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The mineralogy of Ruthenium

General Properties
Atomic Number:44
Standard atomic weight (Ar):101.07(2)
Electron configuration:[Kr] 4d7 5s1
Pure ruthenium bar
Atomic Properties
Electronegativity (Pauling scale):2.2
Atomic Radius:178 pm
Ionic Radius:68 pm (+3)
1st Ionization energy:710 kJ/mol
1st Electron affinity:-101 kJ/mol
Oxidation States:-2,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8
Physical Properties
Standard State:solid
Bonding Type:metallic
Melting Point:2607 K
Boiling Point:4423 K
Density:12.37 g/cm3
Metal/Non-Metal:transition metal
Main isotopes of Ruthenium
Isotope% in NatureHalf LifeDecay typeDecay product
96Ru5.52%>6.7×1016yβ+β+ ?96Mo
98Ru1.88%-Spontaneous fission ?
99Ru12.7%-Spontaneous fission ?
100Ru12.6%-Spontaneous fission ?
101Ru17%-Spontaneous fission ?
102Ru31.6%-Spontaneous fission ?
104Ru18.7%-β-β- ?104Pd
Main ions of Ruthenium
NameIonExample minerals
Other Information
Year Discovered:1844
Discovered By:
Karl Ernst Claus
Year Isolated:1844
Isolated By:Karl Ernst Claus
Named For:
after Ruthenia (Latin for: medieval Kyivska Rus' region)
CPK color coding:#248F8F
External Links:WikipediaWebElementsLos Alamos National LaboratoryTheodore Gray's
Simple Compounds and Mineral Names
Sulfidesruthenium disulphideRuS2+4Laurite
Selenidesruthenium diselenideRuSe2+4
Telluridesruthenium ditellurideRuTe2+4
Fluoridesruthenium trifluorideRuF3+3
ruthenium hexafluorideRuF6+6
ruthenium tetrafluorideRuF4+4
Chloridesruthenium dichlorideRuCl2+2
ruthenium trichlorideRuCl3+3
Bromidesruthenium tribromideRuBr3+3
Iodidesruthenium diiodideRuI2+2
ruthenium triiodideRuI3+3
Oxidesruthenium dioxideRuO2+4
ruthenium tetraoxideRuO4+8
Mineral Diversity of Ruthenium
1. Elements 1 valid mineral species
2. Sulfides And Sulfosalts 4 valid mineral species
Total:5 valid species containing essential Ruthenium
Geochemistry of Ruthenium
Goldschmidt classification:Siderophile
Ru3+ is enriched in Ca-Al-rich inclusions in meteorites relative to the composition of the solar system.
Ru4+ is enriched in Ca-Al-rich inclusions in meteorites relative to the composition of the solar system.
Elemental Abundance for Ruthenium
Crust (CRC Handbook)1 x 10-9mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Greenwood)1 x 10-10mass fraction, kg/kg
Sea Water (CRC Handbook)7 x 10-13mass per volume fraction, kg/L
The Sun (Kaye & Laby)1.9 x 10-6atom mole fraction relative to Si=1
Solar System (Kaye & Laby)1.9 x 10-6atom mole fraction relative to Si=1
Solar System (Ahrens)1.86 x 10-6 (5.4%)atom mole fraction relative to Si=1 (% uncertainty)
Element association of Ruthenium in the Mineral World
This table compares the known valid mineral species listed listed with Ruthenium and the other elements listed based on the official IMA formula. Note that unlike other sections on this page this includes non-essential elements.

The first data column contains the total number of minerals listed with Ruthenium and the element listed for that row.

The second data column lists this number as a percentage of all minerals listed with Ruthenium.

The final data column compares this percentage against the percentage of all minerals that contain the element listed in each row.

Click on a heading to sort.
ElementValid Minerals listed with element and Ruthenium% of Ru mineralsRelative to % in all minerals
Osmium20 minerals with Ru and Os54.05%38,001.35% higher
Arsenic20 minerals with Ru and As54.05%357.67% higher
Iridium18 minerals with Ru and Ir48.65%13,616.49% higher
Sulfur12 minerals with Ru and S32.43%60.71% higher
Iron6 minerals with Ru and Fe16.22%23.35% lower
Nickel3 minerals with Ru and Ni8.11%172.15% higher
Molybdenum3 minerals with Ru and Mo8.11%572.38% higher
Rhodium3 minerals with Ru and Rh8.11%2,589.51% higher
Platinum3 minerals with Ru and Pt8.11%1,206.33% higher
Periodic Table
1H 2He
3Li 4Be 5B 6C 7N 8O 9F 10Ne
11Na 12Mg 13Al 14Si 15P 16S 17Cl 18Ar
19K 20Ca 21Sc 22Ti 23V 24Cr 25Mn 26Fe 27Co 28Ni 29Cu 30Zn 31Ga 32Ge 33As 34Se 35Br 36Kr
37Rb 38Sr 39Y 40Zr 41Nb 42Mo 43Tc 44Ru 45Rh 46Pd 47Ag 48Cd 49In 50Sn 51Sb 52Te 53I 54Xe
55Cs 56Ba 57La 72Hf 73Ta 74W 75Re 76Os 77Ir 78Pt 79Au 80Hg 81Tl 82Pb 83Bi 84Po 85At 86Rn
87Fr 88Ra 89Ac 104Rd 105Db 106Sg 107Bh 108Hs 109Mt 110Ds 111Rg 112Cn 113Nh 114Fl 115Mc 116Lv 117Ts 118Og
58Ce 59Pr 60Nd 61Pm 62Sm 63Eu 64Gd 65Tb 66Dy 67Ho 68Er 69Tm 70Yb 71Lu
90Th 91Pa 92U 93Np 94Pu 95Am 96Cm 97Bk 98Cf 99Es 100Fm 101Md 102No 103Lr
Default Categories CPK Electronegativity Atomic Radius Lowest Oxidation Highest Oxidation Crustal Abundance Goldschmidt Mineral Species Minerals with Ru Relative Frequency
Technetium << Ruthenium >> Rhodium

Most widespread minerals containing Ruthenium
This list of minerals containing Ruthenium is built from the locality database. This is based on the number of localities entered for mineral species and is therefore slanted towards minerals interesting to collectors with less coverage of common rock-forming-minerals so it does not give an undistorted distribution of Ruthenium mineral species. It is more useful when comparing rare species rather than common species.
NameFormulaCrystal SystemMindat Localities

Localities with greatest number of different Ruthenium mineral species
map should go here
Anduo Cr deposit, Amdo Co. (Anduo Co.), Nagchu Prefecture (Naqu Prefecture), Tibet, China3 Ru minerals
Kubli Ranch placer, Applegate Mining District, Jackson Co., Oregon, USA3 Ru minerals
4Driekop mine, Sekhukhuneland, Burgersfort, Sekhukhune District, Limpopo, South Africa3 Ru minerals
5Onverwacht Mine, Steelpoort, Sekhukhune District, Limpopo, South Africa3 Ru minerals
Luobusha ophiolite ("Luobusa ophiolite"), Qusum Co. (Qusong Co.), Shannan Prefecture (Lhokha Prefecture; Lhoka Prefecture), Tibet, China3 Ru minerals
7Tweefontein Farm, Mokopane (Potgietersrus), Mogalakwena, Waterberg District, Limpopo, South Africa3 Ru minerals
Kapitanov Cr deposit, Zvenyhorodka, Cherkasy Oblast, Ukraine3 Ru minerals

Spotted a mistake/omission? - These pages are a work in progress, so please send all comments/corrections to Thank you.

Constants and physical property data from:

David R. Lide (ed.), CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 85th Edition. CRC Press. Boca Raton, Florida (2005).
Kaye and Laby Tables of Physical & Chemical Constants (2005). Section 3.1.3, Abundances of the elements
A. Earnshaw, N. Greenwood, Chemistry of the Elements, 2nd edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, (1997)
Thomas J. Ahrens (ed.), Global Earth Physics : A Handbook of Physical Constants, American Geophysical Union (1995)
L.B. Railsback, An Earth Scientist's Periodic Table of the Elements and Their Ions : Geology 31:9 p737-740 (2003)
Emsley, J. Nature's Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements. New York: Oxford University Press (2001)
Mineral and/or Locality  
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