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The Mineralogy of Hafnium

General Properties
Atomic Number:72
Standard atomic weight (Ar):178.49(2)
Electron configuration:[Xe] 4f14 5d2 6s2
Melted tip of a hafnium consumable electrode
Atomic Properties
Electronegativity (Pauling scale):1.3
Atomic Radius:208 pm
Ionic Radius:71 pm (+4)
1st Ionization energy:659 kJ/mol
Oxidation States:2,3,4
Physical Properties
Standard State:solid
Bonding Type:metallic
Melting Point:2506 K
Boiling Point:4876 K
Density:13.31 g/cm3
Metal/Non-Metal:transition metal
Main isotopes of Hafnium
Isotope% in NatureHalf LifeDecay typeDecay product
176Hf5.206%-α ?172Yb
177Hf18.606%-α ?173Yb
178Hf27.297%-α ?174Yb
178m2Hfsynthetic31yIsomeric transition178Hf
179Hf13.629%-α ?175Yb
180Hf35.1%-α ?176Yb
Main ions of Hafnium
NameIonExample minerals
Other Information
Year Discovered:1922
Discovered By:
Dirk Coster
György von Hevesy

Dirk Coster and George de Hevesy
Year Predicted:1869
Year Isolated:1922
Isolated By:Dirk Coster and George de Hevesy
Named For:
after Hafnia. Latin for: Copenhagen, where it was discovered
CPK color coding:#4DC2FF
External Links:WikipediaWebElementsLos Alamos National LaboratoryTheodore Gray's PeriodicTable.com
Simple Compounds
Nitrideshafnium nitrideHfN+3
Sulfideshafnium disulphideHfS2+4
Selenideshafnium diselenideHfSe2+4
Hydrideshafnium dihydrideHfH2+2
Fluorideshafnium tetrafluorideHfF4+4
Chlorideshafnium tetrachlorideHfCl4+4
Iodideshafnium triodideHfI3+3
hafnium tetraiodideHfI4+4
Oxideshafnium dioxideHfO2+4
Mineral Diversity of Hafnium
9. Silicates 1 valid mineral species
Total:1 valid species containing essential Hafnium
Geochemistry of Hafnium
Goldschmidt classification:Lithophile
Hf4+ is commonly concentrated in residual soils and sediments.
Elemental Abundance for Hafnium
Crust (CRC Handbook)3.0 x 10-6mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Kaye & Laby)4 x 10-6mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Greenwood)2.8 x 10-6mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Ahrens/Taylor)3.000 x 10-6mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Ahrens/Wänke)3.460 x 10-6mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Ahrens/Weaver)4.700 x 10-6mass fraction, kg/kg
Upper Crust (Ahrens/Taylor)5.800 x 10-6mass fraction, kg/kg
Upper Crust (Ahrens/Shaw)5.800 x 10-6mass fraction, kg/kg
Sea Water (CRC Handbook)7 x 10-12mass per volume fraction, kg/L
Sea Water (Kaye & Laby)< 8 x 10-12mass per volume fraction, kg/L
The Sun (Kaye & Laby)2.1 x 10-7atom mole fraction relative to Si=1
Solar System (Kaye & Laby)1.5 x 10-7atom mole fraction relative to Si=1
Solar System (Ahrens)1.54 x 10-7 (1.9%)atom mole fraction relative to Si=1 (% uncertainty)
Element association of Hafnium in the Mineral World
This table compares the known valid mineral species listed listed with Hafnium and the other elements listed based on the official IMA formula. Note that unlike other sections on this page this includes non-essential elements.

The first data column contains the total number of minerals listed with Hafnium and the element listed for that row.

The second data column lists this number as a percentage of all minerals listed with Hafnium.

The final data column compares this percentage against the percentage of all minerals that contain the element listed in each row.

Click on a heading to sort.
ElementValid Minerals listed with element and Hafnium% of Hf mineralsRelative to % in all minerals
Oxygen3 minerals with Hf and O100.00%25.40% higher
Silicon3 minerals with Hf and Si100.00%255.40% higher
Periodic Table
1H 2He
3Li 4Be 5B 6C 7N 8O 9F 10Ne
11Na 12Mg 13Al 14Si 15P 16S 17Cl 18Ar
19K 20Ca 21Sc 22Ti 23V 24Cr 25Mn 26Fe 27Co 28Ni 29Cu 30Zn 31Ga 32Ge 33As 34Se 35Br 36Kr
37Rb 38Sr 39Y 40Zr 41Nb 42Mo 43Tc 44Ru 45Rh 46Pd 47Ag 48Cd 49In 50Sn 51Sb 52Te 53I 54Xe
55Cs 56Ba 57La 72Hf 73Ta 74W 75Re 76Os 77Ir 78Pt 79Au 80Hg 81Tl 82Pb 83Bi 84Po 85At 86Rn
87Fr 88Ra 89Ac 104Rd 105Db 106Sg 107Bh 108Hs 109Mt 110Ds 111Rg 112Cn 113Nh 114Fl 115Mc 116Lv 117Ts 118Og
58Ce 59Pr 60Nd 61Pm 62Sm 63Eu 64Gd 65Tb 66Dy 67Ho 68Er 69Tm 70Yb 71Lu
90Th 91Pa 92U 93Np 94Pu 95Am 96Cm 97Bk 98Cf 99Es 100Fm 101Md 102No 103Lr
Default Categories CPK Electronegativity Atomic Radius Lowest Oxidation Highest Oxidation Crustal Abundance Goldschmidt Mineral Species Minerals with Hf Relative Frequency
Lutetium << Hafnium >> Tantalum

Most widespread minerals containing Hafnium
This list of minerals containing Hafnium is built from the mindat.org locality database. This is based on the number of localities entered for mineral species and is therefore slanted towards minerals interesting to collectors with less coverage of common rock-forming-minerals so it does not give an undistorted distribution of Hafnium mineral species. It is more useful when comparing rare species rather than common species.
NameFormulaCrystal SystemMindat Localities

Localities with greatest number of different Hafnium mineral species
map should go here
1Morro Conco mine, Alto Ligonha District, Zambezia Province, Mozambique1 Hf minerals
Koktokay No. 1 pegmatite, Koktokay pegmatite field (Keketuohai pegmatite field), Fuyun Co. (Koktokay Co.), Aletai Prefecture (Altay Prefecture), Yili Hasake Autonomous Prefecture (Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture), Xinjiang, China1 Hf minerals
3Bikita pegmatite, Bikita area, Masvingo, Zimbabwe1 Hf minerals
4Sidi Bou Othmane, Jebilet Mtn (Djebilet Mtn), Rehamna Province, Marrakech-Safi Region, Morocco1 Hf minerals
5Forrestania Rubellite pegmatite (Mount Hope pegmatite), Mount Holland pegmatite field, Yilgarn shire, Western Australia, Australia1 Hf minerals
6Leduc Mine, Val-des-Monts, Les Collines-de-l'Outaouais RCM, Outaouais, Québec, Canada1 Hf minerals
Mdara Mine, Bikita Area, Masvingo, Zimbabwe1 Hf minerals
8Moneia Mine, Alto Ligonha District, Zambezia Province, Mozambique1 Hf minerals

Spotted a mistake/omission? - These pages are a work in progress, so please send all comments/corrections to jolyon@mindat.org. Thank you.

Constants and physical property data from:

David R. Lide (ed.), CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 85th Edition. CRC Press. Boca Raton, Florida (2005).
Kaye and Laby Tables of Physical & Chemical Constants (2005). Section 3.1.3, Abundances of the elements
A. Earnshaw, N. Greenwood, Chemistry of the Elements, 2nd edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, (1997)
Thomas J. Ahrens (ed.), Global Earth Physics : A Handbook of Physical Constants, American Geophysical Union (1995)
L.B. Railsback, An Earth Scientist's Periodic Table of the Elements and Their Ions : Geology 31:9 p737-740 (2003)
Emsley, J. Nature's Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements. New York: Oxford University Press (2001)
Mineral and/or Locality  
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