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The Mineralogy of Platinum

General Properties
Symbol:Pt
Atomic Number:78
Standard atomic weight (Ar):195.084(9)
Electron configuration:[Xe] 4f14 5d9 6s1
Photos
<
Isoferroplatinum - Pt3Fe
>
Atomic Properties
Electronegativity (Pauling scale):2.28
Atomic Radius:177 pm
Ionic Radius:86 pm (+2)
Van der Waals Radius:175 pm
1st Ionization energy:870 kJ/mol
1st Electron affinity:-205 kJ/mol
Oxidation States:2,4,5,6
Physical Properties
Standard State:solid
Bonding Type:metallic
Melting Point:2041 K
Boiling Point:4098 K
Density:21.09 g/cm3
Metal/Non-Metal:transition metal
Main isotopes of Platinum
Isotope% in NatureHalf LifeDecay typeDecay product
190Pt0.014%6.5x1011yα186Os
192Pt0.782%>4.7x1016yα ?188Os
193Ptsynthetic50yε193Ir
194Pt32.967%-α ?190Os
195Pt33.832%-α ?191Os
196Pt25.242%-α ?192Os
198Pt7.163%>3.2x1014yα ?194Os
β-β- ?198Hg
Main ions of Platinum
NameIonExample minerals
platinum(II)Pt2+Sperrylite
platinum(IV)Pt4+
platinum(V)Pt5+
platinum(VII)Pt6+
Other Information
Year Discovered:Ancient
Year Isolated:1735
Isolated By:
Antonio de Ulloa
Named For:Spanish: platina - "little silver"
CPK color coding:#D0D0E0
External Links:WikipediaWebElementsLos Alamos National LaboratoryTheodore Gray's PeriodicTable.com
Simple Compounds and Mineral Names
Sulfidesplatinum sulphidePtS+2Cooperite
platinum disulphidePtS2+4
Selenidesplatinum diselenidePtSe2+4Sudovikovite
Telluridesplatinum telluridePtTe+2
platinum ditelluridePtTe2+4
Fluoridesplatinum hexafluoridePtF6+6
platinum tetrafluoridePtF4+4
platinum pentafluoride tetramer[PtF5]4+5
Chloridesplatinum trichloridePtCl3+2,+4
platinum tetrachloridePtCl4+4
platinum dichloridePt6Cl12+2
Bromidesplatinum tribromidePtBr3+2,+4
platinum tetrabromidePtBr4+4
Iodidesplatinum diiodidePtI2+2
platinum triiodidePtI3+2,+4
platinum tetraiodidePtI4+4
Oxidesplatinum oxidePtO+2
platinum dioxidePtO2+4
platinum trioxidePtO3+4
platinum dioxide hydratePtO2 · H2O+4
Mineral Diversity of Platinum
1. Elements 11 valid mineral species
2. Sulfides And Sulfosalts 16 valid mineral species
Total:27 valid species containing essential Platinum
Geochemistry of Platinum
Goldschmidt classification:Siderophile
Pt2+ is enriched in Ca-Al-rich inclusions in meteorites relative to the composition of the solar system.
Elemental Abundance for Platinum
Crust (CRC Handbook)5 x 10-9mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Greenwood)1 x 10-8mass fraction, kg/kg
The Sun (Kaye & Laby)1.8 x 10-6atom mole fraction relative to Si=1
Solar System (Kaye & Laby)1.34 x 10-6atom mole fraction relative to Si=1
Solar System (Ahrens)1.34 x 10-6 (7.4%)atom mole fraction relative to Si=1 (% uncertainty)
Element association of Platinum in the Mineral World
This table compares the known valid mineral species listed listed with Platinum and the other elements listed based on the official IMA formula. Note that unlike other sections on this page this includes non-essential elements.

The first data column contains the total number of minerals listed with Platinum and the element listed for that row.

The second data column lists this number as a percentage of all minerals listed with Platinum.

The final data column compares this percentage against the percentage of all minerals that contain the element listed in each row.

Click on a heading to sort.
ElementValid Minerals listed with element and Platinum% of Pt mineralsRelative to % in all minerals
Sulfur42 minerals with Pt and S36.21%72.98% higher
Copper37 minerals with Pt and Cu31.90%142.89% higher
Iron21 minerals with Pt and Fe18.10%17.50% lower
Bismuth19 minerals with Pt and Bi16.38%283.85% higher
Rhodium18 minerals with Pt and Rh15.52%4,862.78% higher
Palladium18 minerals with Pt and Pd15.52%1,088.27% higher
Iridium17 minerals with Pt and Ir14.66%3,884.01% higher
Tin15 minerals with Pt and Sn12.93%624.80% higher
Arsenic13 minerals with Pt and As11.21%8.51% lower
Lead12 minerals with Pt and Pb10.34%1.16% higher
Selenium12 minerals with Pt and Se10.34%339.41% higher
Nickel10 minerals with Pt and Ni8.62%178.99% higher
Antimony10 minerals with Pt and Sb8.62%74.89% higher
Tellurium8 minerals with Pt and Te6.90%119.28% higher
Indium6 minerals with Pt and In5.17%1,908.74% higher
Mercury3 minerals with Pt and Hg2.59%42.03% higher
Ruthenium3 minerals with Pt and Ru2.59%1,071.77% higher
Gold1 mineral with Pt and Au0.86%42.03% higher
Periodic Table
1H 2He
3Li 4Be 5B 6C 7N 8O 9F 10Ne
11Na 12Mg 13Al 14Si 15P 16S 17Cl 18Ar
19K 20Ca 21Sc 22Ti 23V 24Cr 25Mn 26Fe 27Co 28Ni 29Cu 30Zn 31Ga 32Ge 33As 34Se 35Br 36Kr
37Rb 38Sr 39Y 40Zr 41Nb 42Mo 43Tc 44Ru 45Rh 46Pd 47Ag 48Cd 49In 50Sn 51Sb 52Te 53I 54Xe
55Cs 56Ba 57La 72Hf 73Ta 74W 75Re 76Os 77Ir 78Pt 79Au 80Hg 81Tl 82Pb 83Bi 84Po 85At 86Rn
87Fr 88Ra 89Ac 104Rd 105Db 106Sg 107Bh 108Hs 109Mt 110Ds 111Rg 112Cn 113Nh 114Fl 115Mc 116Lv 117Ts 118Og
 
58Ce 59Pr 60Nd 61Pm 62Sm 63Eu 64Gd 65Tb 66Dy 67Ho 68Er 69Tm 70Yb 71Lu
90Th 91Pa 92U 93Np 94Pu 95Am 96Cm 97Bk 98Cf 99Es 100Fm 101Md 102No 103Lr
Default Categories CPK Electronegativity Atomic Radius Lowest Oxidation Highest Oxidation Crustal Abundance Goldschmidt Mineral Species Minerals with Pt Relative Frequency
Iridium << Platinum >> Gold


Most widespread minerals containing Platinum
This list of minerals containing Platinum is built from the mindat.org locality database. This is based on the number of localities entered for mineral species and is therefore slanted towards minerals interesting to collectors with less coverage of common rock-forming-minerals so it does not give an undistorted distribution of Platinum mineral species. It is more useful when comparing rare species rather than common species.
NameFormulaCrystal SystemMindat Localities
PlatinumPtIsometric435
SperrylitePtAs2Isometric296
Moncheite(Pt,Pd)(Te,Bi)2Trigonal130
Photos

Localities with greatest number of different Platinum mineral species
map should go here
3Driekop mine, Sekhukhuneland, Burgersfort, Limpopo, South Africa12 Pt minerals
4Sandsloot mine, Mokopane (Potgietersrus), Mogalakwena, Waterberg District, Limpopo, South Africa12 Pt minerals
8Konder alkaline-ultrabasic massif (Konder placers; Konder mine; Kondyor), Aldan shield, Ayan-Maya district, Khabarovsk Krai, Russia10 Pt minerals
Mount Filipp, Kamchatka Krai, Russia10 Pt minerals
7Shalozerskoe (Kuk Ruchei) deposit, Burakovskii Layered Complex, Lake Onega, Republic of Karelia, Russia10 Pt minerals


Spotted a mistake/omission? - These pages are a work in progress, so please send all comments/corrections to jolyon@mindat.org. Thank you.

Constants and physical property data from:

David R. Lide (ed.), CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 85th Edition. CRC Press. Boca Raton, Florida (2005).
Kaye and Laby Tables of Physical & Chemical Constants (2005). Section 3.1.3, Abundances of the elements
A. Earnshaw, N. Greenwood, Chemistry of the Elements, 2nd edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, (1997)
Thomas J. Ahrens (ed.), Global Earth Physics : A Handbook of Physical Constants, American Geophysical Union (1995)
L.B. Railsback, An Earth Scientist's Periodic Table of the Elements and Their Ions : Geology 31:9 p737-740 (2003)
Emsley, J. Nature's Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements. New York: Oxford University Press (2001)
Mineral and/or Locality  
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