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The Mineralogy of Samarium

General Properties
Atomic Number:62
Standard atomic weight (Ar):150.36(2)
Electron configuration:[Xe] 4f6 6s2
Ultrapure sublimated samarium
Atomic Properties
Electronegativity (Pauling scale):1.17
Atomic Radius:238 pm
Ionic Radius:122 pm (+2)
1st Ionization energy:545 kJ/mol
1st Electron affinity:-50 kJ/mol
Oxidation States:2,3
Physical Properties
Standard State:solid
Bonding Type:metallic
Melting Point:1345 K
Boiling Point:2076 K
Density:7.35 g/cm3
Main isotopes of Samarium
Isotope% in NatureHalf LifeDecay typeDecay product
144Sm3.07%-β+β+ ?144Nd
α ?140Nd
149Sm13.82%>2x1015yα ?145Nd
150Sm7.38%-α ?146Nd
152Smsynthetic-α ?148Nd
154Sm22.75%>2.3x1018yβ-β- ?154Gd
Main ions of Samarium
NameIonExample minerals
Other Information
Year Discovered:1879
Discovered By:
Lecoq de Boisbaudran
Year Isolated:1879
Isolated By:Lecoq de Boisbaudran
Named For:
after the mineral samarskite
CPK color coding:#8FFFC7
External Links:WikipediaWebElementsLos Alamos National LaboratoryTheodore Gray's PeriodicTable.com
Simple Compounds
Sulfidessamarium sulfideSmS+2
disamarium trisulfideSm2S3+3
Selenidessamarium selenideSmSe+2
disamarium triselenideSm2Se3
Telluridessamarium tellurideSmTe+2
disamarium tritellurideSm2Te3+3
Hydroxidessamarium hydroxideSm(OH)3+3
Fluoridessamarium difluorideSmF2+2
samarium trifluorideSmF3+3
Chloridessamarium dichlorideSmCl2+2
samarium trichlorideSmCl3+3
Bromidessamarium tribromideSmBr3+3
Iodidessamarium diiodideSmI2+2
samarium triiodideSmI3+3
Oxidesdisamarium trioxideSm2O3+3
Carbonatessamarium carbonateSm2(CO3)3+3
Boratessamarium borateSmBO3+3
Nitratessamarium nitrateSm(NO3)3+3
samarium nitrate hexahydrateSm(NO3)3 · 6H2O+3
Sulfatessamarium sulfateSm2(SO4)3+3
samarium sulfate octahydrateSm2(SO4)3 · 8H2O+3
Phosphatessamarium phosphateSmPO4+3
Mineral Diversity of Samarium
8. Phosphates, Arsenates, Vanadates2 valid mineral species
Total:2 valid species containing essential Samarium
Geochemistry of Samarium
Goldschmidt classification:Lithophile
Sm3+ was one of the ions least depleted from the mantle in the formation of the crust.
Sm3+ is enriched in Ca-Al-rich inclusions in meteorites relative to the composition of the solar system.
Sm3+ is concentrated in residual soils and sediments (less certainty.)
Elemental Abundance for Samarium
Crust (CRC Handbook)7.05 x 10-6mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Kaye & Laby)7.7 x 10-6mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Greenwood)7.0 x 10-6mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Ahrens/Taylor)3.500 x 10-6mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Ahrens/Wänke)5.590 x 10-6mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Ahrens/Weaver)4.100 x 10-6mass fraction, kg/kg
Upper Crust (Ahrens/Taylor)4.500 x 10-6mass fraction, kg/kg
Upper Crust (Ahrens/Shaw)4.500 x 10-6mass fraction, kg/kg
Sea Water (CRC Handbook)4.5 x 10-13mass per volume fraction, kg/L
Sea Water (Kaye & Laby)4.5 x 10-13mass per volume fraction, kg/L
The Sun (Kaye & Laby)3.0 x 10-7atom mole fraction relative to Si=1
Solar System (Kaye & Laby)2.6 x 10-7atom mole fraction relative to Si=1
Solar System (Ahrens)2.582 x 10-7 (1.3%)atom mole fraction relative to Si=1 (% uncertainty)
Element association of Samarium in the Mineral World
This table compares the known valid mineral species listed listed with Samarium and the other elements listed based on the official IMA formula. Note that unlike other sections on this page this includes non-essential elements.

The first data column contains the total number of minerals listed with Samarium and the element listed for that row.

The second data column lists this number as a percentage of all minerals listed with Samarium.

The final data column compares this percentage against the percentage of all minerals that contain the element listed in each row.

Click on a heading to sort.
ElementValid Minerals listed with element and Samarium% of Sm mineralsRelative to % in all minerals
Oxygen10 minerals with Sm and O100.00%25.19% higher
Phosphorus7 minerals with Sm and P70.00%498.73% higher
Hydrogen7 minerals with Sm and H70.00%25.65% higher
Neodymium4 minerals with Sm and Nd40.00%6,721.25% higher
Carbon3 minerals with Sm and C30.00%287.02% higher
Aluminium3 minerals with Sm and Al30.00%49.64% higher
Yttrium2 minerals with Sm and Y20.00%739.54% higher
Gadolinium2 minerals with Sm and Gd20.00%109,040.00% higher
Uranium2 minerals with Sm and U20.00%285.65% higher
Cerium2 minerals with Sm and Ce20.00%582.13% higher
Praseodymium1 mineral with Sm and Pr10.00%27,185.00% higher
Copper1 mineral with Sm and Cu10.00%23.57% lower
Lead1 mineral with Sm and Pb10.00%1.85% lower
Calcium1 mineral with Sm and Ca10.00%58.97% lower
Thorium1 mineral with Sm and Th10.00%1,299.23% higher
Lanthanum1 mineral with Sm and La10.00%780.16% higher
Periodic Table
1H 2He
3Li 4Be 5B 6C 7N 8O 9F 10Ne
11Na 12Mg 13Al 14Si 15P 16S 17Cl 18Ar
19K 20Ca 21Sc 22Ti 23V 24Cr 25Mn 26Fe 27Co 28Ni 29Cu 30Zn 31Ga 32Ge 33As 34Se 35Br 36Kr
37Rb 38Sr 39Y 40Zr 41Nb 42Mo 43Tc 44Ru 45Rh 46Pd 47Ag 48Cd 49In 50Sn 51Sb 52Te 53I 54Xe
55Cs 56Ba 57La 72Hf 73Ta 74W 75Re 76Os 77Ir 78Pt 79Au 80Hg 81Tl 82Pb 83Bi 84Po 85At 86Rn
87Fr 88Ra 89Ac 104Rd 105Db 106Sg 107Bh 108Hs 109Mt 110Ds 111Rg 112Cn 113Nh 114Fl 115Mc 116Lv 117Ts 118Og
58Ce 59Pr 60Nd 61Pm 62Sm 63Eu 64Gd 65Tb 66Dy 67Ho 68Er 69Tm 70Yb 71Lu
90Th 91Pa 92U 93Np 94Pu 95Am 96Cm 97Bk 98Cf 99Es 100Fm 101Md 102No 103Lr
Default Categories CPK Electronegativity Atomic Radius Lowest Oxidation Highest Oxidation Crustal Abundance Goldschmidt Mineral Species Minerals with Sm Relative Frequency
Promethium << Samarium >> Europium

Most widespread minerals containing Samarium
This list of minerals containing Samarium is built from the mindat.org locality database. This is based on the number of localities entered for mineral species and is therefore slanted towards minerals interesting to collectors with less coverage of common rock-forming-minerals so it does not give an undistorted distribution of Samarium mineral species. It is more useful when comparing rare species rather than common species.
NameFormulaCrystal SystemMindat Localities

Localities with greatest number of different Samarium mineral species
map should go here
5Svodovyi area, Grubependity Lake, Maldynyrd range (Maldy-nyrd range), Kozhim River Basin, Komi Republic, Russia1 Sm minerals
2Annie Claim #3 pegmatite, Greer Lake, Lac-du-Bonnet area, Manitoba, Canada1 Sm minerals
Belaya Zima REE-Nb deposit, Eastern Sayan, Sayan Mts, Tuva, Russia1 Sm minerals
4Brown Derby No. 1, Brown Derby Mine, Quartz Creek Pegmatite District, Gunnison Co., Colorado, USA1 Sm minerals
6Sierra de Cobres, Cobres, La Poma department, Salta, Argentina1 Sm minerals
La Poma Department, Salta, Argentina1 Sm minerals

Spotted a mistake/omission? - These pages are a work in progress, so please send all comments/corrections to jolyon@mindat.org. Thank you.

Constants and physical property data from:

David R. Lide (ed.), CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 85th Edition. CRC Press. Boca Raton, Florida (2005).
Kaye and Laby Tables of Physical & Chemical Constants (2005). Section 3.1.3, Abundances of the elements
A. Earnshaw, N. Greenwood, Chemistry of the Elements, 2nd edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, (1997)
Thomas J. Ahrens (ed.), Global Earth Physics : A Handbook of Physical Constants, American Geophysical Union (1995)
L.B. Railsback, An Earth Scientist's Periodic Table of the Elements and Their Ions : Geology 31:9 p737-740 (2003)
Emsley, J. Nature's Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements. New York: Oxford University Press (2001)
Mineral and/or Locality  
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