Log InRegister
Home PageAbout MindatThe Mindat ManualHistory of MindatCopyright StatusWho We AreContact UsAdvertise on Mindat
Donate to MindatCorporate SponsorshipSponsor a PageSponsored PagesMindat AdvertisersAdvertise on Mindat
Learning CenterWhat is a mineral?The most common minerals on earthInformation for EducatorsMindat Articles
Minerals by PropertiesMinerals by ChemistryAdvanced Locality SearchRandom MineralRandom LocalitySearch by minIDLocalities Near MeSearch ArticlesSearch GlossaryMore Search Options
Search For:
Mineral Name:
Locality Name:
The Mindat ManualAdd a New PhotoRate PhotosLocality Edit ReportCoordinate Completion ReportAdd Glossary Item
Mining CompaniesStatisticsThe ElementsUsersBooks & MagazinesMineral MuseumsMineral Shows & EventsThe Mindat DirectoryDevice Settings
Photo SearchPhoto GalleriesNew Photos TodayNew Photos YesterdayMembers' Photo GalleriesPast Photo of the Day Gallery

The Mineralogy of Praseodymium

About Praseodymium
Praseodymium is a 'rare earth' element of the lanthanide group, it is a soft, silvery, ductile and malleable metal.
General Properties
Atomic Number:59
Standard atomic weight (Ar):140.90765(2)
Electron configuration:[Xe] 4f3 6s2
Ultrapure praseodymium pieces under argon
Atomic Properties
Electronegativity (Pauling scale):1.13
Atomic Radius:247 pm
Ionic Radius:99 pm (+3)
1st Ionization energy:527 kJ/mol
1st Electron affinity:-50 kJ/mol
Oxidation States:2,3,4
Physical Properties
Standard State:solid
Bonding Type:metallic
Melting Point:1204 K
Boiling Point:3563 K
Density:6.64 g/cm3
Main isotopes of Praseodymium
Isotope% in NatureHalf LifeDecay typeDecay product
141Pr100%-Spontaneous fission ?
Main ions of Praseodymium
NameIonExample minerals
Other Information
Year Discovered:1885
Discovered By:
Carl Auer von Welsbach
Named For:From Greek: prasios didymos -"green twin"
CPK color coding:#D9FFC7
External Links:WikipediaWebElementsLos Alamos National LaboratoryTheodore Gray's PeriodicTable.com
Simple Compounds
Nitridespraseodymium nitridePrN+3
Sulfidespraseodymium sulphidePrS+2
dipraseodymium trisulphidePr2S3+3
Selenidespraseodymium selenidePrSe+2
Telluridespraseodymium telluridePrTe+2
dipraseodymium tritelluridePr2Te3+3
Fluoridespraseodymium difluoridePrF2+2
praseodymium trifluoridePrF3+3
praseodymium tetrafluoridePrF4+4
Chloridespraseodymium trichloridePrCl3+3
Bromidespraseodymium tribromidePrBr3+3
dipraseodymium pentabromidePr2Br5
Iodidespraseodymium diiodidePrI2+2
praseodymium triiodidePrI3+3
dipraseodymium pentaiodidePr2I5
Oxidespraseodymium dioxidePrO2+4
dipraseodymium trioxidePr2O3+3
Geochemistry of Praseodymium
Goldschmidt classification:Lithophile
Pr3+ was one of the ions least depleted from the mantle in the formation of the crust.
Pr3+ is enriched in Ca-Al-rich inclusions in meteorites relative to the composition of the solar system.
Pr3+ is concentrated in residual soils and sediments (less certainty.)
Elemental Abundance for Praseodymium
Crust (CRC Handbook)9.2 x 10-6mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Kaye & Laby)1.3 x 10-5mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Greenwood)9.1 x 10-6mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Ahrens/Taylor)3.900 x 10-6mass fraction, kg/kg
Upper Crust (Ahrens/Taylor)7.100 x 10-6mass fraction, kg/kg
Sea Water (CRC Handbook)6.4 x 10-13mass per volume fraction, kg/L
Sea Water (Kaye & Laby)6.4 x 10-13mass per volume fraction, kg/L
The Sun (Kaye & Laby)1.4 x 10-7atom mole fraction relative to Si=1
Solar System (Kaye & Laby)1.7 x 10-7atom mole fraction relative to Si=1
Solar System (Ahrens)1.669 x 10-7 (2.4%)atom mole fraction relative to Si=1 (% uncertainty)
Element association of Praseodymium in the Mineral World
This table compares the known valid mineral species listed listed with Praseodymium and the other elements listed based on the official IMA formula. Note that unlike other sections on this page this includes non-essential elements.

The first data column contains the total number of minerals listed with Praseodymium and the element listed for that row.

The second data column lists this number as a percentage of all minerals listed with Praseodymium.

The final data column compares this percentage against the percentage of all minerals that contain the element listed in each row.

Click on a heading to sort.
ElementValid Minerals listed with element and Praseodymium% of Pr mineralsRelative to % in all minerals
Oxygen2 minerals with Pr and O100.00%25.40% higher
Lanthanum2 minerals with Pr and La100.00%8,716.13% higher
Neodymium2 minerals with Pr and Nd100.00%16,981.25% higher
Silicon1 mineral with Pr and Si50.00%77.70% higher
Hydrogen1 mineral with Pr and H50.00%10.10% lower
Carbon1 mineral with Pr and C50.00%546.10% higher
Sodium1 mineral with Pr and Na50.00%162.28% higher
Phosphorus1 mineral with Pr and P50.00%328.37% higher
Calcium1 mineral with Pr and Ca50.00%105.49% higher
Cerium1 mineral with Pr and Ce50.00%1,608.13% higher
Samarium1 mineral with Pr and Sm50.00%136,550.00% higher
Thorium1 mineral with Pr and Th50.00%6,907.69% higher
Periodic Table
1H 2He
3Li 4Be 5B 6C 7N 8O 9F 10Ne
11Na 12Mg 13Al 14Si 15P 16S 17Cl 18Ar
19K 20Ca 21Sc 22Ti 23V 24Cr 25Mn 26Fe 27Co 28Ni 29Cu 30Zn 31Ga 32Ge 33As 34Se 35Br 36Kr
37Rb 38Sr 39Y 40Zr 41Nb 42Mo 43Tc 44Ru 45Rh 46Pd 47Ag 48Cd 49In 50Sn 51Sb 52Te 53I 54Xe
55Cs 56Ba 57La 72Hf 73Ta 74W 75Re 76Os 77Ir 78Pt 79Au 80Hg 81Tl 82Pb 83Bi 84Po 85At 86Rn
87Fr 88Ra 89Ac 104Rd 105Db 106Sg 107Bh 108Hs 109Mt 110Ds 111Rg 112Cn 113Nh 114Fl 115Mc 116Lv 117Ts 118Og
58Ce 59Pr 60Nd 61Pm 62Sm 63Eu 64Gd 65Tb 66Dy 67Ho 68Er 69Tm 70Yb 71Lu
90Th 91Pa 92U 93Np 94Pu 95Am 96Cm 97Bk 98Cf 99Es 100Fm 101Md 102No 103Lr
Default Categories CPK Electronegativity Atomic Radius Lowest Oxidation Highest Oxidation Crustal Abundance Goldschmidt Mineral Species Minerals with Pr Relative Frequency
Cerium << Praseodymium >> Neodymium

Spotted a mistake/omission? - These pages are a work in progress, so please send all comments/corrections to jolyon@mindat.org. Thank you.

Constants and physical property data from:

David R. Lide (ed.), CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 85th Edition. CRC Press. Boca Raton, Florida (2005).
Kaye and Laby Tables of Physical & Chemical Constants (2005). Section 3.1.3, Abundances of the elements
A. Earnshaw, N. Greenwood, Chemistry of the Elements, 2nd edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, (1997)
Thomas J. Ahrens (ed.), Global Earth Physics : A Handbook of Physical Constants, American Geophysical Union (1995)
L.B. Railsback, An Earth Scientist's Periodic Table of the Elements and Their Ions : Geology 31:9 p737-740 (2003)
Emsley, J. Nature's Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements. New York: Oxford University Press (2001)
Mineral and/or Locality  
Mindat.org is an outreach project of the Hudson Institute of Mineralogy, a 501(c)(3) not-for-profit organization. Public Relations by Blytheweigh.
Copyright © mindat.org and the Hudson Institute of Mineralogy 1993-2019, except where stated. Most political location boundaries are © OpenStreetMap contributors. Mindat.org relies on the contributions of thousands of members and supporters.
Privacy Policy - Terms & Conditions - Contact Us Current server date and time: April 20, 2019 21:22:45
Go to top of page