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The Mineralogy of Rubidium

General Properties
Symbol:Rb
Atomic Number:37
Standard atomic weight (Ar):85.4678(3)
Electron configuration:[Kr] 5s1
Photos
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Rubidium metal sample
>
Atomic Properties
Electronegativity (Pauling scale):0.82
Atomic Radius:265 pm
Ionic Radius:152 pm (+1)
1st Ionization energy:403 kJ/mol
1st Electron affinity:-47 kJ/mol
Oxidation States:1
Physical Properties
Standard State:solid
Bonding Type:metallic
Melting Point:312 K
Boiling Point:961 K
Density:1.53 g/cm3
Metal/Non-Metal:alkali metal
Main isotopes of Rubidium
Isotope% in NatureHalf LifeDecay typeDecay product
83Rbsynthetic86.2dε83Kr
84Rbsynthetic32.9dε84Kr
β+84Kr
β−84Sr
85Rb72.17%stable
86Rbsynthetic18.65dβ−86Sr
87Rb27.83%4.9x1010β−87Sr
Main ions of Rubidium
NameIonExample minerals
rubidiumRb+Rubicline
Other Information
Year Discovered:1861
Discovered By:
Robert Bunsen and Gustav Kirchhoff
Named For:From Latin: rubidus - "deepest red"
CPK color coding:#702EB0
External Links:WikipediaWebElementsLos Alamos National LaboratoryTheodore Gray's PeriodicTable.com
Simple Compounds
Sulfidesdirubidium sulphideRb2S+1
dirubidium disulphideRb2S2+1
dirubidium trisulphideRb2S3+1
dirubidium hexaasulphideRb2S6+1
dirubidium pentasulphideRb2S5+1
Selenidesdirubidium selenideRb2Se+1
Telluridesdirubidium tellurideRb2Te+1
Hydridesrubidium hydrideHRb+1
Fluoridesrubidium fluorideRbF+1
Chloridesrubidium chlorideRbCl+1
Iodidesrubidium iodideRbI+1
Oxidesdirubidium oxideRb2O+1
rubidium superoxideRbO2+1
dirubidium peroxideRb2O2+1
Mineral Diversity of Rubidium
6. Borates1 valid mineral species
9. Silicates 1 valid mineral species
Total:2 valid species containing essential Rubidium
Geochemistry of Rubidium
Goldschmidt classification:Lithophile
Rb+ enters later phases in igneous rocks due to its large size.
Elemental Abundance for Rubidium
Crust (CRC Handbook)9.0 x 10-5mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Kaye & Laby)7.0 x 10-5mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Greenwood)7.8 x 10-5mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Ahrens/Taylor)3.2 x 10-5mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Ahrens/Wänke)7.90 x 10-5mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Ahrens/Weaver)6.1 x 10-5mass fraction, kg/kg
Upper Crust (Ahrens/Taylor)1.12 x 10-4mass fraction, kg/kg
Upper Crust (Ahrens/Shaw)1.10 x 10-4mass fraction, kg/kg
Sea Water (CRC Handbook)1.2 x 10-7mass per volume fraction, kg/L
Sea Water (Kaye & Laby)1.2 x 10-7mass per volume fraction, kg/L
The Sun (Kaye & Laby)1.1 x 10-5atom mole fraction relative to Si=1
Solar System (Kaye & Laby)7.0 x 10-6atom mole fraction relative to Si=1
Solar System (Ahrens)7.09 x 10-6 (6.6%)atom mole fraction relative to Si=1 (% uncertainty)
Element association of Rubidium in the Mineral World
This table compares the known valid mineral species listed listed with Rubidium and the other elements listed based on the official IMA formula. Note that unlike other sections on this page this includes non-essential elements.

The first data column contains the total number of minerals listed with Rubidium and the element listed for that row.

The second data column lists this number as a percentage of all minerals listed with Rubidium.

The final data column compares this percentage against the percentage of all minerals that contain the element listed in each row.

Click on a heading to sort.
ElementValid Minerals listed with element and Rubidium% of Rb mineralsRelative to % in all minerals
Oxygen11 minerals with Rb and O100.00%25.05% higher
Aluminium8 minerals with Rb and Al72.73%262.37% higher
Silicon7 minerals with Rb and Si63.64%125.54% higher
Hydrogen4 minerals with Rb and H36.36%34.80% lower
Lithium4 minerals with Rb and Li36.36%1,654.14% higher
Boron4 minerals with Rb and B36.36%600.42% higher
Fluorine4 minerals with Rb and F36.36%367.50% higher
Potassium3 minerals with Rb and K27.27%190.93% higher
Beryllium1 mineral with Rb and Be9.09%309.54% higher
Manganese1 mineral with Rb and Mn9.09%17.68% lower
Caesium1 mineral with Rb and Cs9.09%1,882.18% higher
Periodic Table
1H 2He
3Li 4Be 5B 6C 7N 8O 9F 10Ne
11Na 12Mg 13Al 14Si 15P 16S 17Cl 18Ar
19K 20Ca 21Sc 22Ti 23V 24Cr 25Mn 26Fe 27Co 28Ni 29Cu 30Zn 31Ga 32Ge 33As 34Se 35Br 36Kr
37Rb 38Sr 39Y 40Zr 41Nb 42Mo 43Tc 44Ru 45Rh 46Pd 47Ag 48Cd 49In 50Sn 51Sb 52Te 53I 54Xe
55Cs 56Ba 57La 72Hf 73Ta 74W 75Re 76Os 77Ir 78Pt 79Au 80Hg 81Tl 82Pb 83Bi 84Po 85At 86Rn
87Fr 88Ra 89Ac 104Rd 105Db 106Sg 107Bh 108Hs 109Mt 110Ds 111Rg 112Cn 113Nh 114Fl 115Mc 116Lv 117Ts 118Og
 
58Ce 59Pr 60Nd 61Pm 62Sm 63Eu 64Gd 65Tb 66Dy 67Ho 68Er 69Tm 70Yb 71Lu
90Th 91Pa 92U 93Np 94Pu 95Am 96Cm 97Bk 98Cf 99Es 100Fm 101Md 102No 103Lr
Default Categories CPK Electronegativity Atomic Radius Lowest Oxidation Highest Oxidation Crustal Abundance Goldschmidt Mineral Species Minerals with Rb Relative Frequency
Krypton << Rubidium >> Strontium


Most widespread minerals containing Rubidium
This list of minerals containing Rubidium is built from the mindat.org locality database. This is based on the number of localities entered for mineral species and is therefore slanted towards minerals interesting to collectors with less coverage of common rock-forming-minerals so it does not give an undistorted distribution of Rubidium mineral species. It is more useful when comparing rare species rather than common species.
NameFormulaCrystal SystemMindat Localities
RubiclineRb(AlSi3O8)Triclinic4
VoloshiniteRb(LiAl1.51.5)(Al0.5Si3.5)O10F2Monoclinic1
Ramanite-(Rb)Rb[B5O6(OH)4] · 2H2OOrthorhombic1
Photos

Localities with greatest number of different Rubidium mineral species
map should go here
3San Piero in Campo, Campo nell'Elba, Elba Island, Livorno Province, Tuscany, Italy2 Rb minerals
4Vasin-Myl'k Mt, Voron'i Tundry, Murmanskaya Oblast', Northern Region, Russia2 Rb minerals
7Red Cross Lake pegmatites, Red Cross Lake, Manitoba, Canada1 Rb minerals
Luolamäki, Somero, Southwestern Finland Region, Finland1 Rb minerals


Significant minerals containing Rubidium
NameFormulaCrystal System
Londonite(Cs,K,Rb)Al4Be4(B,Be)12O28Isometric
Masutomilite(K,Rb)(Li,Mn3+,Al)3(AlSi3O10)(F,OH)2Monoclinic
Ramanite-(Rb)Rb[B5O6(OH)4] · 2H2OOrthorhombic
RubiclineRb(AlSi3O8)Triclinic
Rubidian Muscovite(K,Rb)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Photos


Spotted a mistake/omission? - These pages are a work in progress, so please send all comments/corrections to jolyon@mindat.org. Thank you.

Constants and physical property data from:

David R. Lide (ed.), CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 85th Edition. CRC Press. Boca Raton, Florida (2005).
Kaye and Laby Tables of Physical & Chemical Constants (2005). Section 3.1.3, Abundances of the elements
A. Earnshaw, N. Greenwood, Chemistry of the Elements, 2nd edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, (1997)
Thomas J. Ahrens (ed.), Global Earth Physics : A Handbook of Physical Constants, American Geophysical Union (1995)
L.B. Railsback, An Earth Scientist's Periodic Table of the Elements and Their Ions : Geology 31:9 p737-740 (2003)
Emsley, J. Nature's Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements. New York: Oxford University Press (2001)
Mineral and/or Locality  
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