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The Mineralogy of Promethium

General Properties
Other names:Promethium is a lanthanide element with no stable isotopes, indeed its longest-living isotope (145) has a half-life of less than 18 years. As such any primordial promethium has long since decayed, and the only promethium to be found naturally in the Earth is tiny amounts refreshed from the decay of uranium. There are probably less than 600 grams of promethium in the Earth's crust at any moment.
Atomic Number:61
Standard atomic weight (Ar):[145]
Electron configuration:[Xe] 4f5 6s2
Promethium(III) chloride being used as part of a luminous paint mixture.
Atomic Properties
Electronegativity (Pauling scale):1.13
Atomic Radius:205 pm
Ionic Radius:97 pm (+3)
1st Ionization energy:540 kJ/mol
1st Electron affinity:-50 kJ/mol
Oxidation States:3
Physical Properties
Standard State:solid
Bonding Type:metallic
Melting Point:1373 K
Boiling Point:3273 K
Density:7.26 g/cm3
Main isotopes of Promethium
Isotope% in NatureHalf LifeDecay typeDecay product
Main ions of Promethium
NameIonExample minerals
Other Information
Year Discovered:1942
Discovered By:
Chien shiung Wu
Emilio Segrè
Hans Albrecht Bethe

Chien Shiung Wu, Emilio Segrè, Hans Bethe
Year Isolated:1945
Isolated By:
Charles D. Coryell
Jacob Akiba Marinsky
Lawrence Elgin Glendenin

Charles D. Coryell, Jacob A. Marinsky, Lawrence E. Glendenin, Harold G. Richter
Named For:
CPK color coding:#A3FFC7
External Links:WikipediaWebElementsLos Alamos National LaboratoryTheodore Gray's
Simple Compounds
Hydroxidespromethium hydroxidePm(OH)3+3
Fluoridespromethium trifluoridePmF3+3
Chloridespromethium trichloridePmCl3+3
Bromidespromethium tribromidePmBr3+3
Iodidespromethium triiodidePmI3+3
Oxidesdipromethium trioxidePm2O3+3
Nitratespromethium nitratePm(NO3)3+3
Sulfatespromethium sulfatePm2(SO4)3+3
promethium sulfate octahydratePm2(SO4)3 · 8H2O+3
Geochemistry of Promethium
Goldschmidt classification:Lithophile
Periodic Table
1H 2He
3Li 4Be 5B 6C 7N 8O 9F 10Ne
11Na 12Mg 13Al 14Si 15P 16S 17Cl 18Ar
19K 20Ca 21Sc 22Ti 23V 24Cr 25Mn 26Fe 27Co 28Ni 29Cu 30Zn 31Ga 32Ge 33As 34Se 35Br 36Kr
37Rb 38Sr 39Y 40Zr 41Nb 42Mo 43Tc 44Ru 45Rh 46Pd 47Ag 48Cd 49In 50Sn 51Sb 52Te 53I 54Xe
55Cs 56Ba 57La 72Hf 73Ta 74W 75Re 76Os 77Ir 78Pt 79Au 80Hg 81Tl 82Pb 83Bi 84Po 85At 86Rn
87Fr 88Ra 89Ac 104Rd 105Db 106Sg 107Bh 108Hs 109Mt 110Ds 111Rg 112Cn 113Nh 114Fl 115Mc 116Lv 117Ts 118Og
58Ce 59Pr 60Nd 61Pm 62Sm 63Eu 64Gd 65Tb 66Dy 67Ho 68Er 69Tm 70Yb 71Lu
90Th 91Pa 92U 93Np 94Pu 95Am 96Cm 97Bk 98Cf 99Es 100Fm 101Md 102No 103Lr
Default Categories CPK Electronegativity Atomic Radius Lowest Oxidation Highest Oxidation Crustal Abundance Goldschmidt Mineral Species
Neodymium << Promethium >> Samarium

Spotted a mistake/omission? - These pages are a work in progress, so please send all comments/corrections to Thank you.

Constants and physical property data from:

David R. Lide (ed.), CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 85th Edition. CRC Press. Boca Raton, Florida (2005).
Kaye and Laby Tables of Physical & Chemical Constants (2005). Section 3.1.3, Abundances of the elements
A. Earnshaw, N. Greenwood, Chemistry of the Elements, 2nd edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, (1997)
Thomas J. Ahrens (ed.), Global Earth Physics : A Handbook of Physical Constants, American Geophysical Union (1995)
L.B. Railsback, An Earth Scientist's Periodic Table of the Elements and Their Ions : Geology 31:9 p737-740 (2003)
Emsley, J. Nature's Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements. New York: Oxford University Press (2001)
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