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The Mineralogy of Manganese

General Properties
Atomic Number:25
Standard atomic weight (Ar):54.938045(5)
Electron configuration:[Ar] 3d5 4s2
Manganese electrolytic and 1cm³ cube
Atomic Properties
Electronegativity (Pauling scale):1.55
Atomic Radius:161 pm
Ionic Radius:67 pm (+2)
1st Ionization energy:717 kJ/mol
Oxidation States:-3,-2,-1,1,2,3,4,5,6,7
Physical Properties
Standard State:solid
Bonding Type:metallic
Melting Point:1519 K
Boiling Point:2334 K
Density:7.47 g/cm3
Metal/Non-Metal:transition metal
Main isotopes of Manganese
Isotope% in NatureHalf LifeDecay typeDecay product
Main ions of Manganese
NameIonExample minerals
manganese(II)Mn2+Rhodochrosite, Rhodonite
Other Information
Year Discovered:1770
Discovered By:
Torbern Olof Bergman
Year Isolated:1774
Isolated By:
Johann Gottlieb Gahn
Named For:From Latin: Magnesia - Greece
CPK color coding:#9C7AC7
External Links:WikipediaWebElementsLos Alamos National LaboratoryTheodore Gray's
Simple Compounds and Mineral Names
Sulfidesmanganese sulphideMnS+2Alabandite, Browneite, Rambergite
manganese disulphideMnS2+4Hauerite
Selenidesmanganese selenideMnSe+2
Telluridesmanganese tellurideMnTe+2
Hydroxidesmanganese hydroxideMn(OH)2+2
Fluoridesmanganese difluorideMnF2+2
manganese trifluorideMnF3+3
manganese tetrafluorideMnF4+4
Chloridesmanganese dichlorideMnCl2+2Scacchite
manganese trichlorideMnCl3+3
manganese dichloride dihydrateMnCl2 · 2H2O+2
Bromidesmanganese dibromideMnBr2+2
Iodidesmanganese diiodideMnI2+2
Oxidesmanganese oxideMnO+2Manganosite
manganese dioxideMnO2+4Pyrolusite, Ramsdellite, Akhtenskite
dimanganese trioxideMn2O3+3Bixbyite
dimanganese heptaoxideMn2O7+7
trimanganese tetroxideMn3O4+2,+3Hausmannite
Carbonatesmanganese carbonateMnCO3+2Rhodochrosite
Nitratesmanganese nitrateMn(NO3)2+2
Sulfatesmanganese sulfateMnSO4+2
Silicatesmanganese silicateMnSiO3+2Rhodonite, Pyroxmangite
dimanganese silicateMn2SiO4+2Tephroite
Manganese as a chromophore in minerals and gems
Mn2+Usually gives a pink to red colour to minerals, such as rhodonite and rhodochrosite. In a tetrahedral site such as in willemite it can give a yellow-green colour.
Mn3+causes red and green colours in octahedral sites. In red muscovite from brazil, red beryl from Utah, piemontite from Whitewater, California. It can also give a green colour to andalusite and in a tremolite from New York it produces a violet colour. It also causes the purple colour in charoite.
Mn4+The green colour in freshly-mined spodumene (eg from the Oceanview Mine) is due to the 4+ ion, but it is rapidly reduced in sunlight to 3+ causing a colour change to pink.
Mineral Diversity of Manganese
1. Elements 2 valid mineral species
2. Sulfides And Sulfosalts 10 valid mineral species
3. Halides3 valid mineral species
4. Oxides 79 valid mineral species
5. Carbonates 11 valid mineral species
6. Borates13 valid mineral species
7. Sulfates 14 valid mineral species
8. Phosphates, Arsenates, Vanadates129 valid mineral species
9. Silicates 192 valid mineral species
10. Organic Compounds1 valid mineral species
Total:454 valid species containing essential Manganese
Geochemistry of Manganese
Goldschmidt classification:Siderophile
Mn2+ was one of the ions least depleted from the mantle in the formation of the crust.
Mn3+ enters early-forming phases in igneous rocks.
Mn4+ enters early-forming phases in igneous rocks.
Mn2+ enters early-forming phases in igneous rocks.
Mn3+ is commonly concentrated in residual soils and sediments.
Mn4+ is commonly concentrated in residual soils and sediments.
Mn3+ is concentrated in deep-sea ferromanganese nodules relative to seawater.
Mn4+ is concentrated in deep-sea ferromanganese nodules relative to seawater.
Mn2+ solute can be a limiting nutrient in the growth of bacteria.
Mn2+ solute is a micronutrient on land.
Mn2+ is essential to nutrition of at least some vertebrates ('essential minerals').
Elemental Abundance for Manganese
Crust (CRC Handbook)9.50 x 10-4mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Kaye & Laby)1.0 x 10-3mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Greenwood)1.060 x 10-3mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Ahrens/Taylor)1.400 x 10-3mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Ahrens/Wänke)8.47 x 10-4mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Ahrens/Weaver)1.000 x 10-3mass fraction, kg/kg
Upper Crust (Ahrens/Taylor)6.00 x 10-4mass fraction, kg/kg
Upper Crust (Ahrens/Shaw)5.27 x 10-4mass fraction, kg/kg
Sea Water (CRC Handbook)2 x 10-10mass per volume fraction, kg/L
Sea Water (Kaye & Laby)1.9 x 10-9mass per volume fraction, kg/L
The Sun (Kaye & Laby)6.9 x 10-3atom mole fraction relative to Si=1
Solar System (Kaye & Laby)9.5 x 10-3atom mole fraction relative to Si=1
Solar System (Ahrens)9.55 x 10-3 (9.6%)atom mole fraction relative to Si=1 (% uncertainty)
Element association of Manganese in the Mineral World
This table compares the known valid mineral species listed listed with Manganese and the other elements listed based on the official IMA formula. Note that unlike other sections on this page this includes non-essential elements.

The first data column contains the total number of minerals listed with Manganese and the element listed for that row.

The second data column lists this number as a percentage of all minerals listed with Manganese.

The final data column compares this percentage against the percentage of all minerals that contain the element listed in each row.

Click on a heading to sort.
ElementValid Minerals listed with element and Manganese% of Mn mineralsRelative to % in all minerals
Oxygen603 minerals with Mn and O96.79%25.67% higher
Hydrogen422 minerals with Mn and H67.74%24.87% higher
Silicon285 minerals with Mn and Si45.75%63.41% higher
Iron241 minerals with Mn and Fe38.68%68.07% higher
Calcium200 minerals with Mn and Ca32.10%29.38% higher
Sodium167 minerals with Mn and Na26.81%40.44% higher
Magnesium130 minerals with Mn and Mg20.87%50.29% higher
Phosphorus123 minerals with Mn and P19.74%77.32% higher
Aluminium108 minerals with Mn and Al17.34%13.42% lower
Titanium78 minerals with Mn and Ti12.52%79.86% higher
Arsenic65 minerals with Mn and As10.43%9.19% lower
Potassium64 minerals with Mn and K10.27%5.17% higher
Fluorine55 minerals with Mn and F8.83%5.07% higher
Zinc53 minerals with Mn and Zn8.51%57.86% higher
Sulfur45 minerals with Mn and S7.22%63.34% lower
Niobium41 minerals with Mn and Nb6.58%93.24% higher
Barium39 minerals with Mn and Ba6.26%33.81% higher
Lead38 minerals with Mn and Pb6.10%36.83% lower
Chlorine38 minerals with Mn and Cl6.10%19.71% lower
Zirconium34 minerals with Mn and Zr5.46%124.34% higher
Vanadium30 minerals with Mn and V4.82%15.40% higher
Boron30 minerals with Mn and B4.82%6.08% lower
Carbon26 minerals with Mn and C4.17%44.10% lower
Strontium25 minerals with Mn and Sr4.01%41.08% higher
Cerium23 minerals with Mn and Ce3.69%10.84% higher
Lithium23 minerals with Mn and Li3.69%63.05% higher
Antimony19 minerals with Mn and Sb3.05%38.27% lower
Beryllium18 minerals with Mn and Be2.89%28.67% higher
Tantalum12 minerals with Mn and Ta1.93%41.01% higher
Yttrium12 minerals with Mn and Y1.93%27.00% lower
Lanthanum12 minerals with Mn and La1.93%11.88% higher
Tin9 minerals with Mn and Sn1.44%22.02% lower
Copper8 minerals with Mn and Cu1.28%89.83% lower
Tungsten8 minerals with Mn and W1.28%67.37% higher
Silver7 minerals with Mn and Ag1.12%66.46% lower
Chromium5 minerals with Mn and Cr0.80%51.81% lower
Uranium5 minerals with Mn and U0.80%83.38% lower
Tellurium5 minerals with Mn and Te0.80%73.85% lower
Nickel5 minerals with Mn and Ni0.80%75.49% lower
Neodymium4 minerals with Mn and Nd0.64%34.02% lower
Thorium3 minerals with Mn and Th0.48%46.39% lower
Cobalt3 minerals with Mn and Co0.48%66.14% lower
Molybdenum2 minerals with Mn and Mo0.32%72.33% lower
Scandium2 minerals with Mn and Sc0.32%7.22% higher
Rubidium1 mineral with Mn and Rb0.16%71.56% higher
Caesium1 mineral with Mn and Cs0.16%64.26% lower
Cadmium1 mineral with Mn and Cd0.16%68.23% lower
Nitrogen1 mineral with Mn and N0.16%91.67% lower
Bismuth1 mineral with Mn and Bi0.16%96.10% lower
Periodic Table
1H 2He
3Li 4Be 5B 6C 7N 8O 9F 10Ne
11Na 12Mg 13Al 14Si 15P 16S 17Cl 18Ar
19K 20Ca 21Sc 22Ti 23V 24Cr 25Mn 26Fe 27Co 28Ni 29Cu 30Zn 31Ga 32Ge 33As 34Se 35Br 36Kr
37Rb 38Sr 39Y 40Zr 41Nb 42Mo 43Tc 44Ru 45Rh 46Pd 47Ag 48Cd 49In 50Sn 51Sb 52Te 53I 54Xe
55Cs 56Ba 57La 72Hf 73Ta 74W 75Re 76Os 77Ir 78Pt 79Au 80Hg 81Tl 82Pb 83Bi 84Po 85At 86Rn
87Fr 88Ra 89Ac 104Rd 105Db 106Sg 107Bh 108Hs 109Mt 110Ds 111Rg 112Cn 113Nh 114Fl 115Mc 116Lv 117Ts 118Og
58Ce 59Pr 60Nd 61Pm 62Sm 63Eu 64Gd 65Tb 66Dy 67Ho 68Er 69Tm 70Yb 71Lu
90Th 91Pa 92U 93Np 94Pu 95Am 96Cm 97Bk 98Cf 99Es 100Fm 101Md 102No 103Lr
Default Categories CPK Electronegativity Atomic Radius Lowest Oxidation Highest Oxidation Crustal Abundance Goldschmidt Mineral Species Minerals with Mn Relative Frequency
Chromium << Manganese >> Iron

Most widespread minerals containing Manganese
This list of minerals containing Manganese is built from the locality database. This is based on the number of localities entered for mineral species and is therefore slanted towards minerals interesting to collectors with less coverage of common rock-forming-minerals so it does not give an undistorted distribution of Manganese mineral species. It is more useful when comparing rare species rather than common species.
NameFormulaCrystal SystemMindat Localities
Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2OMonoclinic402

Localities with greatest number of different Manganese mineral species
map should go here
1Långban, Filipstad, Värmland, Sweden83 Mn minerals
2Valgraveglia Mine (Gambatesa Mine), Reppia, Graveglia Valley, Ne, Genova Province, Liguria, Italy54 Mn minerals
3Sterling Mine, Sterling Hill, Ogdensburg, Franklin Mining District, Sussex Co., New Jersey, USA53 Mn minerals
4Franklin Mine, Franklin, Franklin Mining District, Sussex Co., New Jersey, USA53 Mn minerals
Arschitza mine, Iacobeni (Jakobeny; Jacobeny; Jakabfalva), Suceava district, Suceava Co., Romania49 Mn minerals
6Wessels Mine (Wessel's Mine), Hotazel, Kalahari manganese field, Northern Cape Province, South Africa48 Mn minerals
7Poudrette quarry (Demix quarry; Uni-Mix quarry; Desourdy quarry; Carrière Mont Saint-Hilaire; MSH), Mont Saint-Hilaire, La Vallée-du-Richelieu RCM, Montérégie, Québec, Canada45 Mn minerals
8Harstigen Mine, Pajsberg, Persberg district, Filipstad, Värmland, Sweden40 Mn minerals

Spotted a mistake/omission? - These pages are a work in progress, so please send all comments/corrections to Thank you.

Constants and physical property data from:

David R. Lide (ed.), CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 85th Edition. CRC Press. Boca Raton, Florida (2005).
Kaye and Laby Tables of Physical & Chemical Constants (2005). Section 3.1.3, Abundances of the elements
A. Earnshaw, N. Greenwood, Chemistry of the Elements, 2nd edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, (1997)
Thomas J. Ahrens (ed.), Global Earth Physics : A Handbook of Physical Constants, American Geophysical Union (1995)
L.B. Railsback, An Earth Scientist's Periodic Table of the Elements and Their Ions : Geology 31:9 p737-740 (2003)
Emsley, J. Nature's Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements. New York: Oxford University Press (2001)
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