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The Mineralogy of Fluorine

General Properties
Symbol:F
Atomic Number:9
Standard atomic weight (Ar):18.9984032(5)
Electron configuration:[He] 2s2 2p5
Photos
<
Fluorite - CaF2
>
Atomic Properties
Electronegativity (Pauling scale):3.98
Atomic Radius:42 pm
Ionic Radius:133 pm (-1)
Van der Waals Radius:147 pm
1st Ionization energy:1681 kJ/mol
1st Electron affinity:-328 kJ/mol
Oxidation States:-1
Physical Properties
Standard State:gas
Bonding Type:atomic
Melting Point:54 K
Boiling Point:85 K
Metal/Non-Metal:halogen
Main isotopes of Fluorine
Isotope% in NatureHalf LifeDecay typeDecay product
18Ftrace109.77minβ+18O
19F100%stable
Main ions of Fluorine
NameIonExample minerals
fluorideF-Fluorite, Villiaumite
Other Information
Year Discovered:1810
Discovered By:
André-Marie Ampère
Year Isolated:1886
Isolated By:
Henri Moissan
Named For:
after the mineral fluorite
CPK color coding:#1FF01F
External Links:WikipediaWebElementsLos Alamos National LaboratoryTheodore Gray's PeriodicTable.com
Mineral Diversity of Fluorine
3. Halides72 valid mineral species
4. Oxides 3 valid mineral species
5. Carbonates 30 valid mineral species
6. Borates3 valid mineral species
7. Sulfates 13 valid mineral species
8. Phosphates, Arsenates, Vanadates51 valid mineral species
9. Silicates 123 valid mineral species
Total:295 valid species containing essential Fluorine
Geochemistry of Fluorine
Goldschmidt classification:Lithophile
F- is essential to nutrition of at least some vertebrates ('essential minerals').
F- forms minerals with K+ and Na+.
F- forms minerals with Mg2+.
Elemental Abundance for Fluorine
Crust (CRC Handbook)5.85 x 10-4mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Kaye & Laby)4.6 x 10-4mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Greenwood)5.44 x 10-4mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Ahrens/Wänke)5.25 x 10-4mass fraction, kg/kg
Sea Water (CRC Handbook)1.3 x 10-6mass per volume fraction, kg/L
Sea Water (Kaye & Laby)1.3 x 10-6mass per volume fraction, kg/L
The Sun (Kaye & Laby)1.0 x 10-3atom mole fraction relative to Si=1
Solar System (Kaye & Laby)8.5 x 10-4atom mole fraction relative to Si=1
Solar System (Ahrens)8.43 x 10-4 (15%)atom mole fraction relative to Si=1 (% uncertainty)
Element association of Fluorine in the Mineral World
This table compares the known valid mineral species listed listed with Fluorine and the other elements listed based on the official IMA formula. Note that unlike other sections on this page this includes non-essential elements.

The first data column contains the total number of minerals listed with Fluorine and the element listed for that row.

The second data column lists this number as a percentage of all minerals listed with Fluorine.

The final data column compares this percentage against the percentage of all minerals that contain the element listed in each row.

Click on a heading to sort.
ElementValid Minerals listed with element and Fluorine% of F mineralsRelative to % in all minerals
Oxygen404 minerals with F and O89.98%16.43% higher
Hydrogen258 minerals with F and H57.46%5.57% higher
Silicon237 minerals with F and Si52.78%87.92% higher
Calcium205 minerals with F and Ca45.66%83.39% higher
Sodium205 minerals with F and Na45.66%138.40% higher
Aluminium160 minerals with F and Al35.63%77.37% higher
Iron81 minerals with F and Fe18.04%21.88% lower
Magnesium80 minerals with F and Mg17.82%27.89% higher
Phosphorus74 minerals with F and P16.48%47.53% higher
Potassium74 minerals with F and K16.48%68.16% higher
Titanium72 minerals with F and Ti16.04%129.59% higher
Barium59 minerals with F and Ba13.14%179.94% higher
Manganese55 minerals with F and Mn12.25%4.72% higher
Cerium50 minerals with F and Ce11.14%233.20% higher
Chlorine49 minerals with F and Cl10.91%43.16% higher
Carbon43 minerals with F and C9.58%27.84% higher
Yttrium38 minerals with F and Y8.46%219.68% higher
Lithium38 minerals with F and Li8.46%272.52% higher
Sulfur36 minerals with F and S8.02%59.45% lower
Boron36 minerals with F and B8.02%55.85% higher
Niobium32 minerals with F and Nb7.13%108.56% higher
Strontium29 minerals with F and Sr6.46%126.31% higher
Lanthanum21 minerals with F and La4.68%170.76% higher
Lead20 minerals with F and Pb4.45%54.02% lower
Zirconium17 minerals with F and Zr3.79%55.12% higher
Beryllium16 minerals with F and Be3.56%58.16% higher
Arsenic11 minerals with F and As2.45%78.75% lower
Caesium9 minerals with F and Cs2.00%344.82% higher
Uranium8 minerals with F and U1.78%63.22% lower
Neodymium8 minerals with F and Nd1.78%82.49% higher
Copper7 minerals with F and Cu1.56%87.70% lower
Thorium7 minerals with F and Th1.56%72.99% higher
Vanadium5 minerals with F and V1.11%73.40% lower
Tantalum4 minerals with F and Ta0.89%35.00% lower
Nitrogen4 minerals with F and N0.89%53.93% lower
Bismuth4 minerals with F and Bi0.89%78.43% lower
Zinc4 minerals with F and Zn0.89%83.53% lower
Chromium3 minerals with F and Cr0.67%60.02% lower
Gadolinium2 minerals with F and Gd0.45%295.40% higher
Rubidium2 minerals with F and Rb0.45%374.48% higher
Antimony2 minerals with F and Sb0.45%91.01% lower
Bromine1 mineral with F and Br0.22%30.22% lower
Silver1 mineral with F and Ag0.22%93.37% lower
Dysprosium1 mineral with F and Dy0.22%196.55% higher
Tin1 mineral with F and Sn0.22%88.02% lower
Cadmium1 mineral with F and Cd0.22%56.07% lower
Periodic Table
1H 2He
3Li 4Be 5B 6C 7N 8O 9F 10Ne
11Na 12Mg 13Al 14Si 15P 16S 17Cl 18Ar
19K 20Ca 21Sc 22Ti 23V 24Cr 25Mn 26Fe 27Co 28Ni 29Cu 30Zn 31Ga 32Ge 33As 34Se 35Br 36Kr
37Rb 38Sr 39Y 40Zr 41Nb 42Mo 43Tc 44Ru 45Rh 46Pd 47Ag 48Cd 49In 50Sn 51Sb 52Te 53I 54Xe
55Cs 56Ba 57La 72Hf 73Ta 74W 75Re 76Os 77Ir 78Pt 79Au 80Hg 81Tl 82Pb 83Bi 84Po 85At 86Rn
87Fr 88Ra 89Ac 104Rd 105Db 106Sg 107Bh 108Hs 109Mt 110Ds 111Rg 112Cn 113Nh 114Fl 115Mc 116Lv 117Ts 118Og
 
58Ce 59Pr 60Nd 61Pm 62Sm 63Eu 64Gd 65Tb 66Dy 67Ho 68Er 69Tm 70Yb 71Lu
90Th 91Pa 92U 93Np 94Pu 95Am 96Cm 97Bk 98Cf 99Es 100Fm 101Md 102No 103Lr
Default Categories CPK Electronegativity Atomic Radius Lowest Oxidation Highest Oxidation Crustal Abundance Goldschmidt Mineral Species Minerals with F Relative Frequency
Oxygen << Fluorine >> Neon


Most widespread minerals containing Fluorine
This list of minerals containing Fluorine is built from the mindat.org locality database. This is based on the number of localities entered for mineral species and is therefore slanted towards minerals interesting to collectors with less coverage of common rock-forming-minerals so it does not give an undistorted distribution of Fluorine mineral species. It is more useful when comparing rare species rather than common species.
NameFormulaCrystal SystemMindat Localities
FluoriteCaF2Isometric9302
FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3FHexagonal2332
TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2Orthorhombic1447
Fluorapophyllite-(K)KCa4(Si8O20)(F,OH) · 8H2OTetragonal307
Bastnäsite-(Ce)Ce(CO3)FHexagonal279
Chondrodite(Mg,Fe2+)5(SiO4)2(F,OH)2Monoclinic278
Triplite(Mn2+,Fe2+)2(PO4)(F,OH)Monoclinic225
Synchysite-(Ce)CaCe(CO3)2FMonoclinic219
AmblygoniteLiAl(PO4)FTriclinic215
ClinohumiteMg9(SiO4)4F2Monoclinic179
Photos

Localities with greatest number of different Fluorine mineral species
map should go here
1Poudrette quarry (Demix quarry; Uni-Mix quarry; Desourdy quarry; Carrière Mont Saint-Hilaire; MSH), Mont Saint-Hilaire, La Vallée-du-Richelieu RCM, Montérégie, Québec, Canada46 F minerals
2Darai-Pioz Glacier (Dara-i-Pioz; Dara-Pioz), Alai Range (Alayskiy), Tien Shan Mtn, Region of Republican Subordination, Tajikistan28 F minerals
3Mt Vesuvius, Somma-Vesuvius Complex, Naples Province, Campania, Italy19 F minerals
4Ivigtut Cryolite deposit, Ivittuut (Ivigtut), Arsuk Fjord, Sermersooq, Greenland18 F minerals
5Clara Mine, Rankach valley, Oberwolfach, Wolfach, Black Forest, Baden-Württemberg, Germany18 F minerals
6Demix-Varennes quarry, Saint-Amable sill, Varennes & St-Amable, Lajemmerais RCM, Montérégie, Québec, Canada17 F minerals
7Katugin Ta-­Nb deposit (Katuginskoye deposit), Chitinskaya Oblast', Transbaikalia (Zabaykalye), Eastern-Siberian Region, Russia17 F minerals
8Koashva Open Pit (Vostochnyi Mine), Koashva Mt, Khibiny Massif, Kola Peninsula, Murmanskaja Oblast', Northern Region, Russia16 F minerals


Spotted a mistake/omission? - These pages are a work in progress, so please send all comments/corrections to jolyon@mindat.org. Thank you.

Constants and physical property data from:

David R. Lide (ed.), CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 85th Edition. CRC Press. Boca Raton, Florida (2005).
Kaye and Laby Tables of Physical & Chemical Constants (2005). Section 3.1.3, Abundances of the elements
A. Earnshaw, N. Greenwood, Chemistry of the Elements, 2nd edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, (1997)
Thomas J. Ahrens (ed.), Global Earth Physics : A Handbook of Physical Constants, American Geophysical Union (1995)
L.B. Railsback, An Earth Scientist's Periodic Table of the Elements and Their Ions : Geology 31:9 p737-740 (2003)
Emsley, J. Nature's Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements. New York: Oxford University Press (2001)
Mineral and/or Locality  
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