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The Mineralogy of Gallium

General Properties
Atomic Number:31
Standard atomic weight (Ar):69.723(1)
Electron configuration:[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p1
Pure gallium
Atomic Properties
Electronegativity (Pauling scale):1.81
Atomic Radius:136 pm
Ionic Radius:62 pm (+3)
Van der Waals Radius:187 pm
1st Ionization energy:579 kJ/mol
1st Electron affinity:-29 kJ/mol
Oxidation States:1,2,3
Physical Properties
Standard State:solid
Bonding Type:metallic
Melting Point:303 K
Boiling Point:2477 K
Density:5.9 g/cm3
Main isotopes of Gallium
Isotope% in NatureHalf LifeDecay typeDecay product
67Gasynthetic3.2612(6)dElectron capture67Zn
Other Information
Year Discovered:1875
Discovered By:
Lecoq de Boisbaudran
Year Predicted:1871
Year Isolated:1875
Isolated By:Lecoq de Boisbaudran
Named For:
after Gallia (Latin for: France), homeland of the discoverer
CPK color coding:#C28F8F
External Links:WikipediaWebElementsLos Alamos National LaboratoryTheodore Gray's
Simple Compounds
Nitridesgallium nitrideGaN+3
Sulfidesgallium sulphideGaS+2
digallium trisulphideGa2S3+3
Selenidesgallium selenideGaSe+2
digallium triselenideGa2Se3+3
Telluridesgallium tellurideGaTe+2
digallium tritellurideGa2Te3+3
Hydridesgallium trihydride[GaH3]2+3
Fluoridesgallium trifluorideGaF3+3
Chloridesdigallium hexachlorideGa2Cl6+3
digallium tetrachlorideGa2Cl4+1,+3
Bromidesgallium tribromideGaBr3+3
Iodidesdigallium hexaiodideGa2I6+3
Oxidesgallium oxideGaO+2
digiallium oxideGa2O+1
digallium trioxideGa2O3+3
Mineral Diversity of Gallium
2. Sulfides And Sulfosalts 1 valid mineral species
4. Oxides 2 valid mineral species
8. Phosphates, Arsenates, Vanadates1 valid mineral species
Total:4 valid species containing essential Gallium
Geochemistry of Gallium
Goldschmidt classification:Chalcophile
Ga3+ was one of the ions least depleted from the mantle in the formation of the crust.
Ga3+ enters early-forming phases in igneous rocks.
Ga3+ is commonly concentrated in residual soils and sediments.
Elemental Abundance for Gallium
Crust (CRC Handbook)1.9 x 10-5mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Kaye & Laby)1.7 x 10-5mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Greenwood)1.9 x 10-5mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Ahrens/Taylor)1.8 x 10-5mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Ahrens/Wänke)1.86 x 10-5mass fraction, kg/kg
Upper Crust (Ahrens/Taylor)1.7 x 10-5mass fraction, kg/kg
Upper Crust (Ahrens/Shaw)1.4 x 10-5mass fraction, kg/kg
Sea Water (CRC Handbook)3 x 10-11mass per volume fraction, kg/L
Sea Water (Kaye & Laby)3 x 10-11mass per volume fraction, kg/L
The Sun (Kaye & Laby)2.1 x 10-5atom mole fraction relative to Si=1
Solar System (Kaye & Laby)3.8 x 10-5atom mole fraction relative to Si=1
Solar System (Ahrens)3.78 x 10-5 (6.9%)atom mole fraction relative to Si=1 (% uncertainty)
Element association of Gallium in the Mineral World
This table compares the known valid mineral species listed listed with Gallium and the other elements listed based on the official IMA formula. Note that unlike other sections on this page this includes non-essential elements.

The first data column contains the total number of minerals listed with Gallium and the element listed for that row.

The second data column lists this number as a percentage of all minerals listed with Gallium.

The final data column compares this percentage against the percentage of all minerals that contain the element listed in each row.

Click on a heading to sort.
ElementValid Minerals listed with element and Gallium% of Ga mineralsRelative to % in all minerals
Hydrogen13 minerals with Ga and H61.90%14.14% higher
Oxygen13 minerals with Ga and O61.90%20.40% lower
Sulfur11 minerals with Ga and S52.38%157.99% higher
Copper8 minerals with Ga and Cu38.10%199.05% higher
Germanium6 minerals with Ga and Ge28.57%4,752.81% higher
Lead6 minerals with Ga and Pb28.57%188.03% higher
Zinc5 minerals with Ga and Zn23.81%369.90% higher
Iron5 minerals with Ga and Fe23.81%11.86% higher
Aluminium4 minerals with Ga and Al19.05%2.41% lower
Phosphorus3 minerals with Ga and P14.29%25.50% higher
Arsenic3 minerals with Ga and As14.29%20.23% higher
Indium3 minerals with Ga and In14.29%5,619.39% higher
Periodic Table
1H 2He
3Li 4Be 5B 6C 7N 8O 9F 10Ne
11Na 12Mg 13Al 14Si 15P 16S 17Cl 18Ar
19K 20Ca 21Sc 22Ti 23V 24Cr 25Mn 26Fe 27Co 28Ni 29Cu 30Zn 31Ga 32Ge 33As 34Se 35Br 36Kr
37Rb 38Sr 39Y 40Zr 41Nb 42Mo 43Tc 44Ru 45Rh 46Pd 47Ag 48Cd 49In 50Sn 51Sb 52Te 53I 54Xe
55Cs 56Ba 57La 72Hf 73Ta 74W 75Re 76Os 77Ir 78Pt 79Au 80Hg 81Tl 82Pb 83Bi 84Po 85At 86Rn
87Fr 88Ra 89Ac 104Rd 105Db 106Sg 107Bh 108Hs 109Mt 110Ds 111Rg 112Cn 113Nh 114Fl 115Mc 116Lv 117Ts 118Og
58Ce 59Pr 60Nd 61Pm 62Sm 63Eu 64Gd 65Tb 66Dy 67Ho 68Er 69Tm 70Yb 71Lu
90Th 91Pa 92U 93Np 94Pu 95Am 96Cm 97Bk 98Cf 99Es 100Fm 101Md 102No 103Lr
Default Categories CPK Electronegativity Atomic Radius Lowest Oxidation Highest Oxidation Crustal Abundance Goldschmidt Mineral Species Minerals with Ga Relative Frequency
Zinc << Gallium >> Germanium

Most widespread minerals containing Gallium
This list of minerals containing Gallium is built from the locality database. This is based on the number of localities entered for mineral species and is therefore slanted towards minerals interesting to collectors with less coverage of common rock-forming-minerals so it does not give an undistorted distribution of Gallium mineral species. It is more useful when comparing rare species rather than common species.
NameFormulaCrystal SystemMindat Localities

Localities with greatest number of different Gallium mineral species
map should go here
2Tsumeb Mine, Tsumeb, Oshikoto Region, Namibia5 Ga minerals
7Kipushi Mine, Kipushi, Haut-Katanga, DR Congo1 Ga minerals
8Radka Mine, Levski, Panagyurishte, Pazardzhik Province, Bulgaria1 Ga minerals
5Chelopech Au-Cu Mine, Chelopech, Sofia City Province, Bulgaria1 Ga minerals
Pinar del Río Province, Cuba1 Ga minerals

Important ores of Gallium
Gallium is extracted almost exclusively as a by-product from bauxite mining.
NameFormulaCrystal System

Spotted a mistake/omission? - These pages are a work in progress, so please send all comments/corrections to Thank you.

Constants and physical property data from:

David R. Lide (ed.), CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 85th Edition. CRC Press. Boca Raton, Florida (2005).
Kaye and Laby Tables of Physical & Chemical Constants (2005). Section 3.1.3, Abundances of the elements
A. Earnshaw, N. Greenwood, Chemistry of the Elements, 2nd edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, (1997)
Thomas J. Ahrens (ed.), Global Earth Physics : A Handbook of Physical Constants, American Geophysical Union (1995)
L.B. Railsback, An Earth Scientist's Periodic Table of the Elements and Their Ions : Geology 31:9 p737-740 (2003)
Emsley, J. Nature's Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements. New York: Oxford University Press (2001)
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