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The Mineralogy of Chlorine

General Properties
Atomic Number:17
Standard atomic weight (Ar):35.453(2)
Electron configuration:[Ne] 3s2 3p5
Atomic Properties
Electronegativity (Pauling scale):3.16
Atomic Radius:79 pm
Ionic Radius:181 pm (-1)
Van der Waals Radius:175 pm
1st Ionization energy:1251 kJ/mol
1st Electron affinity:-349 kJ/mol
Oxidation States:-1,1,2,3,4,5,6,7
Physical Properties
Standard State:gas
Bonding Type:covalent network
Melting Point:172 K
Boiling Point:239 K
Main isotopes of Chlorine
Isotope% in NatureHalf LifeDecay typeDecay product
Main ions of Chlorine
NameIonExample minerals
Other Information
Year Discovered:1774
Discovered By:
Carl Wilhelm Scheele
Recognised as an element:1808
Recognised By:
Humphry Davy
Named For:from Greek:khlôros - "green"
CPK color coding:#1FF01F
External Links:WikipediaWebElementsLos Alamos National LaboratoryTheodore Gray's
Simple Compounds
Hydrideschlorine fluorideClF+1
chlorine trifluorideClF3+3
chlorine pentafluorideClF5+5
Oxideschlorine dioxideClO2+4
cichlorine oxideCl2O+1
dichlorine hexoxideCl2O6+5,+7
dichlorine heptoxideCl2O7+7
Mineral Diversity of Chlorine
2. Sulfides And Sulfosalts 18 valid mineral species
3. Halides112 valid mineral species
4. Oxides 25 valid mineral species
5. Carbonates 13 valid mineral species
6. Borates26 valid mineral species
7. Sulfates 27 valid mineral species
8. Phosphates, Arsenates, Vanadates23 valid mineral species
9. Silicates 52 valid mineral species
10. Organic Compounds2 valid mineral species
Total:298 valid species containing essential Chlorine
Geochemistry of Chlorine
Goldschmidt classification:Lithophile
Cl- is one of the eight most abundant solutes in average river water.
Cl- solute is a micronutrient on land.
Cl- is essential to nutrition of at least some vertebrates ('essential minerals').
Cl- forms minerals with K+ and Na+.
Cl- forms minerals with Cu+.
Cl- forms minerals with Ag+.
Elemental Abundance for Chlorine
Crust (CRC Handbook)1.45 x 10-4mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Kaye & Laby)1.9 x 10-4mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Greenwood)1.26 x 10-4mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Ahrens/Wänke)1.900 x 10-3mass fraction, kg/kg
Sea Water (CRC Handbook)1.94 x 10-2mass per volume fraction, kg/L
Sea Water (Kaye & Laby)1.9 x 10-2mass per volume fraction, kg/L
The Sun (Kaye & Laby)9.0 x 10-3atom mole fraction relative to Si=1
Solar System (Kaye & Laby)5.2 x 10-3atom mole fraction relative to Si=1
Solar System (Ahrens)5.24 x 10-3 (15%)atom mole fraction relative to Si=1 (% uncertainty)
Element association of Chlorine in the Mineral World
This table compares the known valid mineral species listed listed with Chlorine and the other elements listed based on the official IMA formula. Note that unlike other sections on this page this includes non-essential elements.

The first data column contains the total number of minerals listed with Chlorine and the element listed for that row.

The second data column lists this number as a percentage of all minerals listed with Chlorine.

The final data column compares this percentage against the percentage of all minerals that contain the element listed in each row.

Click on a heading to sort.
ElementValid Minerals listed with element and Chlorine% of Cl mineralsRelative to % in all minerals
Oxygen355 minerals with Cl and O87.44%13.10% higher
Hydrogen248 minerals with Cl and H61.08%12.18% higher
Calcium110 minerals with Cl and Ca27.09%8.78% higher
Silicon108 minerals with Cl and Si26.60%5.33% lower
Sodium98 minerals with Cl and Na24.14%25.99% higher
Lead89 minerals with Cl and Pb21.92%126.18% higher
Copper89 minerals with Cl and Cu21.92%72.90% higher
Sulfur76 minerals with Cl and S18.72%5.36% lower
Aluminium68 minerals with Cl and Al16.75%16.66% lower
Potassium66 minerals with Cl and K16.26%65.80% higher
Iron65 minerals with Cl and Fe16.01%30.70% lower
Fluorine49 minerals with Cl and F12.07%43.11% higher
Manganese38 minerals with Cl and Mn9.36%20.02% lower
Magnesium37 minerals with Cl and Mg9.11%34.61% lower
Boron36 minerals with Cl and B8.87%72.29% higher
Arsenic33 minerals with Cl and As8.13%29.52% lower
Carbon30 minerals with Cl and C7.39%1.40% lower
Mercury24 minerals with Cl and Hg5.91%238.41% higher
Barium21 minerals with Cl and Ba5.17%10.15% higher
Zirconium21 minerals with Cl and Zr5.17%111.83% higher
Nitrogen17 minerals with Cl and N4.19%116.43% higher
Zinc16 minerals with Cl and Zn3.94%27.15% lower
Tellurium13 minerals with Cl and Te3.20%3.95% higher
Titanium13 minerals with Cl and Ti3.20%54.17% lower
Bromine13 minerals with Cl and Br3.20%902.78% higher
Antimony13 minerals with Cl and Sb3.20%35.43% lower
Strontium12 minerals with Cl and Sr2.96%3.53% higher
Bismuth12 minerals with Cl and Bi2.96%28.47% lower
Selenium12 minerals with Cl and Se2.96%24.89% higher
Niobium10 minerals with Cl and Nb2.46%27.95% lower
Iodine10 minerals with Cl and I2.46%424.53% higher
Vanadium9 minerals with Cl and V2.22%47.08% lower
Phosphorus9 minerals with Cl and P2.22%80.16% lower
Nickel9 minerals with Cl and Ni2.22%32.56% lower
Silver8 minerals with Cl and Ag1.97%41.39% lower
Thallium5 minerals with Cl and Tl1.23%7.49% higher
Lithium5 minerals with Cl and Li1.23%45.81% lower
Cobalt4 minerals with Cl and Co0.99%30.98% lower
Tungsten4 minerals with Cl and W0.99%27.93% higher
Yttrium4 minerals with Cl and Y0.99%62.80% lower
Cerium4 minerals with Cl and Ce0.99%70.53% lower
Molybdenum3 minerals with Cl and Mo0.74%36.55% lower
Tin3 minerals with Cl and Sn0.74%60.26% lower
Chromium3 minerals with Cl and Cr0.74%55.80% lower
Beryllium3 minerals with Cl and Be0.74%67.22% lower
Cadmium3 minerals with Cl and Cd0.74%45.70% higher
Uranium1 mineral with Cl and U0.25%94.92% lower
Lanthanum1 mineral with Cl and La0.25%85.75% lower
Gadolinium1 mineral with Cl and Gd0.25%118.56% higher
Dysprosium1 mineral with Cl and Dy0.25%227.83% higher
Periodic Table
1H 2He
3Li 4Be 5B 6C 7N 8O 9F 10Ne
11Na 12Mg 13Al 14Si 15P 16S 17Cl 18Ar
19K 20Ca 21Sc 22Ti 23V 24Cr 25Mn 26Fe 27Co 28Ni 29Cu 30Zn 31Ga 32Ge 33As 34Se 35Br 36Kr
37Rb 38Sr 39Y 40Zr 41Nb 42Mo 43Tc 44Ru 45Rh 46Pd 47Ag 48Cd 49In 50Sn 51Sb 52Te 53I 54Xe
55Cs 56Ba 57La 72Hf 73Ta 74W 75Re 76Os 77Ir 78Pt 79Au 80Hg 81Tl 82Pb 83Bi 84Po 85At 86Rn
87Fr 88Ra 89Ac 104Rd 105Db 106Sg 107Bh 108Hs 109Mt 110Ds 111Rg 112Cn 113Nh 114Fl 115Mc 116Lv 117Ts 118Og
58Ce 59Pr 60Nd 61Pm 62Sm 63Eu 64Gd 65Tb 66Dy 67Ho 68Er 69Tm 70Yb 71Lu
90Th 91Pa 92U 93Np 94Pu 95Am 96Cm 97Bk 98Cf 99Es 100Fm 101Md 102No 103Lr
Default Categories CPK Electronegativity Atomic Radius Lowest Oxidation Highest Oxidation Crustal Abundance Goldschmidt Mineral Species Minerals with Cl Relative Frequency
Sulfur << Chlorine >> Argon

Most widespread minerals containing Chlorine
This list of minerals containing Chlorine is built from the locality database. This is based on the number of localities entered for mineral species and is therefore slanted towards minerals interesting to collectors with less coverage of common rock-forming-minerals so it does not give an undistorted distribution of Chlorine mineral species. It is more useful when comparing rare species rather than common species.
NameFormulaCrystal SystemMindat Localities
ConnelliteCu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2OHexagonal279

Localities with greatest number of different Chlorine mineral species
map should go here
1Mt Vesuvius, Somma-Vesuvius Complex, Naples Province, Campania, Italy31 Cl minerals
Lavrion District slag localities, Lavrion District (Laurion; Laurium), Attikí Prefecture (Attica; Attika), Greece30 Cl minerals
Baratti slag locality, Piombino, Livorno Province, Tuscany, Italy24 Cl minerals
4La Fossa crater, Vulcano Island, Lipari, Eolie Islands (Aeolian Islands), Messina Province, Sicily, Italy22 Cl minerals
5Second scoria cone, Northern Breakthrough (North Breach), Great Fissure eruption (Main Fracture), Tolbachik volcano, Kamchatka Oblast', Far-Eastern Region, Russia21 Cl minerals
6Mammoth-Saint Anthony Mine (Mammoth-St Anthony Mine; Mammoth Mine; St. Anthony Mine), St. Anthony deposit, Tiger, Mammoth District, Pinal Co., Arizona, USA21 Cl minerals
7Thorikos Bay slag locality, Thorikos area, Lavrion District slag localities, Lavrion District (Laurion; Laurium), Attikí Prefecture (Attica; Attika), Greece21 Cl minerals
8Passa Limani Cove slag locality (Pacha Limani Cove slag locality), Passa Limani area, Lavrion District slag localities, Lavrion District (Laurion; Laurium), Attikí Prefecture (Attica; Attika), Greece19 Cl minerals

Spotted a mistake/omission? - These pages are a work in progress, so please send all comments/corrections to Thank you.

Constants and physical property data from:

David R. Lide (ed.), CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 85th Edition. CRC Press. Boca Raton, Florida (2005).
Kaye and Laby Tables of Physical & Chemical Constants (2005). Section 3.1.3, Abundances of the elements
A. Earnshaw, N. Greenwood, Chemistry of the Elements, 2nd edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, (1997)
Thomas J. Ahrens (ed.), Global Earth Physics : A Handbook of Physical Constants, American Geophysical Union (1995)
L.B. Railsback, An Earth Scientist's Periodic Table of the Elements and Their Ions : Geology 31:9 p737-740 (2003)
Emsley, J. Nature's Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements. New York: Oxford University Press (2001)
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