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The Mineralogy of Palladium

General Properties
Symbol:Pd
Atomic Number:46
Standard atomic weight (Ar):106.42(1)
Electron configuration:[Kr] 4d10
Photos
<
Palladium crystal
>
Atomic Properties
Electronegativity (Pauling scale):2.2
Atomic Radius:169 pm
Ionic Radius:59 pm (+1)
Van der Waals Radius:163 pm
1st Ionization energy:804 kJ/mol
1st Electron affinity:-54 kJ/mol
Oxidation States:2,4
Physical Properties
Standard State:solid
Bonding Type:metallic
Melting Point:1828 K
Boiling Point:3236 K
Density:12.02 g/cm3
Metal/Non-Metal:transition metal
Main isotopes of Palladium
Isotope% in NatureHalf LifeDecay typeDecay product
100Pdsynthetic3.63dε100Rh
102Pd1.02%-β+β+ ?102Ru
103Pdsynthetic16.991dε103Rh
104Pd11.14%-Spontaneous fission ?
105Pd22.33%-Spontaneous fission ?
106Pd27.33%-Spontaneous fission ?
107Pdtrace6.5x106yβ−107Ag
108Pd26.46%-Spontaneous fission ?
110Pd11.72%>6x1017yβ-β-110Cd
Main ions of Palladium
NameIonExample minerals
palladium(II)Pd2+
hexachloropalladate(IV)[PdCl6]2-
Other Information
Year Discovered:1803
Discovered By:
William Hyde Wollaston
Year Isolated:1803
Isolated By:William Hyde Wollaston
Named For:after asteroid Pallas
CPK color coding:#006985
External Links:WikipediaWebElementsLos Alamos National LaboratoryTheodore Gray's PeriodicTable.com
Simple Compounds and Mineral Names
Sulfidespalladium sulphidePdS+2
palladium disulphidePdS2+4
Selenidespalladium selenidePdSe+2
palladium diselenidePdSe2+4Verbeekite
Telluridespalladium telluridePdTe+2
palladium ditelluridePdTe2+4
Fluoridespalladium difluoridePdF2+2
palladium tetrafluoridePdF4+4
Chloridespalladium dichloridePdCl2+2
Iodidespalladium diiodidePdI2+2
Oxidespalladium oxidePdO+2
palladium dioxidePdO2+4
Mineral Diversity of Palladium
1. Elements 12 valid mineral species
2. Sulfides And Sulfosalts 47 valid mineral species
4. Oxides 1 valid mineral species
Total:60 valid species containing essential Palladium
Geochemistry of Palladium
Goldschmidt classification:Siderophile
Elemental Abundance for Palladium
Crust (CRC Handbook)1.5 x 10-8mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Kaye & Laby)3 x 10-9mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Greenwood)1.5 x 10-8mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Ahrens/Taylor)1.0 x 10-9mass fraction, kg/kg
Upper Crust (Ahrens/Taylor)5 x 10-10mass fraction, kg/kg
The Sun (Kaye & Laby)1.4 x 10-6atom mole fraction relative to Si=1
Solar System (Kaye & Laby)1.4 x 10-6atom mole fraction relative to Si=1
Solar System (Ahrens)1.39 x 10-6 (6.6%)atom mole fraction relative to Si=1 (% uncertainty)
Element association of Palladium in the Mineral World
This table compares the known valid mineral species listed listed with Palladium and the other elements listed based on the official IMA formula. Note that unlike other sections on this page this includes non-essential elements.

The first data column contains the total number of minerals listed with Palladium and the element listed for that row.

The second data column lists this number as a percentage of all minerals listed with Palladium.

The final data column compares this percentage against the percentage of all minerals that contain the element listed in each row.

Click on a heading to sort.
ElementValid Minerals listed with element and Palladium% of Pd mineralsRelative to % in all minerals
Tellurium18 minerals with Pd and Te25.00%723.48% higher
Arsenic18 minerals with Pd and As25.00%119.95% higher
Platinum12 minerals with Pd and Pt16.67%1,857.25% higher
Copper12 minerals with Pd and Cu16.67%33.38% higher
Bismuth12 minerals with Pd and Bi16.67%309.24% higher
Antimony11 minerals with Pd and Sb15.28%212.62% higher
Tin11 minerals with Pd and Sn15.28%733.64% higher
Selenium10 minerals with Pd and Se13.89%495.46% higher
Lead8 minerals with Pd and Pb11.11%16.32% higher
Sulfur8 minerals with Pd and S11.11%43.00% lower
Silver6 minerals with Pd and Ag8.33%151.49% higher
Nickel5 minerals with Pd and Ni6.94%114.37% higher
Mercury4 minerals with Pd and Hg5.56%222.70% higher
Rhodium4 minerals with Pd and Rh5.56%1,479.53% higher
Gold1 mineral with Pd and Au1.39%150.09% higher
Iron1 mineral with Pd and Fe1.39%93.90% lower
Zinc1 mineral with Pd and Zn1.39%73.95% lower
Silicon1 mineral with Pd and Si1.39%94.98% lower
Periodic Table
1H 2He
3Li 4Be 5B 6C 7N 8O 9F 10Ne
11Na 12Mg 13Al 14Si 15P 16S 17Cl 18Ar
19K 20Ca 21Sc 22Ti 23V 24Cr 25Mn 26Fe 27Co 28Ni 29Cu 30Zn 31Ga 32Ge 33As 34Se 35Br 36Kr
37Rb 38Sr 39Y 40Zr 41Nb 42Mo 43Tc 44Ru 45Rh 46Pd 47Ag 48Cd 49In 50Sn 51Sb 52Te 53I 54Xe
55Cs 56Ba 57La 72Hf 73Ta 74W 75Re 76Os 77Ir 78Pt 79Au 80Hg 81Tl 82Pb 83Bi 84Po 85At 86Rn
87Fr 88Ra 89Ac 104Rd 105Db 106Sg 107Bh 108Hs 109Mt 110Ds 111Rg 112Cn 113Nh 114Fl 115Mc 116Lv 117Ts 118Og
 
58Ce 59Pr 60Nd 61Pm 62Sm 63Eu 64Gd 65Tb 66Dy 67Ho 68Er 69Tm 70Yb 71Lu
90Th 91Pa 92U 93Np 94Pu 95Am 96Cm 97Bk 98Cf 99Es 100Fm 101Md 102No 103Lr
Default Categories CPK Electronegativity Atomic Radius Lowest Oxidation Highest Oxidation Crustal Abundance Goldschmidt Mineral Species Minerals with Pd Relative Frequency
Rhodium << Palladium >> Silver


Most widespread minerals containing Palladium
This list of minerals containing Palladium is built from the mindat.org locality database. This is based on the number of localities entered for mineral species and is therefore slanted towards minerals interesting to collectors with less coverage of common rock-forming-minerals so it does not give an undistorted distribution of Palladium mineral species. It is more useful when comparing rare species rather than common species.
NameFormulaCrystal SystemMindat Localities
Merenskyite(Pd,Pt)(Te,Bi)2Trigonal131
MicheneritePdBiTe102
KotulskitePd(Te,Bi)Hexagonal93
Palladium(Pd,Pt)58
StibiopalladinitePd5Sb2Hexagonal57
Frooditeα-PdBi2Monoclinic53
Vysotskite(Pd,Ni)STetragonal50
Sudburyite(Pd,Ni)SbHexagonal38
Mertieite-IIPd8Sb2.5As0.5Trigonal38
PaolovitePd2SnOrthorhombic36
Photos

Localities with greatest number of different Palladium mineral species
map should go here
Noril'sk, Putoran Plateau, Taimyr Peninsula, Taymyrskiy Autonomous Okrug, Eastern-Siberian Region, Russia20 Pd minerals
2Lukkulaisvaara ultrabasic Massif (Lukkulaisvaara pluton; Lukkulaisvaara layered intrusion), Olanga River (Oulanka River), Oulanka plutonic complex, Northern Karelia, Karelia Republic, Northern Region, Russia20 Pd minerals
3Sandsloot mine, Mokopane (Potgietersrus), Waterberg District, Bushveld Complex, Limpopo Province, South Africa19 Pd minerals
Kharaelakh lode, Oktyabrsky Mine (Oktyabr'skoe Cu-Ni deposit; Oktyabr'skoye; Oktyabr'sky), Talnakh Cu-Ni Deposit, Noril'sk, Putoran Plateau, Taimyr Peninsula, Taymyrskiy Autonomous Okrug, Eastern-Siberian Region, Russia17 Pd minerals
Stillwater Complex, Nye, Stillwater Co., Montana, USA16 Pd minerals
6Stillwater Mine, Stillwater Complex, Nye, Stillwater Co., Montana, USA16 Pd minerals
7Oktyabrsky Mine (Oktyabr'skoe Cu-Ni deposit; Oktyabr'skoye; Oktyabr'sky), Talnakh Cu-Ni Deposit, Noril'sk, Putoran Plateau, Taimyr Peninsula, Taymyrskiy Autonomous Okrug, Eastern-Siberian Region, Russia16 Pd minerals
8Maandagshoek farm, Bushveld Complex, Limpopo Province, South Africa15 Pd minerals


Spotted a mistake/omission? - These pages are a work in progress, so please send all comments/corrections to jolyon@mindat.org. Thank you.

Constants and physical property data from:

David R. Lide (ed.), CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 85th Edition. CRC Press. Boca Raton, Florida (2005).
Kaye and Laby Tables of Physical & Chemical Constants (2005). Section 3.1.3, Abundances of the elements
A. Earnshaw, N. Greenwood, Chemistry of the Elements, 2nd edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, (1997)
Thomas J. Ahrens (ed.), Global Earth Physics : A Handbook of Physical Constants, American Geophysical Union (1995)
L.B. Railsback, An Earth Scientist's Periodic Table of the Elements and Their Ions : Geology 31:9 p737-740 (2003)
Emsley, J. Nature's Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements. New York: Oxford University Press (2001)
Mineral and/or Locality  
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