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The Mineralogy of Hydrogen

About Hydrogen
The lightest and simplest element which makes up around 80% of the visible universe. Hydrogen consists of a single proton orbited by a single electron. The isotopes Deuterium and Tritium have one and two additional neutrons respectively in addition.
General Properties
Symbol:H
Atomic Number:1
Standard atomic weight (Ar):1.00794(4)
Electron configuration:1s1
Photos
<
Vial of glowing ultrapure hydrogen
>
Atomic Properties
Electronegativity (Pauling scale):2.2
Atomic Radius:53 pm
Van der Waals Radius:120 pm
1st Ionization energy:1312 kJ/mol
1st Electron affinity:-73 kJ/mol
Oxidation States:-1,1
Physical Properties
Standard State:gas
Bonding Type:diatomic
Melting Point:14 K
Boiling Point:20 K
Density:8.99E-005 g/cm3
Metal/Non-Metal:nonmetal
Main isotopes of Hydrogen
Isotope% in NatureHalf LifeDecay typeDecay product
1H99.9885%stable
2H0.0115%stable
3Htrace12.32yβ−3He
Main ions of Hydrogen
NameIonExample minerals
hydrogenH+Ice
ammoniumNH4+Salammoniac, Cryptohalite
hydrideH-
hydroxideOH-Brucite, Gibbsite, Goethite, Manganite
Videos
Other Information
Year Discovered:1766
Discovered By:
Henry Cavendish
Named For:Greek: hydrogen - "water-former"
CPK color coding:#FFFFFF
External Links:WikipediaWebElementsLos Alamos National LaboratoryTheodore Gray's PeriodicTable.com
Simple Compounds and Mineral Names
NitridesammoniaNH3+1
hydrazineH2NNH2+1
Sulfideshydrogen persulphideH2S2+1
hydrogen sulphideH2S+1
Selenideshydrogen selenideH2Se+1
Tellurideshydrogen tellurideH2Te+1
HydroxideswaterH2O+1Ice
Fluorideshydrogen fluorideHF+1
Chlorideshydrogen chlorideHCl+1
Bromideshydrogen bromideHBr+1
Iodideshydrogen iodideHI+1
OxideswaterH2O+1Ice
Carbonatescarbonic acidH2CO3+1
Nitratesnitric acidHNO3+1
Sulfatessulfuric acidH2SO4+1
Mineral Diversity of Hydrogen
2. Sulfides And Sulfosalts 16 valid mineral species
3. Halides95 valid mineral species
4. Oxides 265 valid mineral species
5. Carbonates 155 valid mineral species
6. Borates109 valid mineral species
7. Sulfates 324 valid mineral species
8. Phosphates, Arsenates, Vanadates693 valid mineral species
9. Silicates 793 valid mineral species
10. Organic Compounds44 valid mineral species
Total:2494 valid species containing essential Hydrogen
Geochemistry of Hydrogen
Goldschmidt classification:Atmophile
H+ is commonly concentrated in residual soils and sediments.
Elemental Abundance for Hydrogen
Crust (CRC Handbook)1.40 x 10-3mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Greenwood)1.520 x 10-3mass fraction, kg/kg
Sea Water (CRC Handbook)1.08 x 10-1mass per volume fraction, kg/L
Sea Water (Kaye & Laby)1.1 x 10-1mass per volume fraction, kg/L
Atmosphere (NASA)1.79ppmas CH4
The Sun (Kaye & Laby)2.8 x 104atom mole fraction relative to Si=1
Solar System (Kaye & Laby)2.8 x 104atom mole fraction relative to Si=1
Solar System (Ahrens)2.79 x 104atom mole fraction relative to Si=1 (% uncertainty)
Element association of Hydrogen in the Mineral World
This table compares the known valid mineral species listed listed with Hydrogen and the other elements listed based on the official IMA formula. Note that unlike other sections on this page this includes non-essential elements.

The first data column contains the total number of minerals listed with Hydrogen and the element listed for that row.

The second data column lists this number as a percentage of all minerals listed with Hydrogen.

The final data column compares this percentage against the percentage of all minerals that contain the element listed in each row.

Click on a heading to sort.
ElementValid Minerals listed with element and Hydrogen% of H mineralsRelative to % in all minerals
Oxygen8919 minerals with H and O99.33%24.06% higher
Silicon3032 minerals with H and Si33.77%19.53% higher
Calcium2779 minerals with H and Ca30.95%26.69% higher
Aluminium2513 minerals with H and Al27.99%39.27% higher
Iron2172 minerals with H and Fe24.19%10.38% higher
Sodium2040 minerals with H and Na22.72%18.70% higher
Magnesium1534 minerals with H and Mg17.08%29.54% higher
Phosphorus1438 minerals with H and P16.02%36.66% higher
Sulfur1406 minerals with H and S15.66%25.09% lower
Manganese1256 minerals with H and Mn13.99%26.50% higher
Arsenic1072 minerals with H and As11.94%2.41% lower
Potassium1021 minerals with H and K11.37%21.14% higher
Copper1019 minerals with H and Cu11.35%13.47% lower
Carbon876 minerals with H and C9.76%25.56% higher
Uranium744 minerals with H and U8.29%59.40% higher
Chlorine704 minerals with H and Cl7.84%5.92% higher
Fluorine648 minerals with H and F7.22%7.34% lower
Lead627 minerals with H and Pb6.98%31.63% lower
Zinc606 minerals with H and Zn6.75%29.37% higher
Titanium599 minerals with H and Ti6.67%2.63% lower
Boron579 minerals with H and B6.45%24.05% higher
Vanadium475 minerals with H and V5.29%18.03% higher
Barium455 minerals with H and Ba5.07%10.79% higher
Niobium311 minerals with H and Nb3.46%17.12% higher
Nitrogen309 minerals with H and N3.44%58.77% higher
Cerium270 minerals with H and Ce3.01%2.31% higher
Strontium269 minerals with H and Sr3.00%17.34% higher
Yttrium222 minerals with H and Y2.47%3.54% higher
Zirconium217 minerals with H and Zr2.42%5.25% higher
Beryllium207 minerals with H and Be2.31%3.72% higher
Nickel197 minerals with H and Ni2.19%28.90% lower
Lithium188 minerals with H and Li2.09%0.87% higher
Tellurium138 minerals with H and Te1.54%51.07% lower
Bismuth129 minerals with H and Bi1.44%66.29% lower
Molybdenum121 minerals with H and Mo1.35%7.89% higher
Cobalt116 minerals with H and Co1.29%0.47% higher
Chromium115 minerals with H and Cr1.28%28.12% lower
Lanthanum108 minerals with H and La1.20%5.61% higher
Antimony103 minerals with H and Sb1.15%76.70% lower
Thorium85 minerals with H and Th0.95%32.14% higher
Neodymium72 minerals with H and Nd0.80%36.42% higher
Tin70 minerals with H and Sn0.78%56.25% lower
Tungsten63 minerals with H and W0.70%15.12% lower
Selenium57 minerals with H and Se0.63%73.00% lower
Tantalum43 minerals with H and Ta0.48%59.89% lower
Caesium41 minerals with H and Cs0.46%0.57% lower
Cadmium34 minerals with H and Cd0.38%23.65% lower
Germanium33 minerals with H and Ge0.37%39.37% lower
Mercury33 minerals with H and Hg0.37%79.79% lower
Iodine29 minerals with H and I0.32%41.39% lower
Thallium20 minerals with H and Tl0.22%83.16% lower
Scandium19 minerals with H and Sc0.21%39.37% lower
Gallium13 minerals with H and Ga0.14%12.60% higher
Silver13 minerals with H and Ag0.14%95.79% lower
Bromine12 minerals with H and Br0.13%51.50% lower
Samarium7 minerals with H and Sm0.08%112.21% higher
Indium6 minerals with H and In0.07%74.02% lower
Dysprosium6 minerals with H and Dy0.07%81.89% higher
Gadolinium6 minerals with H and Gd0.07%263.78% higher
Ytterbium5 minerals with H and Yb0.06%24.21% lower
Rubidium4 minerals with H and Rb0.04%19.16% lower
Praseodymium1 mineral with H and Pr0.01%69.68% lower
Periodic Table
1H 2He
3Li 4Be 5B 6C 7N 8O 9F 10Ne
11Na 12Mg 13Al 14Si 15P 16S 17Cl 18Ar
19K 20Ca 21Sc 22Ti 23V 24Cr 25Mn 26Fe 27Co 28Ni 29Cu 30Zn 31Ga 32Ge 33As 34Se 35Br 36Kr
37Rb 38Sr 39Y 40Zr 41Nb 42Mo 43Tc 44Ru 45Rh 46Pd 47Ag 48Cd 49In 50Sn 51Sb 52Te 53I 54Xe
55Cs 56Ba 57La 72Hf 73Ta 74W 75Re 76Os 77Ir 78Pt 79Au 80Hg 81Tl 82Pb 83Bi 84Po 85At 86Rn
87Fr 88Ra 89Ac 104Rd 105Db 106Sg 107Bh 108Hs 109Mt 110Ds 111Rg 112Cn 113Nh 114Fl 115Mc 116Lv 117Ts 118Og
 
58Ce 59Pr 60Nd 61Pm 62Sm 63Eu 64Gd 65Tb 66Dy 67Ho 68Er 69Tm 70Yb 71Lu
90Th 91Pa 92U 93Np 94Pu 95Am 96Cm 97Bk 98Cf 99Es 100Fm 101Md 102No 103Lr
Default Categories CPK Electronegativity Atomic Radius Lowest Oxidation Highest Oxidation Crustal Abundance Goldschmidt Mineral Species Minerals with H Relative Frequency
Hydrogen >> Helium


Most widespread minerals containing Hydrogen
This list of minerals containing Hydrogen is built from the mindat.org locality database. This is based on the number of localities entered for mineral species and is therefore slanted towards minerals interesting to collectors with less coverage of common rock-forming-minerals so it does not give an undistorted distribution of Hydrogen mineral species. It is more useful when comparing rare species rather than common species.
NameFormulaCrystal SystemMindat Localities
MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2Monoclinic9159
MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2Monoclinic11383
Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)Monoclinic8175
Photos

Localities with greatest number of different Hydrogen mineral species
map should go here
2Clara Mine, Rankach valley, Oberwolfach, Wolfach, Black Forest, Baden-Württemberg, Germany229 H minerals
4Poudrette quarry (De-Mix quarry; Demix quarry; Uni-Mix quarry; Carrière Mont Saint-Hilaire; MSH), Mont Saint-Hilaire, La Vallée-du-Richelieu RCM, Montérégie, Québec, Canada215 H minerals
6Jáchymov (St Joachimsthal), Jáchymov District (St Joachimsthal), Krušné Hory Mts (Erzgebirge), Karlovy Vary Region, Czech Republic160 H minerals
8Tsumeb Mine (Tsumcorp Mine), Tsumeb, Oshikoto Region (Otjikoto Region), Namibia151 H minerals


Significant minerals containing Hydrogen
Hydrogen is present in many minerals, most commonly as hydroxyl or as water (hydrate), but the most significant mineral for hydrogen is ice.
NameFormulaCrystal System
IceH2OHexagonal
Photos


Spotted a mistake/omission? - These pages are a work in progress, so please send all comments/corrections to jolyon@mindat.org. Thank you.

Constants and physical property data from:

David R. Lide (ed.), CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 85th Edition. CRC Press. Boca Raton, Florida (2005).
Kaye and Laby Tables of Physical & Chemical Constants (2005). Section 3.1.3, Abundances of the elements
A. Earnshaw, N. Greenwood, Chemistry of the Elements, 2nd edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, (1997)
Thomas J. Ahrens (ed.), Global Earth Physics : A Handbook of Physical Constants, American Geophysical Union (1995)
L.B. Railsback, An Earth Scientist's Periodic Table of the Elements and Their Ions : Geology 31:9 p737-740 (2003)
Emsley, J. Nature's Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements. New York: Oxford University Press (2001)
Mineral and/or Locality  
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