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The Mineralogy of Hydrogen

About Hydrogen
The lightest and simplest element which makes up around 80% of the visible universe. Hydrogen consists of a single proton orbited by a single electron. The isotopes Deuterium and Tritium have one and two additional neutrons respectively in addition.
General Properties
Symbol:H
Atomic Number:1
Standard atomic weight (Ar):1.00794(4)
Electron configuration:1s1
Photos
<
Vial of glowing ultrapure hydrogen
>
Atomic Properties
Electronegativity (Pauling scale):2.2
Atomic Radius:53 pm
Van der Waals Radius:120 pm
1st Ionization energy:1312 kJ/mol
1st Electron affinity:-73 kJ/mol
Oxidation States:-1,1
Physical Properties
Standard State:gas
Bonding Type:diatomic
Melting Point:14 K
Boiling Point:20 K
Density:8.99E-005 g/cm3
Metal/Non-Metal:nonmetal
Main isotopes of Hydrogen
Isotope% in NatureHalf LifeDecay typeDecay product
1H99.9885%stable
2H0.0115%stable
3Htrace12.32yβ−3He
Main ions of Hydrogen
NameIonExample minerals
hydrogenH+Ice
ammoniumNH4+Salammoniac, Cryptohalite
hydrideH-
hydroxideOH-Brucite, Gibbsite, Goethite, Manganite
Videos
Other Information
Year Discovered:1766
Discovered By:
Henry Cavendish
Named For:Greek: hydrogen - "water-former"
CPK color coding:#FFFFFF
External Links:WikipediaWebElementsLos Alamos National LaboratoryTheodore Gray's PeriodicTable.com
Simple Compounds and Mineral Names
NitridesammoniaNH3+1
hydrazineH2NNH2+1
Sulfideshydrogen persulphideH2S2+1
hydrogen sulphideH2S+1
Selenideshydrogen selenideH2Se+1
Tellurideshydrogen tellurideH2Te+1
HydroxideswaterH2O+1Ice
Fluorideshydrogen fluorideHF+1
Chlorideshydrogen chlorideHCl+1
Bromideshydrogen bromideHBr+1
Iodideshydrogen iodideHI+1
OxideswaterH2O+1Ice
Carbonatescarbonic acidH2CO3+1
Nitratesnitric acidHNO3+1
Sulfatessulfuric acidH2SO4+1
Mineral Diversity of Hydrogen
2. Sulfides And Sulfosalts 16 valid mineral species
3. Halides91 valid mineral species
4. Oxides 264 valid mineral species
5. Carbonates 154 valid mineral species
6. Borates109 valid mineral species
7. Sulfates 316 valid mineral species
8. Phosphates, Arsenates, Vanadates686 valid mineral species
9. Silicates 783 valid mineral species
10. Organic Compounds44 valid mineral species
Total:2463 valid species containing essential Hydrogen
Geochemistry of Hydrogen
Goldschmidt classification:Atmophile
H+ is commonly concentrated in residual soils and sediments.
Elemental Abundance for Hydrogen
Crust (CRC Handbook)1.40 x 10-3mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Greenwood)1.520 x 10-3mass fraction, kg/kg
Sea Water (CRC Handbook)1.08 x 10-1mass per volume fraction, kg/L
Sea Water (Kaye & Laby)1.1 x 10-1mass per volume fraction, kg/L
Atmosphere (NASA)1.79ppmas CH4
The Sun (Kaye & Laby)2.8 x 104atom mole fraction relative to Si=1
Solar System (Kaye & Laby)2.8 x 104atom mole fraction relative to Si=1
Solar System (Ahrens)2.79 x 104atom mole fraction relative to Si=1 (% uncertainty)
Element association of Hydrogen in the Mineral World
This table compares the known valid mineral species listed listed with Hydrogen and the other elements listed based on the official IMA formula. Note that unlike other sections on this page this includes non-essential elements.

The first data column contains the total number of minerals listed with Hydrogen and the element listed for that row.

The second data column lists this number as a percentage of all minerals listed with Hydrogen.

The final data column compares this percentage against the percentage of all minerals that contain the element listed in each row.

Click on a heading to sort.
ElementValid Minerals listed with element and Hydrogen% of H mineralsRelative to % in all minerals
Oxygen2881 minerals with H and O99.38%28.55% higher
Silicon1014 minerals with H and Si34.98%24.48% higher
Calcium937 minerals with H and Ca32.32%29.77% higher
Aluminium843 minerals with H and Al29.08%44.69% higher
Iron740 minerals with H and Fe25.53%10.49% higher
Sodium678 minerals with H and Na23.39%22.07% higher
Magnesium530 minerals with H and Mg18.28%31.18% higher
Phosphorus462 minerals with H and P15.94%42.60% higher
Sulfur446 minerals with H and S15.38%22.21% lower
Manganese422 minerals with H and Mn14.56%24.40% higher
Potassium357 minerals with H and K12.31%25.60% higher
Arsenic346 minerals with H and As11.94%3.49% higher
Copper331 minerals with H and Cu11.42%9.94% lower
Carbon278 minerals with H and C9.59%27.96% higher
Fluorine258 minerals with H and F8.90%5.53% higher
Chlorine248 minerals with H and Cl8.55%12.18% higher
Uranium226 minerals with H and U7.80%60.87% higher
Zinc202 minerals with H and Zn6.97%28.81% higher
Lead199 minerals with H and Pb6.86%29.17% lower
Titanium195 minerals with H and Ti6.73%3.73% lower
Boron191 minerals with H and B6.59%28.02% higher
Barium153 minerals with H and Ba5.28%12.39% higher
Vanadium147 minerals with H and V5.07%21.06% higher
Niobium105 minerals with H and Nb3.62%5.95% higher
Strontium97 minerals with H and Sr3.35%17.20% higher
Cerium94 minerals with H and Ce3.24%3.02% lower
Nitrogen93 minerals with H and N3.21%65.82% higher
Yttrium78 minerals with H and Y2.69%1.59% higher
Zirconium73 minerals with H and Zr2.52%3.13% higher
Beryllium71 minerals with H and Be2.45%8.66% higher
Nickel69 minerals with H and Ni2.38%27.59% lower
Lithium68 minerals with H and Li2.35%3.21% higher
Lanthanum48 minerals with H and La1.66%4.18% lower
Tellurium44 minerals with H and Te1.52%50.73% lower
Cobalt42 minerals with H and Co1.45%1.49% higher
Bismuth41 minerals with H and Bi1.41%65.77% lower
Molybdenum37 minerals with H and Mo1.28%9.60% higher
Chromium37 minerals with H and Cr1.28%23.65% lower
Antimony35 minerals with H and Sb1.21%75.65% lower
Neodymium32 minerals with H and Nd1.10%13.02% higher
Thorium29 minerals with H and Th1.00%10.95% higher
Tin22 minerals with H and Sn0.76%59.19% lower
Tungsten19 minerals with H and W0.66%14.89% lower
Selenium19 minerals with H and Se0.66%72.31% lower
Tantalum15 minerals with H and Ta0.52%62.26% lower
Caesium13 minerals with H and Cs0.45%0.52% lower
Cadmium12 minerals with H and Cd0.41%18.38% lower
Mercury11 minerals with H and Hg0.38%78.28% lower
Germanium11 minerals with H and Ge0.38%30.34% lower
Iodine9 minerals with H and I0.31%33.89% lower
Thallium6 minerals with H and Tl0.21%81.94% lower
Silver5 minerals with H and Ag0.17%94.87% lower
Scandium5 minerals with H and Sc0.17%42.61% lower
Samarium5 minerals with H and Sm0.17%53.04% higher
Gallium5 minerals with H and Ga0.17%31.18% higher
Gadolinium4 minerals with H and Gd0.14%22.43% higher
Dysprosium4 minerals with H and Dy0.14%83.65% higher
Bromine4 minerals with H and Br0.14%56.79% lower
Ytterbium3 minerals with H and Yb0.10%8.18% lower
Rubidium2 minerals with H and Rb0.07%26.54% lower
Indium2 minerals with H and In0.07%73.76% lower
Praseodymium1 mineral with H and Pr0.03%8.18% lower
Periodic Table
1H 2He
3Li 4Be 5B 6C 7N 8O 9F 10Ne
11Na 12Mg 13Al 14Si 15P 16S 17Cl 18Ar
19K 20Ca 21Sc 22Ti 23V 24Cr 25Mn 26Fe 27Co 28Ni 29Cu 30Zn 31Ga 32Ge 33As 34Se 35Br 36Kr
37Rb 38Sr 39Y 40Zr 41Nb 42Mo 43Tc 44Ru 45Rh 46Pd 47Ag 48Cd 49In 50Sn 51Sb 52Te 53I 54Xe
55Cs 56Ba 57La 72Hf 73Ta 74W 75Re 76Os 77Ir 78Pt 79Au 80Hg 81Tl 82Pb 83Bi 84Po 85At 86Rn
87Fr 88Ra 89Ac 104Rd 105Db 106Sg 107Bh 108Hs 109Mt 110Ds 111Rg 112Cn 113Nh 114Fl 115Mc 116Lv 117Ts 118Og
 
58Ce 59Pr 60Nd 61Pm 62Sm 63Eu 64Gd 65Tb 66Dy 67Ho 68Er 69Tm 70Yb 71Lu
90Th 91Pa 92U 93Np 94Pu 95Am 96Cm 97Bk 98Cf 99Es 100Fm 101Md 102No 103Lr
Default Categories CPK Electronegativity Atomic Radius Lowest Oxidation Highest Oxidation Crustal Abundance Goldschmidt Mineral Species Minerals with H Relative Frequency
Hydrogen >> Helium


Most widespread minerals containing Hydrogen
This list of minerals containing Hydrogen is built from the mindat.org locality database. This is based on the number of localities entered for mineral species and is therefore slanted towards minerals interesting to collectors with less coverage of common rock-forming-minerals so it does not give an undistorted distribution of Hydrogen mineral species. It is more useful when comparing rare species rather than common species.
NameFormulaCrystal SystemMindat Localities
MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2Monoclinic11383
MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2Monoclinic9159
Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)Monoclinic7520
Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)Orthorhombic6641
GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2OMonoclinic5970
AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2Monoclinic5168
KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4Triclinic4459
ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2OOrthorhombic3324
Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2Monoclinic3105
TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2Triclinic2919
Photos

Localities with greatest number of different Hydrogen mineral species
map should go here
1Clara Mine, Rankach valley, Oberwolfach, Wolfach, Black Forest, Baden-Württemberg, Germany229 H minerals
2Poudrette quarry (Demix quarry; Uni-Mix quarry; Desourdy quarry; Carrière Mont Saint-Hilaire; MSH), Mont Saint-Hilaire, La Vallée-du-Richelieu RCM, Montérégie, Québec, Canada215 H minerals
3Jáchymov (St Joachimsthal), Jáchymov District (St Joachimsthal), Krušné Hory Mts (Erzgebirge), Karlovy Vary Region, Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen), Czech Republic160 H minerals
4Tsumeb Mine (Tsumcorp Mine), Tsumeb, Otjikoto Region (Oshikoto), Namibia151 H minerals
5Sterling Mine, Sterling Hill, Ogdensburg, Franklin Mining District, Sussex Co., New Jersey, USA136 H minerals
6Långban, Filipstad, Värmland, Sweden109 H minerals
7Bisbee, Warren District, Mule Mts, Cochise Co., Arizona, USA108 H minerals
8Hagendorf South Pegmatite (Cornelia Mine; Hagendorf South Open Cut), Hagendorf, Waidhaus, Upper Palatinate, Bavaria, Germany107 H minerals


Significant minerals containing Hydrogen
Hydrogen is present in many minerals, most commonly as hydroxyl or as water (hydrate), but the most significant mineral for hydrogen is ice.
NameFormulaCrystal System
IceH2OHexagonal
Photos


Spotted a mistake/omission? - These pages are a work in progress, so please send all comments/corrections to jolyon@mindat.org. Thank you.

Constants and physical property data from:

David R. Lide (ed.), CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 85th Edition. CRC Press. Boca Raton, Florida (2005).
Kaye and Laby Tables of Physical & Chemical Constants (2005). Section 3.1.3, Abundances of the elements
A. Earnshaw, N. Greenwood, Chemistry of the Elements, 2nd edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, (1997)
Thomas J. Ahrens (ed.), Global Earth Physics : A Handbook of Physical Constants, American Geophysical Union (1995)
L.B. Railsback, An Earth Scientist's Periodic Table of the Elements and Their Ions : Geology 31:9 p737-740 (2003)
Emsley, J. Nature's Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements. New York: Oxford University Press (2001)
Mineral and/or Locality  
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