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The Mineralogy of Neodymium

General Properties
Atomic Number:60
Standard atomic weight (Ar):144.242(3)
Electron configuration:[Xe] 4f4 6s2
Ultrapure neodymium under argon
Atomic Properties
Electronegativity (Pauling scale):1.14
Atomic Radius:206 pm
Ionic Radius:129 pm (+2)
1st Ionization energy:533 kJ/mol
1st Electron affinity:-50 kJ/mol
Oxidation States:2,3
Physical Properties
Standard State:solid
Bonding Type:metallic
Melting Point:1294 K
Boiling Point:3373 K
Density:7.01 g/cm3
Main isotopes of Neodymium
Isotope% in NatureHalf LifeDecay typeDecay product
142Nd27.2%Spontaneous fission ?
143Nd12.2%α ?139Ce
145Nd8.3%>6×1016yα ?141Ce
146Nd17.2%α ?142Ce
β-β- ?148Sm
Main ions of Neodymium
NameIonExample minerals
Other Information
Year Discovered:1885
Discovered By:
Carl Auer von Welsbach
Named For:Greek: neos didymos - "new twin"
CPK color coding:#C7FFC7
External Links:WikipediaWebElementsLos Alamos National LaboratoryTheodore Gray's
Simple Compounds
Nitridesneodymium nitrideNdN+3
Sulfidesneodymium sulphideNdS+2
dineodymium trisulphideNd2S3+3
Selenidesneodymium selenideNdSe+2
Telluridesneodymium tellurideNdTe+2
dineodymium tritellurideNd2Te3+3
Fluoridesneodymium trifluorideNdF3+3
Chloridesneodymium dichlorideNdCl2+2
neodymium trichlorideNdCl3+3
Bromidesneodymium tribromideNdBr3+3
Iodidesneodymium diiodideNdI2+2
neodymium triiodideNdI3+3
Oxidesdineodymium trioxideNd2O3+3
Mineral Diversity of Neodymium
3. Halides1 valid mineral species
4. Oxides 2 valid mineral species
5. Carbonates 9 valid mineral species
8. Phosphates, Arsenates, Vanadates7 valid mineral species
9. Silicates 4 valid mineral species
Total:23 valid species containing essential Neodymium
Geochemistry of Neodymium
Goldschmidt classification:Lithophile
Nd3+ was one of the ions least depleted from the mantle in the formation of the crust.
Nd3+ is enriched in Ca-Al-rich inclusions in meteorites relative to the composition of the solar system.
Nd3+ is concentrated in residual soils and sediments (less certainty.)
Elemental Abundance for Neodymium
Crust (CRC Handbook)4.15 x 10-5mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Kaye & Laby)4.4 x 10-5mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Greenwood)4.0 x 10-5mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Ahrens/Taylor)1.6000 x 10-5mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Ahrens/Wänke)2.5400 x 10-5mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Ahrens/Weaver)2.3000 x 10-5mass fraction, kg/kg
Upper Crust (Ahrens/Taylor)2.6000 x 10-5mass fraction, kg/kg
Upper Crust (Ahrens/Shaw)2.6000 x 10-5mass fraction, kg/kg
Sea Water (CRC Handbook)2.8 x 10-12mass per volume fraction, kg/L
Sea Water (Kaye & Laby)2.8 x 10-12mass per volume fraction, kg/L
The Sun (Kaye & Laby)9.0 x 10-7atom mole fraction relative to Si=1
Solar System (Kaye & Laby)8.3 x 10-7atom mole fraction relative to Si=1
Solar System (Ahrens)8.279 x 10-7 (1.3%)atom mole fraction relative to Si=1 (% uncertainty)
Element association of Neodymium in the Mineral World
This table compares the known valid mineral species listed listed with Neodymium and the other elements listed based on the official IMA formula. Note that unlike other sections on this page this includes non-essential elements.

The first data column contains the total number of minerals listed with Neodymium and the element listed for that row.

The second data column lists this number as a percentage of all minerals listed with Neodymium.

The final data column compares this percentage against the percentage of all minerals that contain the element listed in each row.

Click on a heading to sort.
ElementValid Minerals listed with element and Neodymium% of Nd mineralsRelative to % in all minerals
Oxygen52 minerals with Nd and O100.00%31.24% higher
Hydrogen32 minerals with Nd and H61.54%14.67% higher
Cerium32 minerals with Nd and Ce61.54%1,767.59% higher
Lanthanum30 minerals with Nd and La57.69%3,287.54% higher
Carbon21 minerals with Nd and C40.38%446.76% higher
Calcium17 minerals with Nd and Ca32.69%33.19% higher
Yttrium11 minerals with Nd and Y21.15%710.45% higher
Phosphorus11 minerals with Nd and P21.15%92.06% higher
Silicon11 minerals with Nd and Si21.15%23.61% lower
Fluorine8 minerals with Nd and F15.38%85.10% higher
Aluminium8 minerals with Nd and Al15.38%22.33% lower
Iron7 minerals with Nd and Fe13.46%40.88% lower
Sodium6 minerals with Nd and Na11.54%38.89% lower
Niobium6 minerals with Nd and Nb11.54%242.48% higher
Copper5 minerals with Nd and Cu9.62%23.05% lower
Uranium4 minerals with Nd and U7.69%61.06% higher
Thorium4 minerals with Nd and Th7.69%765.71% higher
Samarium4 minerals with Nd and Sm7.69%6,825.64% higher
Sulfur4 minerals with Nd and S7.69%60.54% lower
Titanium4 minerals with Nd and Ti7.69%11.70% higher
Arsenic4 minerals with Nd and As7.69%32.32% lower
Manganese4 minerals with Nd and Mn7.69%33.30% lower
Gadolinium3 minerals with Nd and Gd5.77%5,094.23% higher
Magnesium2 minerals with Nd and Mg3.85%72.00% lower
Beryllium2 minerals with Nd and Be3.85%73.14% higher
Lead2 minerals with Nd and Pb3.85%59.73% lower
Praseodymium2 minerals with Nd and Pr3.85%10,288.46% higher
Caesium1 mineral with Nd and Cs1.92%332.85% higher
Vanadium1 mineral with Nd and V1.92%53.41% lower
Dysprosium1 mineral with Nd and Dy1.92%2,497.12% higher
Boron1 mineral with Nd and B1.92%62.09% lower
Tantalum1 mineral with Nd and Ta1.92%42.31% higher
Tungsten1 mineral with Nd and W1.92%153.38% higher
Lithium1 mineral with Nd and Li1.92%14.14% lower
Periodic Table
1H 2He
3Li 4Be 5B 6C 7N 8O 9F 10Ne
11Na 12Mg 13Al 14Si 15P 16S 17Cl 18Ar
19K 20Ca 21Sc 22Ti 23V 24Cr 25Mn 26Fe 27Co 28Ni 29Cu 30Zn 31Ga 32Ge 33As 34Se 35Br 36Kr
37Rb 38Sr 39Y 40Zr 41Nb 42Mo 43Tc 44Ru 45Rh 46Pd 47Ag 48Cd 49In 50Sn 51Sb 52Te 53I 54Xe
55Cs 56Ba 57La 72Hf 73Ta 74W 75Re 76Os 77Ir 78Pt 79Au 80Hg 81Tl 82Pb 83Bi 84Po 85At 86Rn
87Fr 88Ra 89Ac 104Rd 105Db 106Sg 107Bh 108Hs 109Mt 110Ds 111Rg 112Cn 113Nh 114Fl 115Mc 116Lv 117Ts 118Og
58Ce 59Pr 60Nd 61Pm 62Sm 63Eu 64Gd 65Tb 66Dy 67Ho 68Er 69Tm 70Yb 71Lu
90Th 91Pa 92U 93Np 94Pu 95Am 96Cm 97Bk 98Cf 99Es 100Fm 101Md 102No 103Lr
Default Categories CPK Electronegativity Atomic Radius Lowest Oxidation Highest Oxidation Crustal Abundance Goldschmidt Mineral Species Minerals with Nd Relative Frequency
Praseodymium << Neodymium >> Promethium

Most widespread minerals containing Neodymium
This list of minerals containing Neodymium is built from the locality database. This is based on the number of localities entered for mineral species and is therefore slanted towards minerals interesting to collectors with less coverage of common rock-forming-minerals so it does not give an undistorted distribution of Neodymium mineral species. It is more useful when comparing rare species rather than common species.
NameFormulaCrystal SystemMindat Localities
Agardite-(Nd)NdCu6(AsO4)3(OH)6 · 3H2OHexagonal16
Rhabdophane-(Nd)(Nd,Ce,La)(PO4) · H2OHexagonal14
Lanthanite-(Nd)(Nd,La)2(CO3)3 · 8H2OOrthorhombic11
Françoisite-(Nd)(Nd,Ce,Sm)(UO2)3(PO4)2O(OH) · 6H2OMonoclinic5
Gysinite-(Nd)PbNd(CO3)2(OH) · H2OOrthorhombic4

Localities with greatest number of different Neodymium mineral species
map should go here
1Stetind pegmatite, Tysfjord, Nordland, Norway3 Nd minerals
2North Bohemian Uranium District, Liberec Region, Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen), Czech Republic3 Nd minerals
3Kamoto East Open cut, Kamoto, Kolwezi District, Katanga (Shaba), Democratic Republic of the Congo3 Nd minerals
4Silberbrünnle Mine, Haigerach valley, Gengenbach, Black Forest, Baden-Württemberg, Germany2 Nd minerals
5Svodovyi area, Grubependity Lake, Maldynyrd range (Maldy-nyrd range), Kozhim River Basin, Prepolar Ural, Komi Republic, Northern Region, Russia2 Nd minerals
6Kasompi Mine (Menda Mine; Kasompi Hill), Kolwezi District, Katanga (Shaba), Democratic Republic of the Congo2 Nd minerals
7Rejkovo, Tisovec, Rimavská Sobota Co., Banská Bystrica Region, Slovakia2 Nd minerals
8Dara-i-Pioz Glacier (Dara-Pioz), Alai Range (Alayskiy), Tien Shan Mtn, Region of Republican Subordination, Tajikistan2 Nd minerals

Spotted a mistake/omission? - These pages are a work in progress, so please send all comments/corrections to Thank you.

Constants and physical property data from:

David R. Lide (ed.), CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 85th Edition. CRC Press. Boca Raton, Florida (2005).
Kaye and Laby Tables of Physical & Chemical Constants (2005). Section 3.1.3, Abundances of the elements
A. Earnshaw, N. Greenwood, Chemistry of the Elements, 2nd edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, (1997)
Thomas J. Ahrens (ed.), Global Earth Physics : A Handbook of Physical Constants, American Geophysical Union (1995)
L.B. Railsback, An Earth Scientist's Periodic Table of the Elements and Their Ions : Geology 31:9 p737-740 (2003)
Emsley, J. Nature's Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements. New York: Oxford University Press (2001)
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