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The Mineralogy of Rhenium

General Properties
Symbol:Re
Atomic Number:75
Standard atomic weight (Ar):186.207(1)
Electron configuration:[Xe] 4f14 5d5 6s2
Photos
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A high purity (99.999 %) rhenium
>
Atomic Properties
Electronegativity (Pauling scale):1.9
Atomic Radius:188 pm
Ionic Radius:63 pm (+4)
1st Ionization energy:760 kJ/mol
1st Electron affinity:-15 kJ/mol
Oxidation States:-3,-1,1,2,3,4,5,6,7
Physical Properties
Standard State:solid
Bonding Type:metallic
Melting Point:3459 K
Boiling Point:5869 K
Density:21.02 g/cm3
Metal/Non-Metal:transition metal
Main isotopes of Rhenium
Isotope% in NatureHalf LifeDecay typeDecay product
185Re37.4%-α ?181Ta
187Re62.6%4.1x1010yα183Ta
β−187Os
Main ions of Rhenium
NameIonExample minerals
rhenium(VII)Re7+
rhenium(VI)Re6+
rhenium(V)Re5+
rhenium(IV)Re4+
rhenium(II)Re2+Rheniite
Other Information
Year Discovered:1908
Discovered By:
Masataka Ogawa
Named For:
From Latin Rhenus, the river Rhine
CPK color coding:#267DAB
External Links:WikipediaWebElementsLos Alamos National LaboratoryTheodore Gray's PeriodicTable.com
Simple Compounds and Mineral Names
Sulfidesrhenium disulphideReS2+2Rheniite
dirhenium heptasulphideRe2S7+7
Telluridesrhenium ditellurideReTe2+4
Fluoridesrhenium hexafluorideReF6+6
rhenium tetrafluorideReF4+4
rhenium pentafluorideReF5+5
rhenium heptafluorideReF7+7
Chloridesrhenium hexachlorideReCl6+6
rhenium tetrachlorideReCl4+4
rhenium pentachlorideReCl5+5
trirhenium nonachloride[ReCl3]3+3
Bromidesrhenium tetrabromideReBr4+4
rhenium pentabromideReBr5+5
trirhenium nonabromide[ReBr3]3+3
Iodidesrhenium tetraiodideReI4+4
trirhenium nonaiodide[ReI3]3+3
Oxidesrhenium dioxideReO2+4
rhenium trioxideReO3+6
dirhenium trioxideRe2O3+3
dirhenium heptoxideRe2O7+7
Mineral Diversity of Rhenium
2. Sulfides And Sulfosalts 2 valid mineral species
Total:2 valid species containing essential Rhenium
Geochemistry of Rhenium
Goldschmidt classification:Siderophile
Re4+ is enriched in Ca-Al-rich inclusions in meteorites relative to the composition of the solar system.
Elemental Abundance for Rhenium
Crust (CRC Handbook)7 x 10-10mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Kaye & Laby)4 x 10-10mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Greenwood)7 x 10-10mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Ahrens/Taylor)5 x 10-10mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Ahrens/Wänke)1.02 x 10-9mass fraction, kg/kg
Upper Crust (Ahrens/Taylor)5 x 10-10mass fraction, kg/kg
Sea Water (CRC Handbook)4 x 10-12mass per volume fraction, kg/L
Solar System (Kaye & Laby)5.0 x 10-8atom mole fraction relative to Si=1
Solar System (Ahrens)5.17 x 10-8 (9.4%)atom mole fraction relative to Si=1 (% uncertainty)
Deposit Models
There is minor substitution of rhenium in molybdenum minerals (molybdenite) from copper porphyry deposits. It is commercially produced from molybdenum concentrates and also from sedimentary copper deposits.
Element association of Rhenium in the Mineral World
This table compares the known valid mineral species listed listed with Rhenium and the other elements listed based on the official IMA formula. Note that unlike other sections on this page this includes non-essential elements.

The first data column contains the total number of minerals listed with Rhenium and the element listed for that row.

The second data column lists this number as a percentage of all minerals listed with Rhenium.

The final data column compares this percentage against the percentage of all minerals that contain the element listed in each row.

Click on a heading to sort.
ElementValid Minerals listed with element and Rhenium% of Re mineralsRelative to % in all minerals
Sulfur6 minerals with Re and S100.00%377.07% higher
Iron3 minerals with Re and Fe50.00%127.54% higher
Copper3 minerals with Re and Cu50.00%280.18% higher
Molybdenum3 minerals with Re and Mo50.00%3,891.91% higher
Periodic Table
1H 2He
3Li 4Be 5B 6C 7N 8O 9F 10Ne
11Na 12Mg 13Al 14Si 15P 16S 17Cl 18Ar
19K 20Ca 21Sc 22Ti 23V 24Cr 25Mn 26Fe 27Co 28Ni 29Cu 30Zn 31Ga 32Ge 33As 34Se 35Br 36Kr
37Rb 38Sr 39Y 40Zr 41Nb 42Mo 43Tc 44Ru 45Rh 46Pd 47Ag 48Cd 49In 50Sn 51Sb 52Te 53I 54Xe
55Cs 56Ba 57La 72Hf 73Ta 74W 75Re 76Os 77Ir 78Pt 79Au 80Hg 81Tl 82Pb 83Bi 84Po 85At 86Rn
87Fr 88Ra 89Ac 104Rd 105Db 106Sg 107Bh 108Hs 109Mt 110Ds 111Rg 112Cn 113Nh 114Fl 115Mc 116Lv 117Ts 118Og
 
58Ce 59Pr 60Nd 61Pm 62Sm 63Eu 64Gd 65Tb 66Dy 67Ho 68Er 69Tm 70Yb 71Lu
90Th 91Pa 92U 93Np 94Pu 95Am 96Cm 97Bk 98Cf 99Es 100Fm 101Md 102No 103Lr
Default Categories CPK Electronegativity Atomic Radius Lowest Oxidation Highest Oxidation Crustal Abundance Goldschmidt Mineral Species Minerals with Re Relative Frequency
Tungsten << Rhenium >> Osmium


Most widespread minerals containing Rhenium
This list of minerals containing Rhenium is built from the mindat.org locality database. This is based on the number of localities entered for mineral species and is therefore slanted towards minerals interesting to collectors with less coverage of common rock-forming-minerals so it does not give an undistorted distribution of Rhenium mineral species. It is more useful when comparing rare species rather than common species.
NameFormulaCrystal SystemMindat Localities
RheniiteReS2Triclinic8
Tarkianite(Cu,Fe)(Re,Mo)4S8Isometric6
Photos

Localities with greatest number of different Rhenium mineral species
map should go here
1Hitura Nickel Mine, Nivala, Northern Finland Region, Finland1 Re minerals
Gaiswand Mine, Haidbachgraben, Felben, Felben valley, Hohe Tauern, Salzburg, Austria1 Re minerals
3Showa-shinzan volcano (Usu-shinzan), Usu-zan, Iburi Province, Hokkaido, Japan1 Re minerals
Konos Hills deposit, Kassiteres-Sapes area, Xánthi Prefecture, Thraki Department (Thrace; Thracia), Greece1 Re minerals
5Garson Mine, Garson Township, Sudbury District, Ontario, Canada1 Re minerals
Pagoni Rachi prospect, Alexandroupoli (Alexandroupolis), Évros Prefecture, Thraki Department (Thrace; Thracia), Greece1 Re minerals
O'Toole deposit, Fortaleza de Minas, Minas Gerais, Brazil1 Re minerals
Phoenix Mine, Francistown District, North-East District, Botswana1 Re minerals


Spotted a mistake/omission? - These pages are a work in progress, so please send all comments/corrections to jolyon@mindat.org. Thank you.

Constants and physical property data from:

David R. Lide (ed.), CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 85th Edition. CRC Press. Boca Raton, Florida (2005).
Kaye and Laby Tables of Physical & Chemical Constants (2005). Section 3.1.3, Abundances of the elements
A. Earnshaw, N. Greenwood, Chemistry of the Elements, 2nd edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, (1997)
Thomas J. Ahrens (ed.), Global Earth Physics : A Handbook of Physical Constants, American Geophysical Union (1995)
L.B. Railsback, An Earth Scientist's Periodic Table of the Elements and Their Ions : Geology 31:9 p737-740 (2003)
Emsley, J. Nature's Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements. New York: Oxford University Press (2001)
Mineral and/or Locality  
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