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The Mineralogy of Iodine

General Properties
Atomic Number:53
Standard atomic weight (Ar):126.90447(3)
Electron configuration:[Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p5
Pure crystalline iodine
Atomic Properties
Electronegativity (Pauling scale):2.66
Atomic Radius:115 pm
Ionic Radius:220 pm (-1)
Van der Waals Radius:198 pm
1st Ionization energy:1008 kJ/mol
1st Electron affinity:-295 kJ/mol
Oxidation States:-1,1,3,5,7
Physical Properties
Standard State:solid
Bonding Type:covalent network
Melting Point:387 K
Boiling Point:457 K
Density:4.94 g/cm3
Main isotopes of Iodine
Isotope% in NatureHalf LifeDecay typeDecay product
127I100%-Spontaneous fission ?
Main ions of Iodine
NameIonExample minerals
iodideI-Iodargyrite, Marshite
iodate[IO3]-Bellingerite, Lautarite, Salesite
Other Information
Year Discovered:1811
Discovered By:
Bernard Courtois
Year Isolated:1811
Isolated By:Bernard Courtois
Named For:Greek: ioeides - violet or purple
CPK color coding:#940094
External Links:WikipediaWebElementsLos Alamos National LaboratoryTheodore Gray's PeriodicTable.com
Simple Compounds
Fluoridesiodine fluorideIF+1
iodine trifluorideIF3+3
iodine pentafluorideIF5+5
iodine heptafluorideIF7+7
Chloridesiodine chlorideICl+1
diiodine hexachloride[ICl3]2+3
Oxidesdiiodine pentaoxideI2O5+5
diiodine tetraoxideI2O4+4
tetraiodine nonaoxideI4O9
Mineral Diversity of Iodine
2. Sulfides And Sulfosalts 4 valid mineral species
3. Halides9 valid mineral species
4. Oxides 8 valid mineral species
7. Sulfates 3 valid mineral species
Total:24 valid species containing essential Iodine
Geochemistry of Iodine
Goldschmidt classification:Lithophile
I- is essential to nutrition of at least some vertebrates ('essential minerals').
I- forms minerals with Cu+.
I- forms minerals with Ag+.
Elemental Abundance for Iodine
Crust (CRC Handbook)4.5 x 10-7mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Kaye & Laby)5 x 10-7mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Greenwood)4.6 x 10-7mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Ahrens/Wänke)1.540 x 10-6mass fraction, kg/kg
Sea Water (CRC Handbook)6 x 10-8mass per volume fraction, kg/L
Sea Water (Kaye & Laby)6.4 x 10-8mass per volume fraction, kg/L
Solar System (Kaye & Laby)9.0 x 10-7atom mole fraction relative to Si=1
Solar System (Ahrens)9.00 x 10-7 (21%)atom mole fraction relative to Si=1 (% uncertainty)
Element association of Iodine in the Mineral World
This table compares the known valid mineral species listed listed with Iodine and the other elements listed based on the official IMA formula. Note that unlike other sections on this page this includes non-essential elements.

The first data column contains the total number of minerals listed with Iodine and the element listed for that row.

The second data column lists this number as a percentage of all minerals listed with Iodine.

The final data column compares this percentage against the percentage of all minerals that contain the element listed in each row.

Click on a heading to sort.
ElementValid Minerals listed with element and Iodine% of I mineralsRelative to % in all minerals
Oxygen51 minerals with I and O60.00%24.89% lower
Hydrogen29 minerals with I and H34.12%38.76% lower
Chlorine28 minerals with I and Cl32.94%346.05% higher
Mercury26 minerals with I and Hg30.59%1,586.06% higher
Sulfur21 minerals with I and S24.71%18.47% higher
Copper17 minerals with I and Cu20.00%52.86% higher
Bromine15 minerals with I and Br17.65%6,320.00% higher
Calcium12 minerals with I and Ca14.12%42.08% lower
Sodium12 minerals with I and Na14.12%26.07% lower
Lead11 minerals with I and Pb12.94%27.01% higher
Silver11 minerals with I and Ag12.94%277.65% higher
Magnesium9 minerals with I and Mg10.59%19.53% lower
Potassium6 minerals with I and K7.06%24.62% lower
Chromium6 minerals with I and Cr7.06%297.11% higher
Carbon5 minerals with I and C5.88%24.11% lower
Arsenic3 minerals with I and As3.53%71.08% lower
Bismuth3 minerals with I and Bi3.53%16.98% lower
Selenium3 minerals with I and Se3.53%50.47% higher
Phosphorus2 minerals with I and P2.35%79.87% lower
Vanadium2 minerals with I and V2.35%47.38% lower
Fluorine2 minerals with I and F2.35%69.72% lower
Tungsten2 minerals with I and W2.35%185.33% higher
Thallium2 minerals with I and Tl2.35%78.33% higher
Periodic Table
1H 2He
3Li 4Be 5B 6C 7N 8O 9F 10Ne
11Na 12Mg 13Al 14Si 15P 16S 17Cl 18Ar
19K 20Ca 21Sc 22Ti 23V 24Cr 25Mn 26Fe 27Co 28Ni 29Cu 30Zn 31Ga 32Ge 33As 34Se 35Br 36Kr
37Rb 38Sr 39Y 40Zr 41Nb 42Mo 43Tc 44Ru 45Rh 46Pd 47Ag 48Cd 49In 50Sn 51Sb 52Te 53I 54Xe
55Cs 56Ba 57La 72Hf 73Ta 74W 75Re 76Os 77Ir 78Pt 79Au 80Hg 81Tl 82Pb 83Bi 84Po 85At 86Rn
87Fr 88Ra 89Ac 104Rd 105Db 106Sg 107Bh 108Hs 109Mt 110Ds 111Rg 112Cn 113Nh 114Fl 115Mc 116Lv 117Ts 118Og
58Ce 59Pr 60Nd 61Pm 62Sm 63Eu 64Gd 65Tb 66Dy 67Ho 68Er 69Tm 70Yb 71Lu
90Th 91Pa 92U 93Np 94Pu 95Am 96Cm 97Bk 98Cf 99Es 100Fm 101Md 102No 103Lr
Default Categories CPK Electronegativity Atomic Radius Lowest Oxidation Highest Oxidation Crustal Abundance Goldschmidt Mineral Species Minerals with I Relative Frequency
Tellurium << Iodine >> Xenon

Most widespread minerals containing Iodine
This list of minerals containing Iodine is built from the mindat.org locality database. This is based on the number of localities entered for mineral species and is therefore slanted towards minerals interesting to collectors with less coverage of common rock-forming-minerals so it does not give an undistorted distribution of Iodine mineral species. It is more useful when comparing rare species rather than common species.
NameFormulaCrystal SystemMindat Localities

Localities with greatest number of different Iodine mineral species
map should go here
2Broken Hill, Broken Hill district, Yancowinna Co., New South Wales, Australia5 I minerals
4Chuquicamata Mine, Chuquicamata District, Calama, El Loa Province, Antofagasta, Chile4 I minerals
5Zapiga, El Tamarugal Province, Tarapacá, Chile3 I minerals
6Kintore opencut, Broken Hill South Mine (BHS Mine; South Mine), Broken Hill, Broken Hill district, Yancowinna Co., New South Wales, Australia3 I minerals
7María Josefa Mine, Rodalquilar, Níjar, Almería, Andalusia, Spain3 I minerals
8Rubtsovskoe Cu-Zn-Pb deposit, Rudnyi Altai, Altai Krai, Russia3 I minerals

Spotted a mistake/omission? - These pages are a work in progress, so please send all comments/corrections to jolyon@mindat.org. Thank you.

Constants and physical property data from:

David R. Lide (ed.), CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 85th Edition. CRC Press. Boca Raton, Florida (2005).
Kaye and Laby Tables of Physical & Chemical Constants (2005). Section 3.1.3, Abundances of the elements
A. Earnshaw, N. Greenwood, Chemistry of the Elements, 2nd edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, (1997)
Thomas J. Ahrens (ed.), Global Earth Physics : A Handbook of Physical Constants, American Geophysical Union (1995)
L.B. Railsback, An Earth Scientist's Periodic Table of the Elements and Their Ions : Geology 31:9 p737-740 (2003)
Emsley, J. Nature's Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements. New York: Oxford University Press (2001)
Mineral and/or Locality  
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