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The Mineralogy of Oxygen

General Properties
Symbol:O
Atomic Number:8
Standard atomic weight (Ar):15.9994(3)
Electron configuration:[He] 2s2 2p4
Photos
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Vial of glowing ultrapure oxygen
>
Atomic Properties
Electronegativity (Pauling scale):3.44
Atomic Radius:48 pm
Ionic Radius:140 pm (-2)
Van der Waals Radius:152 pm
1st Ionization energy:1314 kJ/mol
1st Electron affinity:-141 kJ/mol
Oxidation States:-2,-1,1,2
Physical Properties
Standard State:gas
Bonding Type:diatomic
Melting Point:55 K
Boiling Point:90 K
Metal/Non-Metal:nonmetal
Main isotopes of Oxygen
Isotope% in NatureHalf LifeDecay typeDecay product
15Osynthetic122.24sβ+15N
16O99.76%stable
17O0.039%stable
18O0.201%stable
Main ions of Oxygen
NameIonExample minerals
oxideO2-Quartz, Hematite
Other Information
Year Discovered:1772
Discovered By:
Carl Wilhelm Scheele
Named For:from Greek: oxys - "acid" and -genes - "producer"
CPK color coding:#FF0D0D
External Links:WikipediaWebElementsLos Alamos National LaboratoryTheodore Gray's PeriodicTable.com
Simple Compounds
Fluoridesoxygen difluorideOF2+2
Oxygen as a chromophore in minerals and gems
ChromophoreDescription
O-Univalent oxygen ions replacing fluorine are believed to cause the smoky tones in some topaz.
Mineral Diversity of Oxygen
1. Elements 1 valid mineral species
2. Sulfides And Sulfosalts 25 valid mineral species
3. Halides114 valid mineral species
4. Oxides 590 valid mineral species
5. Carbonates 242 valid mineral species
6. Borates150 valid mineral species
7. Sulfates 397 valid mineral species
8. Phosphates, Arsenates, Vanadates849 valid mineral species
9. Silicates 1238 valid mineral species
10. Organic Compounds35 valid mineral species
Total:3641 valid species containing essential Oxygen
Geochemistry of Oxygen
Goldschmidt classification:Lithophile
O2- is commonly concentrated in residual soils and sediments.
O2- forms minerals with Mg2+.
O2- forms minerals with Al3+, Ti4+ and Zr4+.
O2- forms minerals with Si4+.
O2- forms minerals with Cu+.
Elemental Abundance for Oxygen
Crust (CRC Handbook)4.61 x 10-1mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Kaye & Laby)3.7 x 10-1mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Greenwood)4.55000 x 10-1mass fraction, kg/kg
Sea Water (CRC Handbook)8.57 x 10-1mass per volume fraction, kg/L
Sea Water (Kaye & Laby)8.8 x 10-1mass per volume fraction, kg/L
Atmosphere (NASA)20.946%as O2
The Sun (Kaye & Laby)2.4 x 101atom mole fraction relative to Si=1
Solar System (Kaye & Laby)2.4 x 101atom mole fraction relative to Si=1
Solar System (Ahrens)2.38 x 101 (10%)atom mole fraction relative to Si=1 (% uncertainty)
Element association of Oxygen in the Mineral World
This table compares the known valid mineral species listed listed with Oxygen and the other elements listed based on the official IMA formula. Note that unlike other sections on this page this includes non-essential elements.

The first data column contains the total number of minerals listed with Oxygen and the element listed for that row.

The second data column lists this number as a percentage of all minerals listed with Oxygen.

The final data column compares this percentage against the percentage of all minerals that contain the element listed in each row.

Click on a heading to sort.
ElementValid Minerals listed with element and Oxygen% of O mineralsRelative to % in all minerals
Hydrogen2881 minerals with O and H70.00%29.95% higher
Silicon1474 minerals with O and Si35.81%28.84% higher
Calcium1313 minerals with O and Ca31.90%29.48% higher
Iron1060 minerals with O and Fe25.75%12.69% higher
Aluminium1051 minerals with O and Al25.53%28.44% higher
Sodium997 minerals with O and Na24.22%27.81% higher
Magnesium733 minerals with O and Mg17.81%29.17% higher
Manganese603 minerals with O and Mn14.65%26.56% higher
Phosphorus581 minerals with O and P14.12%27.68% higher
Sulfur551 minerals with O and S13.39%31.58% lower
Potassium498 minerals with O and K12.10%24.75% higher
Arsenic424 minerals with O and As10.30%9.70% lower
Copper422 minerals with O and Cu10.25%18.25% lower
Fluorine404 minerals with O and F9.82%17.65% higher
Carbon375 minerals with O and C9.11%22.89% higher
Titanium365 minerals with O and Ti8.87%28.30% higher
Chlorine355 minerals with O and Cl8.62%14.33% higher
Lead315 minerals with O and Pb7.65%20.18% lower
Boron269 minerals with O and B6.54%28.37% higher
Uranium258 minerals with O and U6.27%30.76% higher
Zinc248 minerals with O and Zn6.03%12.60% higher
Barium245 minerals with O and Ba5.95%28.14% higher
Vanadium214 minerals with O and V5.20%25.48% higher
Niobium179 minerals with O and Nb4.35%28.60% higher
Cerium175 minerals with O and Ce4.25%28.55% higher
Strontium149 minerals with O and Sr3.62%28.18% higher
Yttrium138 minerals with O and Y3.35%27.98% higher
Zirconium130 minerals with O and Zr3.16%30.76% higher
Beryllium120 minerals with O and Be2.92%30.76% higher
Lithium117 minerals with O and Li2.84%26.44% higher
Lanthanum90 minerals with O and La2.19%27.92% higher
Nitrogen89 minerals with O and N2.16%12.99% higher
Antimony88 minerals with O and Sb2.14%56.41% lower
Tellurium79 minerals with O and Te1.92%37.01% lower
Nickel78 minerals with O and Ni1.90%41.72% lower
Bismuth76 minerals with O and Bi1.85%54.83% lower
Chromium73 minerals with O and Cr1.77%7.25% higher
Tantalum70 minerals with O and Ta1.70%25.38% higher
Molybdenum54 minerals with O and Mo1.31%13.89% higher
Neodymium52 minerals with O and Nd1.26%30.76% higher
Thorium48 minerals with O and Th1.17%30.76% higher
Tin46 minerals with O and Sn1.12%39.24% lower
Cobalt45 minerals with O and Co1.09%22.58% lower
Tungsten35 minerals with O and W0.85%11.62% higher
Selenium35 minerals with O and Se0.85%63.68% lower
Mercury30 minerals with O and Hg0.73%57.82% lower
Caesium21 minerals with O and Cs0.51%14.41% higher
Scandium16 minerals with O and Sc0.39%30.76% higher
Cadmium15 minerals with O and Cd0.36%27.36% lower
Iodine15 minerals with O and I0.36%21.55% lower
Germanium14 minerals with O and Ge0.34%36.88% lower
Bromine9 minerals with O and Br0.22%30.78% lower
Thallium8 minerals with O and Tl0.19%82.85% lower
Silver8 minerals with O and Ag0.19%94.16% lower
Samarium6 minerals with O and Sm0.15%30.76% higher
Ytterbium6 minerals with O and Yb0.15%30.76% higher
Gadolinium6 minerals with O and Gd0.15%30.76% higher
Gallium5 minerals with O and Ga0.12%6.60% lower
Rubidium5 minerals with O and Rb0.12%30.76% higher
Dysprosium4 minerals with O and Dy0.10%30.76% higher
Praseodymium2 minerals with O and Pr0.05%30.76% higher
Indium2 minerals with O and In0.05%81.32% lower
Hafnium1 mineral with O and Hf0.02%30.76% higher
Periodic Table
1H 2He
3Li 4Be 5B 6C 7N 8O 9F 10Ne
11Na 12Mg 13Al 14Si 15P 16S 17Cl 18Ar
19K 20Ca 21Sc 22Ti 23V 24Cr 25Mn 26Fe 27Co 28Ni 29Cu 30Zn 31Ga 32Ge 33As 34Se 35Br 36Kr
37Rb 38Sr 39Y 40Zr 41Nb 42Mo 43Tc 44Ru 45Rh 46Pd 47Ag 48Cd 49In 50Sn 51Sb 52Te 53I 54Xe
55Cs 56Ba 57La 72Hf 73Ta 74W 75Re 76Os 77Ir 78Pt 79Au 80Hg 81Tl 82Pb 83Bi 84Po 85At 86Rn
87Fr 88Ra 89Ac 104Rd 105Db 106Sg 107Bh 108Hs 109Mt 110Ds 111Rg 112Cn 113Nh 114Fl 115Mc 116Lv 117Ts 118Og
 
58Ce 59Pr 60Nd 61Pm 62Sm 63Eu 64Gd 65Tb 66Dy 67Ho 68Er 69Tm 70Yb 71Lu
90Th 91Pa 92U 93Np 94Pu 95Am 96Cm 97Bk 98Cf 99Es 100Fm 101Md 102No 103Lr
Default Categories CPK Electronegativity Atomic Radius Lowest Oxidation Highest Oxidation Crustal Abundance Goldschmidt Mineral Species Minerals with O Relative Frequency
Nitrogen << Oxygen >> Fluorine


Most widespread minerals containing Oxygen
This list of minerals containing Oxygen is built from the mindat.org locality database. This is based on the number of localities entered for mineral species and is therefore slanted towards minerals interesting to collectors with less coverage of common rock-forming-minerals so it does not give an undistorted distribution of Oxygen mineral species. It is more useful when comparing rare species rather than common species.
NameFormulaCrystal SystemMindat Localities
QuartzSiO2Trigonal49964
CalciteCaCO3Trigonal25216
MagnetiteFe2+Fe3+2O4Isometric13436
HematiteFe2O3Trigonal12557
MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2Monoclinic11383
BaryteBaSO4Orthorhombic10872
MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2Monoclinic9159
DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2Trigonal7534
Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)Monoclinic7520
AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)Triclinic6970
Photos

Localities with greatest number of different Oxygen mineral species
map should go here
1Poudrette quarry (Demix quarry; Uni-Mix quarry; Carrière Mont Saint-Hilaire; MSH), Mont Saint-Hilaire, La Vallée-du-Richelieu RCM, Montérégie, Québec, Canada363 O minerals
2Clara Mine, Rankach valley, Oberwolfach, Wolfach, Black Forest, Baden-Württemberg, Germany309 O minerals
3Långban, Filipstad, Värmland, Sweden238 O minerals
4Tsumeb Mine (Tsumcorp Mine), Tsumeb, Otjikoto Region (Oshikoto), Namibia220 O minerals
5Sterling Mine, Sterling Hill, Ogdensburg, Franklin Mining District, Sussex Co., New Jersey, USA193 O minerals
6Jáchymov (St Joachimsthal), Jáchymov District (St Joachimsthal), Krušné Hory Mts (Erzgebirge), Karlovy Vary Region, Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen), Czech Republic192 O minerals
7Caspar quarry, Bellerberg volcano, Ettringen, Mayen, Eifel, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany190 O minerals
8Bisbee, Warren District, Mule Mts, Cochise Co., Arizona, USA171 O minerals


Significant minerals containing Oxygen
More than 70% of all known mineral species contain oxygen and the vast majority of the earth's crust is made up of silicates, oxides and carbonates - all of which contain oxygen.

Some important examples are listed below:
NameFormulaCrystal System
QuartzSiO2Trigonal
HematiteFe2O3Trigonal
CalciteCaCO3Trigonal
SpinelMgAl2O4Isometric
CorundumAl2O3Trigonal
ForsteriteMg2SiO4Orthorhombic
AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)Triclinic
AnorthiteCa(Al2Si2O8)Triclinic
Photos


Spotted a mistake/omission? - These pages are a work in progress, so please send all comments/corrections to jolyon@mindat.org. Thank you.

Constants and physical property data from:

David R. Lide (ed.), CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 85th Edition. CRC Press. Boca Raton, Florida (2005).
Kaye and Laby Tables of Physical & Chemical Constants (2005). Section 3.1.3, Abundances of the elements
A. Earnshaw, N. Greenwood, Chemistry of the Elements, 2nd edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, (1997)
Thomas J. Ahrens (ed.), Global Earth Physics : A Handbook of Physical Constants, American Geophysical Union (1995)
L.B. Railsback, An Earth Scientist's Periodic Table of the Elements and Their Ions : Geology 31:9 p737-740 (2003)
Emsley, J. Nature's Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements. New York: Oxford University Press (2001)
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