Donate now to keep mindat.org alive!Help mindat.org|Log In|Register|
Home PageMindat NewsThe Mindat ManualHistory of MindatCopyright StatusManagement TeamContact UsAdvertise on Mindat
Donate to MindatSponsor a PageSponsored PagesTop Available PagesMindat AdvertisersAdvertise on Mindat
What is a mineral?The most common minerals on earthMineral PhotographyThe Elements and their MineralsGeological TimeMineral Evolution
Minerals by PropertiesMinerals by ChemistryAdvanced Locality SearchRandom MineralRandom LocalitySearch by minIDLocalities Near MeSearch ArticlesSearch GlossaryMore Search Options
Search For:
Mineral Name:
Locality Name:
Keyword(s):
 
The Mindat ManualAdd a New PhotoRate PhotosLocality Edit ReportCoordinate Completion ReportAdd Glossary Item
StatisticsThe ElementsMember ListBooks & MagazinesMineral MuseumsMineral Shows & EventsThe Mindat DirectoryDevice Settings
Photo SearchPhoto GalleriesNew Photos TodayNew Photos YesterdayMembers' Photo GalleriesPast Photo of the Day Gallery

The Mineralogy of Iridium

General Properties
Symbol:Ir
Atomic Number:77
Standard atomic weight (Ar):192.217(3)
Electron configuration:[Xe] 4f14 5d7 6s2
Photos
<
One troy ounce (31.1035 g) of arc-melted iridium
>
Atomic Properties
Electronegativity (Pauling scale):2.2
Atomic Radius:180 pm
Ionic Radius:68 pm (+3)
1st Ionization energy:880 kJ/mol
1st Electron affinity:-151 kJ/mol
Oxidation States:-3,-1,1,2,3,4,5,6
Physical Properties
Standard State:solid
Bonding Type:metallic
Melting Point:2739 K
Boiling Point:4701 K
Density:22.56 g/cm3
Metal/Non-Metal:transition metal
Main isotopes of Iridium
Isotope% in NatureHalf LifeDecay typeDecay product
188Irsynthetic1.3dε188Os
189Irsynthetic13.2dε189Os
190Irsynthetic11.8dε190Os
191Ir37.3%-α ?187Re
192Irsynthetic73.827dβ−192Pt
ε192Os
192m2Irsynthetic241yIsomeric transition192Ir
193Ir62.7%-α ?189Re
193mIrsynthetic10.5dIsomeric transition193Ir
194Irsynthetic19.3dβ−194Pt
194m2Irsynthetic171dIsomeric transition194Ir
Main ions of Iridium
NameIonExample minerals
iridium(II)Ir2+
iridium(III)Ir3+
iridium(IV)Ir4+
iridium(V)Ir5+
iridium(VI)Ir6+
iridium(VIII)Ir8+
[Ir9+O4]+
iridate(IV)[IrO3]2-
iridate(V)[IrO3]-
Other Information
Year Discovered:1803
Discovered By:
Smithson Tennant
Year Isolated:1803
Isolated By:Smithson Tennant
Named For:
The Greek goddess Iris
CPK color coding:#175487
External Links:WikipediaWebElementsLos Alamos National LaboratoryTheodore Gray's PeriodicTable.com
Simple Compounds and Mineral Names
Sulfidesiridium disulphideIrS2+4
diiridium trisulphideIr2S3+3Kashinite
Selenidesiridium diselenideIrSe2+4
Telluridesiridium ditellurideIrTe2+4Shuangfengite
Fluoridesiridium trifluorideIrF3+3
iridium hexafluorideIrF6+6
iridium tetrafluorideIrF4+4
iridium pentafluoride tetramer[IrF5]4+5
Chloridesiridium dichlorideIrCl2+2
iridium trichlorideIrCl3+3
iridium tetrachlorideIrCl4+4
Bromidesiridium tribromideIrBr3+3
iridium tetrabromideIrBr4+4
Iodidesiridium diiodideIrI2+2
iridium triiodideIrI3+3
iridium tetraiodideIrI4+4
Oxidesiridium dioxideIrO2+4
diiridium trioxideIr2O3+3
iridium oxide dihydrateIrO2 · 2H2O+4
Mineral Diversity of Iridium
1. Elements 3 valid mineral species
2. Sulfides And Sulfosalts 11 valid mineral species
Total:14 valid species containing essential Iridium
Geochemistry of Iridium
Goldschmidt classification:Siderophile
Ir4+ is enriched in Ca-Al-rich inclusions in meteorites relative to the composition of the solar system.
Elemental Abundance for Iridium
Crust (CRC Handbook)1 x 10-9mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Kaye & Laby)2 x 10-10mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Greenwood)1 x 10-9mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Ahrens/Taylor)1 x 10-10mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Ahrens/Wänke)1.02 x 10-9mass fraction, kg/kg
Upper Crust (Ahrens/Taylor)2 x 10-11mass fraction, kg/kg
The Sun (Kaye & Laby)6.0 x 10-7atom mole fraction relative to Si=1
Solar System (Kaye & Laby)6.6 x 10-7atom mole fraction relative to Si=1
Solar System (Ahrens)6.61 x 10-7 (6.1%)atom mole fraction relative to Si=1 (% uncertainty)
Element association of Iridium in the Mineral World
This table compares the known valid mineral species listed listed with Iridium and the other elements listed based on the official IMA formula. Note that unlike other sections on this page this includes non-essential elements.

The first data column contains the total number of minerals listed with Iridium and the element listed for that row.

The second data column lists this number as a percentage of all minerals listed with Iridium.

The final data column compares this percentage against the percentage of all minerals that contain the element listed in each row.

Click on a heading to sort.
ElementValid Minerals listed with element and Iridium% of Ir mineralsRelative to % in all minerals
Sulfur13 minerals with Ir and S52.00%166.77% higher
Platinum9 minerals with Ir and Pt36.00%4,127.65% higher
Ruthenium8 minerals with Ir and Ru32.00%13,197.23% higher
Rhodium8 minerals with Ir and Rh32.00%8,998.11% higher
Iron8 minerals with Ir and Fe32.00%40.54% higher
Copper7 minerals with Ir and Cu28.00%124.08% higher
Osmium5 minerals with Ir and Os20.00%11,904.44% higher
Tellurium3 minerals with Ir and Te12.00%295.27% higher
Lead3 minerals with Ir and Pb12.00%25.63% higher
Nickel2 minerals with Ir and Ni8.00%146.95% higher
Arsenic2 minerals with Ir and As8.00%29.62% lower
Bismuth2 minerals with Ir and Bi8.00%96.44% higher
Molybdenum1 mineral with Ir and Mo4.00%248.52% higher
Antimony1 mineral with Ir and Sb4.00%18.15% lower
Periodic Table
1H 2He
3Li 4Be 5B 6C 7N 8O 9F 10Ne
11Na 12Mg 13Al 14Si 15P 16S 17Cl 18Ar
19K 20Ca 21Sc 22Ti 23V 24Cr 25Mn 26Fe 27Co 28Ni 29Cu 30Zn 31Ga 32Ge 33As 34Se 35Br 36Kr
37Rb 38Sr 39Y 40Zr 41Nb 42Mo 43Tc 44Ru 45Rh 46Pd 47Ag 48Cd 49In 50Sn 51Sb 52Te 53I 54Xe
55Cs 56Ba 57La 72Hf 73Ta 74W 75Re 76Os 77Ir 78Pt 79Au 80Hg 81Tl 82Pb 83Bi 84Po 85At 86Rn
87Fr 88Ra 89Ac 104Rd 105Db 106Sg 107Bh 108Hs 109Mt 110Ds 111Rg 112Cn 113Nh 114Fl 115Mc 116Lv 117Ts 118Og
 
58Ce 59Pr 60Nd 61Pm 62Sm 63Eu 64Gd 65Tb 66Dy 67Ho 68Er 69Tm 70Yb 71Lu
90Th 91Pa 92U 93Np 94Pu 95Am 96Cm 97Bk 98Cf 99Es 100Fm 101Md 102No 103Lr
Default Categories CPK Electronegativity Atomic Radius Lowest Oxidation Highest Oxidation Crustal Abundance Goldschmidt Mineral Species Minerals with Ir Relative Frequency
Osmium << Iridium >> Platinum


Most widespread minerals containing Iridium
This list of minerals containing Iridium is built from the mindat.org locality database. This is based on the number of localities entered for mineral species and is therefore slanted towards minerals interesting to collectors with less coverage of common rock-forming-minerals so it does not give an undistorted distribution of Iridium mineral species. It is more useful when comparing rare species rather than common species.
NameFormulaCrystal SystemMindat Localities
Irarsite(Ir,Ru,Rh,Pt)AsSIsometric126
Iridium(Ir,Os,Ru)Isometric75
Rutheniridosmine(Ir,Os,Ru)Hexagonal42
Cuproiridsite(Cu,Fe)Ir2S4Isometric19
Kashinite(Ir,Rh)2S3Orthorhombic17
Iridarsenite(Ir,Ru)As2Monoclinic11
TolovkiteIrSbSIsometric10
Xingzhongite(Pb,Cu,Fe)(Ir,Pt,Rh)2S4Isometric6
InaglyiteCu3Pb(Ir,Pt)8S16Hexagonal5
ShuangfengiteIrTe2Trigonal4
Photos

Localities with greatest number of different Iridium mineral species
map should go here
1Gaositai Cr-PGE deposit (Gao District; Gaotai village), Gaositai, Chengde Co., Chengde Prefecture, Hebei Province, China8 Ir minerals
2Wulie river placers, Chengde Co., Chengde Prefecture, Hebei Province, China6 Ir minerals
3Uktus complex, Middle Urals, Urals Region, Russia5 Ir minerals
4Fox Gulch (Fox Gulch Platinum placer), Salmon River - Red Mountain District, Goodnews Bay, Bethel Borough, Alaska, USA5 Ir minerals
Mount Filipp, Kamchatka Oblast', Far-Eastern Region, Russia4 Ir minerals
Centralnoye II deposit, Rai-Iz (Raiz), Tyumenskaya Oblast', Polar Urals, Western-Siberian Region, Russia4 Ir minerals
Blagoevgrad deposit, Blagoevgrad Oblast, Bulgaria4 Ir minerals
Lapland Region, Finland4 Ir minerals


Spotted a mistake/omission? - These pages are a work in progress, so please send all comments/corrections to jolyon@mindat.org. Thank you.

Constants and physical property data from:

David R. Lide (ed.), CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 85th Edition. CRC Press. Boca Raton, Florida (2005).
Kaye and Laby Tables of Physical & Chemical Constants (2005). Section 3.1.3, Abundances of the elements
A. Earnshaw, N. Greenwood, Chemistry of the Elements, 2nd edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, (1997)
Thomas J. Ahrens (ed.), Global Earth Physics : A Handbook of Physical Constants, American Geophysical Union (1995)
L.B. Railsback, An Earth Scientist's Periodic Table of the Elements and Their Ions : Geology 31:9 p737-740 (2003)
Emsley, J. Nature's Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements. New York: Oxford University Press (2001)
Mineral and/or Locality  
Mindat.org is an outreach project of the Hudson Institute of Mineralogy, a 501(c)(3) not-for-profit organization.
Copyright © mindat.org and the Hudson Institute of Mineralogy 1993-2018, except where stated. Mindat.org relies on the contributions of thousands of members and supporters.
Privacy Policy - Terms & Conditions - Contact Us Current server date and time: January 18, 2018 05:38:39
Go to top of page