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The Mineralogy of Cerium

General Properties
Symbol:Ce
Atomic Number:58
Standard atomic weight (Ar):140.116(1)
Electron configuration:[Xe] 4f1 5d1 6s2
Photos
<
Cerium under Argon in a vial
>
Atomic Properties
Electronegativity (Pauling scale):1.12
Atomic Radius:181.8 pm
Ionic Radius:102 pm (+3)
1st Ionization energy:534 kJ/mol
1st Electron affinity:-50 kJ/mol
Oxidation States:2,3,4
Physical Properties
Standard State:solid
Bonding Type:metallic
Melting Point:1071 K
Boiling Point:3633 K
Density:6.69 g/cm3
Metal/Non-Metal:lanthanoid
Main isotopes of Cerium
Isotope% in NatureHalf LifeDecay typeDecay product
134Cesynthetic3.16dε134La
136Ce0.185%>3.8x1016yβ+β+ ?136Ba
138Ce0.251%>1.5x1014yβ+β+ ?138Ba
140Ce88.450%-Spontaneous fission ?
141Cesynthetic32.501dβ−141Pr
142Ce11.114%>5x1016yβ-β- ?142Nd
α ?138Ba
144Cesynthetic284.893dβ−144Pr
Main ions of Cerium
NameIonExample minerals
cerium(III)Ce3+
cerium(IV)Ce4+
Other Information
Year Discovered:1803
Discovered By:
Martin Heinrich Klaproth
Jöns Jakob Berzelius
Wilhelm Hisinger


Martin Heinrich Klaproth, Jöns Jakob Berzelius, Wilhelm Hisinger
Year Isolated:1839
Isolated By:
Carl Gustaf Mosander
Named For:
the asteroid Ceres
CPK color coding:#FFFFC7
External Links:WikipediaWebElementsLos Alamos National LaboratoryTheodore Gray's PeriodicTable.com
Simple Compounds and Mineral Names
Nitridescerium nitrideCeN+3
Sulfidescerium sulphideCeS+2
dicerium trisulphideCe2S3+3
Hydridescerium dihydrideCeH2+2
Fluoridescerium difluorideCeF2+2
cerium trifluorideCeF3+3Fluocerite-(Ce)
cerium tetrafluoride CeF^44
Chloridescerium trichlorideCeCl3+3
cerium trichloride trihydrateCeCl3 · 3H2O+3
cerium trichloride heptahydrateCeCl3 · 7H2O+3
Iodidescerium diiodideCeI2+2
cerium triiodideCeI3+3
Oxidescerium dioxideCeO2+4
dicerium trioxideCe2O3+3
Mineral Diversity of Cerium
3. Halides4 valid mineral species
4. Oxides 8 valid mineral species
5. Carbonates 22 valid mineral species
6. Borates2 valid mineral species
7. Sulfates 2 valid mineral species
8. Phosphates, Arsenates, Vanadates13 valid mineral species
9. Silicates 56 valid mineral species
10. Organic Compounds2 valid mineral species
Total:109 valid species containing essential Cerium
Geochemistry of Cerium
Goldschmidt classification:Lithophile
Ce4+ was one of the ions least depleted from the mantle in the formation of the crust.
Ce3+ was one of the ions least depleted from the mantle in the formation of the crust.
Ce4+ is enriched in Ca-Al-rich inclusions in meteorites relative to the composition of the solar system.
Ce3+ is enriched in Ca-Al-rich inclusions in meteorites relative to the composition of the solar system.
Ce4+ is concentrated in residual soils and sediments (less certainty.)
Ce3+ is concentrated in residual soils and sediments (less certainty.)
Elemental Abundance for Cerium
Crust (CRC Handbook)6.65 x 10-5mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Kaye & Laby)8.3 x 10-5mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Greenwood)6.6 x 10-5mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Ahrens/Taylor)3.3000 x 10-5mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Ahrens/Wänke)5.4200 x 10-5mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Ahrens/Weaver)5.7000 x 10-5mass fraction, kg/kg
Upper Crust (Ahrens/Taylor)6.4000 x 10-5mass fraction, kg/kg
Upper Crust (Ahrens/Shaw)6.5000 x 10-5mass fraction, kg/kg
Sea Water (CRC Handbook)1.2 x 10-12mass per volume fraction, kg/L
Sea Water (Kaye & Laby)1.2 x 10-12mass per volume fraction, kg/L
The Sun (Kaye & Laby)1.0 x 10-6atom mole fraction relative to Si=1
Solar System (Kaye & Laby)1.1 x 10-6atom mole fraction relative to Si=1
Solar System (Ahrens)1.136 x 10-6 (1.7%)atom mole fraction relative to Si=1 (% uncertainty)
Element association of Cerium in the Mineral World
This table compares the known valid mineral species listed listed with Cerium and the other elements listed based on the official IMA formula. Note that unlike other sections on this page this includes non-essential elements.

The first data column contains the total number of minerals listed with Cerium and the element listed for that row.

The second data column lists this number as a percentage of all minerals listed with Cerium.

The final data column compares this percentage against the percentage of all minerals that contain the element listed in each row.

Click on a heading to sort.
ElementValid Minerals listed with element and Cerium% of Ce mineralsRelative to % in all minerals
Oxygen175 minerals with Ce and O98.31%28.55% higher
Hydrogen94 minerals with Ce and H52.81%1.96% lower
Silicon79 minerals with Ce and Si44.38%59.67% higher
Calcium78 minerals with Ce and Ca43.82%77.86% higher
Lanthanum69 minerals with Ce and La38.76%2,167.70% higher
Sodium54 minerals with Ce and Na30.34%60.07% higher
Fluorine50 minerals with Ce and F28.09%236.70% higher
Carbon50 minerals with Ce and C28.09%278.90% higher
Iron45 minerals with Ce and Fe25.28%10.62% higher
Titanium40 minerals with Ce and Ti22.47%225.12% higher
Neodymium32 minerals with Ce and Nd17.98%1,760.67% higher
Aluminium29 minerals with Ce and Al16.29%18.05% lower
Phosphorus26 minerals with Ce and P14.61%32.12% higher
Strontium23 minerals with Ce and Sr12.92%357.52% higher
Manganese23 minerals with Ce and Mn12.92%11.63% higher
Yttrium22 minerals with Ce and Y12.36%371.77% higher
Niobium21 minerals with Ce and Nb11.80%248.88% higher
Thorium20 minerals with Ce and Th11.24%1,159.83% higher
Barium20 minerals with Ce and Ba11.24%141.89% higher
Magnesium17 minerals with Ce and Mg9.55%30.73% lower
Boron12 minerals with Ce and B6.74%32.42% higher
Zirconium11 minerals with Ce and Zr6.18%155.84% higher
Arsenic9 minerals with Ce and As5.06%55.68% lower
Uranium7 minerals with Ce and U3.93%17.96% lower
Beryllium7 minerals with Ce and Be3.93%76.38% higher
Potassium5 minerals with Ce and K2.81%71.04% lower
Sulfur5 minerals with Ce and S2.81%85.64% lower
Tantalum4 minerals with Ce and Ta2.25%65.68% higher
Chlorine4 minerals with Ce and Cl2.25%70.21% lower
Copper4 minerals with Ce and Cu2.25%82.08% lower
Lithium2 minerals with Ce and Li1.12%50.02% lower
Lead2 minerals with Ce and Pb1.12%88.28% lower
Tungsten2 minerals with Ce and W1.12%47.49% higher
Zinc2 minerals with Ce and Zn1.12%79.00% lower
Samarium2 minerals with Ce and Sm1.12%907.87% higher
Chromium2 minerals with Ce and Cr1.12%32.05% lower
Vanadium2 minerals with Ce and V1.12%72.88% lower
Gadolinium1 mineral with Ce and Gd0.56%403.93% higher
Molybdenum1 mineral with Ce and Mo0.56%51.23% lower
Caesium1 mineral with Ce and Cs0.56%25.98% higher
Praseodymium1 mineral with Ce and Pr0.56%1,411.80% higher
Periodic Table
1H 2He
3Li 4Be 5B 6C 7N 8O 9F 10Ne
11Na 12Mg 13Al 14Si 15P 16S 17Cl 18Ar
19K 20Ca 21Sc 22Ti 23V 24Cr 25Mn 26Fe 27Co 28Ni 29Cu 30Zn 31Ga 32Ge 33As 34Se 35Br 36Kr
37Rb 38Sr 39Y 40Zr 41Nb 42Mo 43Tc 44Ru 45Rh 46Pd 47Ag 48Cd 49In 50Sn 51Sb 52Te 53I 54Xe
55Cs 56Ba 57La 72Hf 73Ta 74W 75Re 76Os 77Ir 78Pt 79Au 80Hg 81Tl 82Pb 83Bi 84Po 85At 86Rn
87Fr 88Ra 89Ac 104Rd 105Db 106Sg 107Bh 108Hs 109Mt 110Ds 111Rg 112Cn 113Nh 114Fl 115Mc 116Lv 117Ts 118Og
 
58Ce 59Pr 60Nd 61Pm 62Sm 63Eu 64Gd 65Tb 66Dy 67Ho 68Er 69Tm 70Yb 71Lu
90Th 91Pa 92U 93Np 94Pu 95Am 96Cm 97Bk 98Cf 99Es 100Fm 101Md 102No 103Lr
Default Categories CPK Electronegativity Atomic Radius Lowest Oxidation Highest Oxidation Crustal Abundance Goldschmidt Mineral Species Minerals with Ce Relative Frequency
Lanthanum << Cerium >> Praseodymium


Most widespread minerals containing Cerium
This list of minerals containing Cerium is built from the mindat.org locality database. This is based on the number of localities entered for mineral species and is therefore slanted towards minerals interesting to collectors with less coverage of common rock-forming-minerals so it does not give an undistorted distribution of Cerium mineral species. It is more useful when comparing rare species rather than common species.
NameFormulaCrystal SystemMindat Localities
Monazite-(Ce)Ce(PO4)Monoclinic850
Allanite-(Ce){CaCe}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)Monoclinic653
Bastnäsite-(Ce)Ce(CO3)FHexagonal279
Synchysite-(Ce)CaCe(CO3)2FMonoclinic219
Parisite-(Ce)CaCe2(CO3)3F2Monoclinic105
Britholite-(Ce)(Ce,Ca)5(SiO4)3OHHexagonal101
Ancylite-(Ce)CeSr(CO3)2(OH) · H2OOrthorhombic96
Chevkinite-(Ce)(Ce,La,Ca,Th)4(Fe2+,Mg)(Fe2+,Ti,Fe3+)2(Ti,Fe3+)2(Si2O7)2O8Monoclinic89
Cerianite-(Ce)(Ce4+,Th)O2Isometric79
Florencite-(Ce)CeAl3(PO4)2(OH)667
Photos

Localities with greatest number of different Cerium mineral species
map should go here
1Poudrette quarry (Demix quarry; Uni-Mix quarry; Carrière Mont Saint-Hilaire; MSH), Mont Saint-Hilaire, La Vallée-du-Richelieu RCM, Montérégie, Québec, Canada36 Ce minerals
2Ust'-Biraya, Biraya Fe-REE ore occurrence, Biraya and Bya Rivers confluence area (Chara Basin), Vitim Plateau, Irkutskaya Oblast', Prebaikalia (Pribaikal'e), Eastern-Siberian Region, Russia16 Ce minerals
3Bayan Obo deposit (Bayun-Obo deposit; Baiyunebo deposit), Bayan Obo, Bayan Obo Mining District, Baotou League (Baotou Prefecture), Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China14 Ce minerals
Chungju deposit, Mt. Eorae, Joongwon-gun, Chungju (Chung Won Kum; Chung-ju), Chungcheongbukdo (Chungchong-pukto), South Korea13 Ce minerals
5Clara Mine, Rankach valley, Oberwolfach, Wolfach, Black Forest, Baden-Württemberg, Germany12 Ce minerals
6East Mine, Bayan Obo deposit (Bayun-Obo deposit; Baiyunebo deposit), Bayan Obo, Bayan Obo Mining District, Baotou League (Baotou Prefecture), Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China12 Ce minerals
Jolotca (Orotva), Ditrău (Ditró), Harghita Co., Romania12 Ce minerals
Biraya Fe-REE ore occurrence, Biraya and Bya Rivers confluence area (Chara Basin), Vitim Plateau, Irkutskaya Oblast', Prebaikalia (Pribaikal'e), Eastern-Siberian Region, Russia12 Ce minerals


Spotted a mistake/omission? - These pages are a work in progress, so please send all comments/corrections to jolyon@mindat.org. Thank you.

Constants and physical property data from:

David R. Lide (ed.), CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 85th Edition. CRC Press. Boca Raton, Florida (2005).
Kaye and Laby Tables of Physical & Chemical Constants (2005). Section 3.1.3, Abundances of the elements
A. Earnshaw, N. Greenwood, Chemistry of the Elements, 2nd edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, (1997)
Thomas J. Ahrens (ed.), Global Earth Physics : A Handbook of Physical Constants, American Geophysical Union (1995)
L.B. Railsback, An Earth Scientist's Periodic Table of the Elements and Their Ions : Geology 31:9 p737-740 (2003)
Emsley, J. Nature's Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements. New York: Oxford University Press (2001)
Mineral and/or Locality  
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