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The mineralogy of Rhodium

General Properties
Atomic Number:45
Standard atomic weight (Ar):102.90550(2)
Electron configuration:[Kr] 4d8 5s1
Atomic Properties
Electronegativity (Pauling scale):2.28
Atomic Radius:173 pm
Ionic Radius:66.5 pm (+3)
1st Ionization energy:720 kJ/mol
1st Electron affinity:-110 kJ/mol
Oxidation States:-1,1,2,3,4,5,6
Physical Properties
Standard State:solid
Bonding Type:metallic
Melting Point:2237 K
Boiling Point:3968 K
Density:12.45 g/cm3
Metal/Non-Metal:transition metal
Main isotopes of Rhodium
Isotope% in NatureHalf LifeDecay typeDecay product
Isomeric transition101Rh
103Rh100%-Spontaneous fission ?
Main ions of Rhodium
NameIonExample minerals
Other Information
Year Discovered:1803
Year Isolated:1804
Isolated By:
William Hyde Wollaston
Named For:From Greek: rhodon - "rose"
CPK color coding:#0A7D8C
External Links:WikipediaWebElementsLos Alamos National LaboratoryTheodore Gray's
Simple Compounds
Sulfidesrhodium diselenideRhSe2+4
Selenidesrhodium diselenideRhSe2+4
Telluridesrhodium ditellurideRhTe2+4
Fluoridesrhodium trifluorideRhF3+3
rhodium hexafluorideRhF6+6
rhodium tetrafluorideRhF4+4
tetrarhodium eicosafluoride[RhF5]4+5
Chloridesrhodium trichlorideRhCl3+3
Bromidesrhodium tribromideRhBr3+3
Iodidesrhodium triiodideRhI3+3
Oxidesrhodium dioxideRhO2+4
dirhodium trioxideRh2O3+3
Mineral Diversity of Rhodium
1. Elements 1 valid mineral species
2. Sulfides And Sulfosalts 10 valid mineral species
Total:11 valid species containing essential Rhodium
Geochemistry of Rhodium
Goldschmidt classification:Siderophile
Rh2+ is enriched in Ca-Al-rich inclusions in meteorites relative to the composition of the solar system.
Elemental Abundance for Rhodium
Crust (CRC Handbook)1 x 10-9mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Greenwood)1 x 10-10mass fraction, kg/kg
The Sun (Kaye & Laby)4.0 x 10-7atom mole fraction relative to Si=1
Solar System (Kaye & Laby)3.4 x 10-7atom mole fraction relative to Si=1
Solar System (Ahrens)3.44 x 10-7 (8%)atom mole fraction relative to Si=1 (% uncertainty)
Element association of Rhodium in the Mineral World
This table compares the known valid mineral species listed listed with Rhodium and the other elements listed based on the official IMA formula. Note that unlike other sections on this page this includes non-essential elements.

The first data column contains the total number of minerals listed with Rhodium and the element listed for that row.

The second data column lists this number as a percentage of all minerals listed with Rhodium.

The final data column compares this percentage against the percentage of all minerals that contain the element listed in each row.

Click on a heading to sort.
ElementValid Minerals listed with element and Rhodium% of Rh mineralsRelative to % in all minerals
Sulfur36 minerals with Rh and S67.92%236.58% higher
Arsenic19 minerals with Rh and As35.85%203.53% higher
Iridium18 minerals with Rh and Ir33.96%9,475.66% higher
Platinum18 minerals with Rh and Pt33.96%5,371.81% higher
Copper11 minerals with Rh and Cu20.75%63.92% higher
Iron8 minerals with Rh and Fe15.09%28.65% lower
Nickel8 minerals with Rh and Ni15.09%406.65% higher
Lead7 minerals with Rh and Pb13.21%33.95% higher
Palladium4 minerals with Rh and Pd7.55%499.42% higher
Ruthenium3 minerals with Rh and Ru5.66%2,559.91% higher
Antimony1 mineral with Rh and Sb1.89%60.30% lower
Periodic Table
1H 2He
3Li 4Be 5B 6C 7N 8O 9F 10Ne
11Na 12Mg 13Al 14Si 15P 16S 17Cl 18Ar
19K 20Ca 21Sc 22Ti 23V 24Cr 25Mn 26Fe 27Co 28Ni 29Cu 30Zn 31Ga 32Ge 33As 34Se 35Br 36Kr
37Rb 38Sr 39Y 40Zr 41Nb 42Mo 43Tc 44Ru 45Rh 46Pd 47Ag 48Cd 49In 50Sn 51Sb 52Te 53I 54Xe
55Cs 56Ba 57La 72Hf 73Ta 74W 75Re 76Os 77Ir 78Pt 79Au 80Hg 81Tl 82Pb 83Bi 84Po 85At 86Rn
87Fr 88Ra 89Ac 104Rd 105Db 106Sg 107Bh 108Hs 109Mt 110Ds 111Rg 112Cn 113Nh 114Fl 115Mc 116Lv 117Ts 118Og
58Ce 59Pr 60Nd 61Pm 62Sm 63Eu 64Gd 65Tb 66Dy 67Ho 68Er 69Tm 70Yb 71Lu
90Th 91Pa 92U 93Np 94Pu 95Am 96Cm 97Bk 98Cf 99Es 100Fm 101Md 102No 103Lr
Default Categories CPK Electronegativity Atomic Radius Lowest Oxidation Highest Oxidation Crustal Abundance Goldschmidt Mineral Species Minerals with Rh Relative Frequency
Ruthenium << Rhodium >> Palladium

Most widespread minerals containing Rhodium
This list of minerals containing Rhodium is built from the locality database. This is based on the number of localities entered for mineral species and is therefore slanted towards minerals interesting to collectors with less coverage of common rock-forming-minerals so it does not give an undistorted distribution of Rhodium mineral species. It is more useful when comparing rare species rather than common species.
NameFormulaCrystal SystemMindat Localities

Localities with greatest number of different Rhodium mineral species
map should go here
2Mount Filipp, Kamchatka Krai, Russia7 Rh minerals
4Maandagshoek farm, Burgersfort, Sekhukhune District, Limpopo, South Africa6 Rh minerals
Miass River, Chelyabinsk Oblast, Russia5 Rh minerals
7Marathon deposit, Coldwell complex, Thunder Bay District, Ontario, Canada5 Rh minerals
Bir Bir River, Yubdo District (Joubdo District; Youbdo District; Joubda District), Gimbi, Oromia Region, Ethiopia5 Rh minerals

Spotted a mistake/omission? - These pages are a work in progress, so please send all comments/corrections to Thank you.

Constants and physical property data from:

David R. Lide (ed.), CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 85th Edition. CRC Press. Boca Raton, Florida (2005).
Kaye and Laby Tables of Physical & Chemical Constants (2005). Section 3.1.3, Abundances of the elements
A. Earnshaw, N. Greenwood, Chemistry of the Elements, 2nd edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, (1997)
Thomas J. Ahrens (ed.), Global Earth Physics : A Handbook of Physical Constants, American Geophysical Union (1995)
L.B. Railsback, An Earth Scientist's Periodic Table of the Elements and Their Ions : Geology 31:9 p737-740 (2003)
Emsley, J. Nature's Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements. New York: Oxford University Press (2001)
Mineral and/or Locality  
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