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The Mineralogy of Neodymium

General Properties
Atomic Number:60
Standard atomic weight (Ar):144.242(3)
Electron configuration:[Xe] 4f4 6s2
Ultrapure neodymium under argon
Atomic Properties
Electronegativity (Pauling scale):1.14
Atomic Radius:206 pm
Ionic Radius:129 pm (+2)
1st Ionization energy:533 kJ/mol
1st Electron affinity:-50 kJ/mol
Oxidation States:2,3
Physical Properties
Standard State:solid
Bonding Type:metallic
Melting Point:1294 K
Boiling Point:3373 K
Density:7.01 g/cm3
Main isotopes of Neodymium
Isotope% in NatureHalf LifeDecay typeDecay product
142Nd27.2%Spontaneous fission ?
143Nd12.2%α ?139Ce
145Nd8.3%>6×1016yα ?141Ce
146Nd17.2%α ?142Ce
β-β- ?148Sm
Main ions of Neodymium
NameIonExample minerals
Other Information
Year Discovered:1885
Discovered By:
Carl Auer von Welsbach
Named For:Greek: neos didymos - "new twin"
CPK color coding:#C7FFC7
External Links:WikipediaWebElementsLos Alamos National LaboratoryTheodore Gray's PeriodicTable.com
Simple Compounds
Nitridesneodymium nitrideNdN+3
Sulfidesneodymium sulphideNdS+2
dineodymium trisulphideNd2S3+3
Selenidesneodymium selenideNdSe+2
Telluridesneodymium tellurideNdTe+2
dineodymium tritellurideNd2Te3+3
Fluoridesneodymium trifluorideNdF3+3
Chloridesneodymium dichlorideNdCl2+2
neodymium trichlorideNdCl3+3
Bromidesneodymium tribromideNdBr3+3
Iodidesneodymium diiodideNdI2+2
neodymium triiodideNdI3+3
Oxidesdineodymium trioxideNd2O3+3
Mineral Diversity of Neodymium
3. Halides1 valid mineral species
4. Oxides 2 valid mineral species
5. Carbonates 9 valid mineral species
8. Phosphates, Arsenates, Vanadates8 valid mineral species
9. Silicates 4 valid mineral species
Total:24 valid species containing essential Neodymium
Geochemistry of Neodymium
Goldschmidt classification:Lithophile
Nd3+ was one of the ions least depleted from the mantle in the formation of the crust.
Nd3+ is enriched in Ca-Al-rich inclusions in meteorites relative to the composition of the solar system.
Nd3+ is concentrated in residual soils and sediments (less certainty.)
Elemental Abundance for Neodymium
Crust (CRC Handbook)4.15 x 10-5mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Kaye & Laby)4.4 x 10-5mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Greenwood)4.0 x 10-5mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Ahrens/Taylor)1.6000 x 10-5mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Ahrens/Wänke)2.5400 x 10-5mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Ahrens/Weaver)2.3000 x 10-5mass fraction, kg/kg
Upper Crust (Ahrens/Taylor)2.6000 x 10-5mass fraction, kg/kg
Upper Crust (Ahrens/Shaw)2.6000 x 10-5mass fraction, kg/kg
Sea Water (CRC Handbook)2.8 x 10-12mass per volume fraction, kg/L
Sea Water (Kaye & Laby)2.8 x 10-12mass per volume fraction, kg/L
The Sun (Kaye & Laby)9.0 x 10-7atom mole fraction relative to Si=1
Solar System (Kaye & Laby)8.3 x 10-7atom mole fraction relative to Si=1
Solar System (Ahrens)8.279 x 10-7 (1.3%)atom mole fraction relative to Si=1 (% uncertainty)
Element association of Neodymium in the Mineral World
This table compares the known valid mineral species listed listed with Neodymium and the other elements listed based on the official IMA formula. Note that unlike other sections on this page this includes non-essential elements.

The first data column contains the total number of minerals listed with Neodymium and the element listed for that row.

The second data column lists this number as a percentage of all minerals listed with Neodymium.

The final data column compares this percentage against the percentage of all minerals that contain the element listed in each row.

Click on a heading to sort.
ElementValid Minerals listed with element and Neodymium% of Nd mineralsRelative to % in all minerals
Oxygen116 minerals with Nd and O100.00%25.40% higher
Hydrogen72 minerals with Nd and H62.07%11.60% higher
Cerium48 minerals with Nd and Ce41.38%1,313.62% higher
Carbon43 minerals with Nd and C37.07%379.00% higher
Lanthanum42 minerals with Nd and La36.21%3,092.05% higher
Calcium35 minerals with Nd and Ca30.17%24.00% higher
Silicon27 minerals with Nd and Si23.28%17.28% lower
Phosphorus21 minerals with Nd and P18.10%55.10% higher
Fluorine18 minerals with Nd and F15.52%100.04% higher
Aluminium18 minerals with Nd and Al15.52%22.47% lower
Iron17 minerals with Nd and Fe14.66%32.85% lower
Yttrium15 minerals with Nd and Y12.93%443.70% higher
Niobium14 minerals with Nd and Nb12.07%309.75% higher
Arsenic12 minerals with Nd and As10.34%15.10% lower
Copper11 minerals with Nd and Cu9.48%27.41% lower
Titanium10 minerals with Nd and Ti8.62%26.33% higher
Uranium10 minerals with Nd and U8.62%66.50% higher
Sodium10 minerals with Nd and Na8.62%54.78% lower
Manganese8 minerals with Nd and Mn6.90%37.38% lower
Lead8 minerals with Nd and Pb6.90%32.20% lower
Sulfur6 minerals with Nd and S5.17%75.16% lower
Beryllium6 minerals with Nd and Be5.17%133.66% higher
Thorium4 minerals with Nd and Th3.45%383.29% higher
Samarium4 minerals with Nd and Sm3.45%9,324.14% higher
Gadolinium3 minerals with Nd and Gd2.59%14,036.21% higher
Caesium3 minerals with Nd and Cs2.59%465.45% higher
Vanadium3 minerals with Nd and V2.59%42.06% lower
Magnesium2 minerals with Nd and Mg1.72%86.87% lower
Praseodymium2 minerals with Nd and Pr1.72%4,612.07% higher
Dysprosium1 mineral with Nd and Dy0.86%2,256.03% higher
Lithium1 mineral with Nd and Li0.86%58.30% lower
Tantalum1 mineral with Nd and Ta0.86%27.51% lower
Tungsten1 mineral with Nd and W0.86%4.71% higher
Boron1 mineral with Nd and B0.86%83.35% lower
Periodic Table
1H 2He
3Li 4Be 5B 6C 7N 8O 9F 10Ne
11Na 12Mg 13Al 14Si 15P 16S 17Cl 18Ar
19K 20Ca 21Sc 22Ti 23V 24Cr 25Mn 26Fe 27Co 28Ni 29Cu 30Zn 31Ga 32Ge 33As 34Se 35Br 36Kr
37Rb 38Sr 39Y 40Zr 41Nb 42Mo 43Tc 44Ru 45Rh 46Pd 47Ag 48Cd 49In 50Sn 51Sb 52Te 53I 54Xe
55Cs 56Ba 57La 72Hf 73Ta 74W 75Re 76Os 77Ir 78Pt 79Au 80Hg 81Tl 82Pb 83Bi 84Po 85At 86Rn
87Fr 88Ra 89Ac 104Rd 105Db 106Sg 107Bh 108Hs 109Mt 110Ds 111Rg 112Cn 113Nh 114Fl 115Mc 116Lv 117Ts 118Og
58Ce 59Pr 60Nd 61Pm 62Sm 63Eu 64Gd 65Tb 66Dy 67Ho 68Er 69Tm 70Yb 71Lu
90Th 91Pa 92U 93Np 94Pu 95Am 96Cm 97Bk 98Cf 99Es 100Fm 101Md 102No 103Lr
Default Categories CPK Electronegativity Atomic Radius Lowest Oxidation Highest Oxidation Crustal Abundance Goldschmidt Mineral Species Minerals with Nd Relative Frequency
Praseodymium << Neodymium >> Promethium

Most widespread minerals containing Neodymium
This list of minerals containing Neodymium is built from the mindat.org locality database. This is based on the number of localities entered for mineral species and is therefore slanted towards minerals interesting to collectors with less coverage of common rock-forming-minerals so it does not give an undistorted distribution of Neodymium mineral species. It is more useful when comparing rare species rather than common species.
NameFormulaCrystal SystemMindat Localities
Agardite-(Nd)NdCu6(AsO4)3(OH)6 · 3H2OHexagonal16
Rhabdophane-(Nd)Nd(PO4) · H2OHexagonal15

Localities with greatest number of different Neodymium mineral species
map should go here
6Stetind pegmatite, Tysfjord, Nordland, Norway3 Nd minerals
5North Bohemian Uranium District, Liberec Region, Czech Republic3 Nd minerals
4Kamoto East Open cut, Kamoto, Kolwezi mining district, Lualaba, DR Congo3 Nd minerals
7Silberbrünnle Mine, Haigerach valley, Gengenbach, Black Forest, Baden-Württemberg, Germany2 Nd minerals
8Svodovyi area, Grubependity Lake, Maldynyrd range (Maldy-nyrd range), Kozhim River Basin, Komi Republic, Russia2 Nd minerals

Spotted a mistake/omission? - These pages are a work in progress, so please send all comments/corrections to jolyon@mindat.org. Thank you.

Constants and physical property data from:

David R. Lide (ed.), CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 85th Edition. CRC Press. Boca Raton, Florida (2005).
Kaye and Laby Tables of Physical & Chemical Constants (2005). Section 3.1.3, Abundances of the elements
A. Earnshaw, N. Greenwood, Chemistry of the Elements, 2nd edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, (1997)
Thomas J. Ahrens (ed.), Global Earth Physics : A Handbook of Physical Constants, American Geophysical Union (1995)
L.B. Railsback, An Earth Scientist's Periodic Table of the Elements and Their Ions : Geology 31:9 p737-740 (2003)
Emsley, J. Nature's Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements. New York: Oxford University Press (2001)
Mineral and/or Locality  
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