minerals with Ce and Pb1.20%88.17% lower
Lithium4 minerals with Ce and Li0.80%61.20% lower
Zinc4 minerals with Ce and Zn0.80%84.56% lower
Caesium3 minerals with Ce and Cs0.60%31.52% higher
Molybdenum3 minerals with Ce and Mo0.60%51.65% lower
Samarium2 minerals with Ce and Sm0.40%995.98% higher
Gadolinium1 mineral with Ce and Gd0.20%995.98% higher
Praseodymium1 mineral with Ce and Pr0.20%447.99% higher
Periodic Table
1H 2He
3Li 4Be 5B 6C 7N 8O 9F 10Ne
11Na 12Mg 13Al 14Si 15P 16S 17Cl 18Ar
19K 20Ca 21Sc 22Ti 23V 24Cr 25Mn 26Fe 27Co 28Ni 29Cu 30Zn 31Ga 32Ge 33As 34Se 35Br 36Kr
37Rb 38Sr 39Y 40Zr 41Nb 42Mo 43Tc 44Ru 45Rh 46Pd 47Ag 48Cd 49In 50Sn 51Sb 52Te 53I 54Xe
55Cs 56Ba 57La 72Hf 73Ta 74W 75Re 76Os 77Ir 78Pt 79Au 80Hg 81Tl 82Pb 83Bi 84Po 85At 86Rn
87Fr 88Ra 89Ac 104Rd 105Db 106Sg 107Bh 108Hs 109Mt 110Ds 111Rg 112Cn 113Nh 114Fl 115Mc 116Lv 117Ts 118Og
58Ce 59Pr 60Nd 61Pm 62Sm 63Eu 64Gd 65Tb 66Dy 67Ho 68Er 69Tm 70Yb 71Lu
90Th 91Pa 92U 93Np 94Pu 95Am 96Cm 97Bk 98Cf 99Es 100Fm 101Md 102No 103Lr
Default Categories CPK Electronegativity Atomic Radius Lowest Oxidation Highest Oxidation Crustal Abundance Goldschmidt Mineral Species Minerals with Ce Relative Frequency
Lanthanum << Cerium >> Praseodymium

Most widespread minerals containing Cerium
This list of minerals containing Cerium is built from the mindat.org locality database. This is based on the number of localities entered for mineral species and is therefore slanted towards minerals interesting to collectors with less coverage of common rock-forming-minerals so it does not give an undistorted distribution of Cerium mineral species. It is more useful when comparing rare species rather than common species.
NameFormulaCrystal SystemMindat Localities

Localities with greatest number of different Cerium mineral species
map should go here
2Poudrette quarry (De-Mix quarry; Demix quarry; Uni-Mix quarry; Carrière Mont Saint-Hilaire; MSH), Mont Saint-Hilaire, La Vallée-du-Richelieu RCM, Montérégie, Québec, Canada36 Ce minerals
4Ust'-Biraya, Biraya Fe-REE ore occurrence, Biraya and Bya Rivers confluence area (Chara Basin), Vitim Plateau, Irkutsk Oblast, Russia16 Ce minerals
6Bayan Obo deposit (Bayun-Obo deposit; Baiyunebo deposit), Bayan Obo, Bayan Obo mining district, Baotou League (Baotou Prefecture), Inner Mongolia, China14 Ce minerals
Chungju deposit, Mt. Eorae, Joongwon-gun, Chungju (Chung Won Kum; Chung-ju), North Chungcheong Province, South Korea13 Ce minerals
Jolotca (Orotva), Ditrău (Ditró), Harghita, Romania13 Ce minerals

Spotted a mistake/omission? - These pages are a work in progress, so please send all comments/corrections to jolyon@mindat.org. Thank you.

Constants and physical property data from:

David R. Lide (ed.), CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 85th Edition. CRC Press. Boca Raton, Florida (2005).
Kaye and Laby Tables of Physical & Chemical Constants (2005). Section 3.1.3, Abundances of the elements
A. Earnshaw, N. Greenwood, Chemistry of the Elements, 2nd edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, (1997)
Thomas J. Ahrens (ed.), Global Earth Physics : A Handbook of Physical Constants, American Geophysical Union (1995)
L.B. Railsback, An Earth Scientist's Periodic Table of the Elements and Their Ions : Geology 31:9 p737-740 (2003)
Emsley, J. Nature's Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements. New York: Oxford University Press (2001)
Mineral and/or Locality  
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