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The Mineralogy of Indium

General Properties
Atomic Number:49
Standard atomic weight (Ar):114.818(3)
Electron configuration:[Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p1
Pure indium bars
Atomic Properties
Electronegativity (Pauling scale):1.78
Atomic Radius:156 pm
Ionic Radius:80 pm (+3)
Van der Waals Radius:193 pm
1st Ionization energy:558 kJ/mol
1st Electron affinity:-29 kJ/mol
Oxidation States:1,2,3
Physical Properties
Standard State:solid
Bonding Type:metallic
Melting Point:430 K
Boiling Point:2345 K
Density:7.31 g/cm3
Main isotopes of Indium
Isotope% in NatureHalf LifeDecay typeDecay product
113In4.29%-Spontaneous fission ?
Other Information
Year Discovered:1863
Discovered By:
Ferdinand Reich
Hieronymus Theodor Richter

Ferdinand Reich and Hieronymous Theodor Richter
Year Isolated:1867
Isolated By:Hieronymous Theodor Richter
Named For:Named after indigo, because of indigo spectrum line
CPK color coding:#A67573
External Links:WikipediaWebElementsLos Alamos National LaboratoryTheodore Gray's
Simple Compounds
Nitridesindium nitrideInN+3
Sulfidesindium sulphideInS+2
diindium trisulphideIn2S3+3
Selenidesindium selenideInSe+2
diindium triselenideIn2Se3+3
Telluridesindium tellurideInTe+1,+3
diindium tritellurideIn2Te3+3
Hydridesindium hydrideInH+1
Fluoridesindium trifluoride trihydrateInF3 · 3H2O+3
indium fluorideInF+1
indium trifluorideInF3+3
indium trifluoride nonahydrateInF3 · 9H2O+3
Chloridesindium chlorideInCl+1
indium dichlorideInCl2+1,+3
indium trichlorideInCl3+3
Bromidesindium bromideInBr+1
indium dibromideInBr2+1,+3
indium tribromideInBr3+3
Iodidesindium iodideInI+1
indium triiodideInI3+3
diindium tetraiodideIn2I4+1,+3
Oxidesindium oxideInO+2
diindium trioxideIn2O3+3
Mineral Diversity of Indium
1. Elements 3 valid mineral species
2. Sulfides And Sulfosalts 6 valid mineral species
4. Oxides 1 valid mineral species
8. Phosphates, Arsenates, Vanadates1 valid mineral species
Total:11 valid species containing essential Indium
Geochemistry of Indium
Goldschmidt classification:Chalcophile
In+ is concentrated in residual soils and sediments (less certainty.)
In3+ is concentrated in residual soils and sediments (less certainty.)
Elemental Abundance for Indium
Crust (CRC Handbook)2.5 x 10-7mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Kaye & Laby)2 x 10-7mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Greenwood)2.4 x 10-7mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Ahrens/Taylor)5.0 x 10-8mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Ahrens/Wänke)6.95 x 10-8mass fraction, kg/kg
Upper Crust (Ahrens/Taylor)5.0 x 10-8mass fraction, kg/kg
Sea Water (CRC Handbook)2 x 10-8mass per volume fraction, kg/L
The Sun (Kaye & Laby)1.3 x 10-6atom mole fraction relative to Si=1
Solar System (Kaye & Laby)1.9 x 10-7atom mole fraction relative to Si=1
Solar System (Ahrens)1.84 x 10-7 (6.4%)atom mole fraction relative to Si=1 (% uncertainty)
Element association of Indium in the Mineral World
This table compares the known valid mineral species listed listed with Indium and the other elements listed based on the official IMA formula. Note that unlike other sections on this page this includes non-essential elements.

The first data column contains the total number of minerals listed with Indium and the element listed for that row.

The second data column lists this number as a percentage of all minerals listed with Indium.

The final data column compares this percentage against the percentage of all minerals that contain the element listed in each row.

Click on a heading to sort.
ElementValid Minerals listed with element and Indium% of In mineralsRelative to % in all minerals
Sulfur9 minerals with In and S64.29%229.79% higher
Iron4 minerals with In and Fe28.57%25.48% higher
Copper4 minerals with In and Cu28.57%128.66% higher
Zinc3 minerals with In and Zn21.43%301.93% higher
Tin3 minerals with In and Sn21.43%1,069.26% higher
Oxygen2 minerals with In and O14.29%81.25% lower
Hydrogen2 minerals with In and H14.29%73.38% lower
Silver2 minerals with In and Ag14.29%331.13% higher
Bismuth2 minerals with In and Bi14.29%250.78% higher
Platinum2 minerals with In and Pt14.29%1,577.64% higher
Lead2 minerals with In and Pb14.29%49.56% higher
Gallium1 mineral with In and Ga7.14%5,412.24% higher
Arsenic1 mineral with In and As7.14%37.16% lower
Cadmium1 mineral with In and Cd7.14%1,329.10% higher
Periodic Table
1H 2He
3Li 4Be 5B 6C 7N 8O 9F 10Ne
11Na 12Mg 13Al 14Si 15P 16S 17Cl 18Ar
19K 20Ca 21Sc 22Ti 23V 24Cr 25Mn 26Fe 27Co 28Ni 29Cu 30Zn 31Ga 32Ge 33As 34Se 35Br 36Kr
37Rb 38Sr 39Y 40Zr 41Nb 42Mo 43Tc 44Ru 45Rh 46Pd 47Ag 48Cd 49In 50Sn 51Sb 52Te 53I 54Xe
55Cs 56Ba 57La 72Hf 73Ta 74W 75Re 76Os 77Ir 78Pt 79Au 80Hg 81Tl 82Pb 83Bi 84Po 85At 86Rn
87Fr 88Ra 89Ac 104Rd 105Db 106Sg 107Bh 108Hs 109Mt 110Ds 111Rg 112Cn 113Nh 114Fl 115Mc 116Lv 117Ts 118Og
58Ce 59Pr 60Nd 61Pm 62Sm 63Eu 64Gd 65Tb 66Dy 67Ho 68Er 69Tm 70Yb 71Lu
90Th 91Pa 92U 93Np 94Pu 95Am 96Cm 97Bk 98Cf 99Es 100Fm 101Md 102No 103Lr
Default Categories CPK Electronegativity Atomic Radius Lowest Oxidation Highest Oxidation Crustal Abundance Goldschmidt Mineral Species Minerals with In Relative Frequency
Cadmium << Indium >> Tin

Most widespread minerals containing Indium
This list of minerals containing Indium is built from the locality database. This is based on the number of localities entered for mineral species and is therefore slanted towards minerals interesting to collectors with less coverage of common rock-forming-minerals so it does not give an undistorted distribution of Indium mineral species. It is more useful when comparing rare species rather than common species.
NameFormulaCrystal SystemMindat Localities
Sakuraiite(Cu,Zn,Fe)3(In,Sn)S4 Isometric4
YanomamiteInAsO4 · 2H2OOrthorhombic2

Localities with greatest number of different Indium mineral species
map should go here
1Kudriavy volcano (Kudryavyi), Iturup Island, Kuril Islands (Kurile Islands), Sakhalinskaya Oblast', Far-Eastern Region, Russia3 In minerals
2Toyoha mine, Minami-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan3 In minerals
Mangabeira deposit, Monte Alegre de Goiás, Goiás, Brazil3 In minerals
San Roque deposit, Valcheta, Valcheta department, Río Negro, Argentina3 In minerals
5PGE occurrence, Damiao complex, Luanping Co., Chengde Prefecture, Hebei Province, China2 In minerals
6Mount Pleasant Mine (Brunswick Tin Mines), Saint George Parish, Charlotte Co., New Brunswick, Canada2 In minerals
Dzhalinda Sn Deposit, Malyi Khingan Range, Khabarovskiy Kray, Far-Eastern Region, Russia2 In minerals
8Ikuno mine, Ikuno-cho-ono, Asago City, Hyogo Prefecture, Kinki Region, Honshu Island, Japan2 In minerals

Spotted a mistake/omission? - These pages are a work in progress, so please send all comments/corrections to Thank you.

Constants and physical property data from:

David R. Lide (ed.), CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 85th Edition. CRC Press. Boca Raton, Florida (2005).
Kaye and Laby Tables of Physical & Chemical Constants (2005). Section 3.1.3, Abundances of the elements
A. Earnshaw, N. Greenwood, Chemistry of the Elements, 2nd edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, (1997)
Thomas J. Ahrens (ed.), Global Earth Physics : A Handbook of Physical Constants, American Geophysical Union (1995)
L.B. Railsback, An Earth Scientist's Periodic Table of the Elements and Their Ions : Geology 31:9 p737-740 (2003)
Emsley, J. Nature's Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements. New York: Oxford University Press (2001)
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