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The Mineralogy of Rhodium

General Properties
Symbol:Rh
Atomic Number:45
Standard atomic weight (Ar):102.90550(2)
Electron configuration:[Kr] 4d8 5s1
Photos
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Rhodium
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Atomic Properties
Electronegativity (Pauling scale):2.28
Atomic Radius:173 pm
Ionic Radius:66.5 pm (+3)
1st Ionization energy:720 kJ/mol
1st Electron affinity:-110 kJ/mol
Oxidation States:-1,1,2,3,4,5,6
Physical Properties
Standard State:solid
Bonding Type:metallic
Melting Point:2237 K
Boiling Point:3968 K
Density:12.45 g/cm3
Metal/Non-Metal:transition metal
Main isotopes of Rhodium
Isotope% in NatureHalf LifeDecay typeDecay product
99Rhsynthetic16.1dε99Ru
101mRhsynthetic4.34dε101Ru
Isomeric transition101Rh
101Rhsynthetic3.3yε101Ru
102mRhsynthetic3.7yε102Ru
102Rhsynthetic207dε102Ru
β+102Ru
β−102Pd
103Rh100%-Spontaneous fission ?
105Rhsynthetic35.36hβ−105Pd
Main ions of Rhodium
NameIonExample minerals
rhodium(III)Rh3+
rhodium(IV)Rh4+
rhodium(V)Rh5+
rhodium(VI)Rh6+
Other Information
Year Discovered:1803
Year Isolated:1804
Isolated By:
William Hyde Wollaston
Named For:From Greek: rhodon - "rose"
CPK color coding:#0A7D8C
External Links:WikipediaWebElementsLos Alamos National LaboratoryTheodore Gray's PeriodicTable.com
Simple Compounds
Sulfidesrhodium diselenideRhSe2+4
Selenidesrhodium diselenideRhSe2+4
Telluridesrhodium ditellurideRhTe2+4
Fluoridesrhodium trifluorideRhF3+3
rhodium hexafluorideRhF6+6
rhodium tetrafluorideRhF4+4
tetrarhodium eicosafluoride[RhF5]4+5
Chloridesrhodium trichlorideRhCl3+3
Bromidesrhodium tribromideRhBr3+3
Iodidesrhodium triiodideRhI3+3
Oxidesrhodium dioxideRhO2+4
dirhodium trioxideRh2O3+3
Mineral Diversity of Rhodium
1. Elements 1 valid mineral species
2. Sulfides And Sulfosalts 11 valid mineral species
Total:12 valid species containing essential Rhodium
Geochemistry of Rhodium
Goldschmidt classification:Siderophile
Rh2+ is enriched in Ca-Al-rich inclusions in meteorites relative to the composition of the solar system.
Elemental Abundance for Rhodium
Crust (CRC Handbook)1 x 10-9mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Greenwood)1 x 10-10mass fraction, kg/kg
The Sun (Kaye & Laby)4.0 x 10-7atom mole fraction relative to Si=1
Solar System (Kaye & Laby)3.4 x 10-7atom mole fraction relative to Si=1
Solar System (Ahrens)3.44 x 10-7 (8%)atom mole fraction relative to Si=1 (% uncertainty)
Element association of Rhodium in the Mineral World
This table compares the known valid mineral species listed listed with Rhodium and the other elements listed based on the official IMA formula. Note that unlike other sections on this page this includes non-essential elements.

The first data column contains the total number of minerals listed with Rhodium and the element listed for that row.

The second data column lists this number as a percentage of all minerals listed with Rhodium.

The final data column compares this percentage against the percentage of all minerals that contain the element listed in each row.

Click on a heading to sort.
ElementValid Minerals listed with element and Rhodium% of Rh mineralsRelative to % in all minerals
Sulfur12 minerals with Rh and S63.16%224.01% higher
Platinum10 minerals with Rh and Pt52.63%6,080.78% higher
Iridium8 minerals with Rh and Ir42.11%8,998.11% higher
Arsenic7 minerals with Rh and As36.84%224.14% higher
Copper5 minerals with Rh and Cu26.32%110.60% higher
Iron4 minerals with Rh and Fe21.05%7.54% lower
Palladium4 minerals with Rh and Pd21.05%1,479.53% higher
Lead3 minerals with Rh and Pb15.79%65.30% higher
Nickel2 minerals with Rh and Ni10.53%224.93% higher
Ruthenium1 mineral with Rh and Ru5.26%2,087.04% higher
Antimony1 mineral with Rh and Sb5.26%7.70% higher
Periodic Table
1H 2He
3Li 4Be 5B 6C 7N 8O 9F 10Ne
11Na 12Mg 13Al 14Si 15P 16S 17Cl 18Ar
19K 20Ca 21Sc 22Ti 23V 24Cr 25Mn 26Fe 27Co 28Ni 29Cu 30Zn 31Ga 32Ge 33As 34Se 35Br 36Kr
37Rb 38Sr 39Y 40Zr 41Nb 42Mo 43Tc 44Ru 45Rh 46Pd 47Ag 48Cd 49In 50Sn 51Sb 52Te 53I 54Xe
55Cs 56Ba 57La 72Hf 73Ta 74W 75Re 76Os 77Ir 78Pt 79Au 80Hg 81Tl 82Pb 83Bi 84Po 85At 86Rn
87Fr 88Ra 89Ac 104Rd 105Db 106Sg 107Bh 108Hs 109Mt 110Ds 111Rg 112Cn 113Nh 114Fl 115Mc 116Lv 117Ts 118Og
 
58Ce 59Pr 60Nd 61Pm 62Sm 63Eu 64Gd 65Tb 66Dy 67Ho 68Er 69Tm 70Yb 71Lu
90Th 91Pa 92U 93Np 94Pu 95Am 96Cm 97Bk 98Cf 99Es 100Fm 101Md 102No 103Lr
Default Categories CPK Electronegativity Atomic Radius Lowest Oxidation Highest Oxidation Crustal Abundance Goldschmidt Mineral Species Minerals with Rh Relative Frequency
Ruthenium << Rhodium >> Palladium


Most widespread minerals containing Rhodium
This list of minerals containing Rhodium is built from the mindat.org locality database. This is based on the number of localities entered for mineral species and is therefore slanted towards minerals interesting to collectors with less coverage of common rock-forming-minerals so it does not give an undistorted distribution of Rhodium mineral species. It is more useful when comparing rare species rather than common species.
NameFormulaCrystal SystemMindat Localities
Hollingworthite(Rh,Pt,Pd)AsSIsometric105
Cuprorhodsite(Cu,Fe)Rh2S4Isometric27
Bowieite(Rh,Ir,Pt)2S3Orthorhombic20
Rhodium(Rh,Pt)Isometric18
CherepanoviteRhAsOrthorhombic11
MiassiteRh17S15Isometric9
Ferrorhodsite(Fe,Cu)(Rh,Ir,Pt)2S4Isometric6
Rhodarsenide(Rh,Pd)2AsOrthorhombic5
KonderiteCu3Pb(Rh,Pt,Ir)8S16Hexagonal4
PolkanoviteRh12As7Hexagonal4
Photos

Localities with greatest number of different Rhodium mineral species
map should go here
Mount Filipp, Kamchatka Oblast', Far-Eastern Region, Russia7 Rh minerals
2Maandagshoek farm, Bushveld Complex, Limpopo Province, South Africa6 Rh minerals
Miass River, Chelyabinsk Oblast', Southern Urals, Urals Region, Russia5 Rh minerals
Baimka placer deposit, Aluchinskii Massif (Aluchin horst), Baimka River, Bol'shoi Anyui River Basin, Kolyma area, Chukotskii Autonomous Okrug, Far-Eastern Region, Russia4 Rh minerals
5Kraubath an der Mur, Leoben, Styria, Austria4 Rh minerals
Bir Bir River, Yubdo District (Joubdo District; Youbdo District; Joubda District), Gimbi, Oromia Region (Oromiya Region), Ethiopia4 Rh minerals
7Kirakkajuppura PGE deposit, Sompujärvi Reef, Penikat complex, Lapland Region, Finland4 Rh minerals
8Konder alkaline-ultrabasic massif (Konder placers; Konder mine; Kondyor), Aldan shield, Ayan-Maya district, Khabarovskiy Kray, Far-Eastern Region, Russia4 Rh minerals


Spotted a mistake/omission? - These pages are a work in progress, so please send all comments/corrections to jolyon@mindat.org. Thank you.

Constants and physical property data from:

David R. Lide (ed.), CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 85th Edition. CRC Press. Boca Raton, Florida (2005).
Kaye and Laby Tables of Physical & Chemical Constants (2005). Section 3.1.3, Abundances of the elements
A. Earnshaw, N. Greenwood, Chemistry of the Elements, 2nd edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, (1997)
Thomas J. Ahrens (ed.), Global Earth Physics : A Handbook of Physical Constants, American Geophysical Union (1995)
L.B. Railsback, An Earth Scientist's Periodic Table of the Elements and Their Ions : Geology 31:9 p737-740 (2003)
Emsley, J. Nature's Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements. New York: Oxford University Press (2001)
Mineral and/or Locality  
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