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The Mineralogy of Sodium

General Properties
Atomic Number:11
Standard atomic weight (Ar):22.98976928(2)
Electron configuration:[Ne] 3s1
Atomic Properties
Electronegativity (Pauling scale):0.93
Atomic Radius:190 pm
Ionic Radius:102 pm (+1)
Van der Waals Radius:227 pm
1st Ionization energy:496 kJ/mol
1st Electron affinity:-53 kJ/mol
Oxidation States:-1,1
Physical Properties
Standard State:solid
Bonding Type:metallic
Melting Point:371 K
Boiling Point:1156 K
Density:0.97 g/cm3
Metal/Non-Metal:alkali metal
Main isotopes of Sodium
Isotope% in NatureHalf LifeDecay typeDecay product
Main ions of Sodium
NameIonExample minerals
Other Information
Year Discovered:1807
Discovered By:
Humphry Davy
Named For:From the English "soda"
CPK color coding:#AB5CF2
External Links:WikipediaWebElementsLos Alamos National LaboratoryTheodore Gray's
Simple Compounds and Mineral Names
Sulfidesdisodium sulphideNa2S+1
disodium persulphideNa2S2+1
disodium trisulphideNa2S3+1
disodium hexasulphideNa2S6+1
disodium tetrasulphideNa2S4+1
disodium pentasulphideNa2S5+1
disodium sulphide pentahydrateNa2S · 5H2O+1
disodium sulphide nonahydrateNa2S · 9H2O+1
Selenidesdisodium selenideNa2Se+1
Telluridesdisodium tellurideNa2Te+1
Hydridessodium hydrideNaH+1
Fluoridessodium fluorideNaF+1Villiaumite
Chloridessodium chlorideNaCl+1Halite
Iodidessodium iodideNaI+1
Oxidesdisodium oxideNa2O+1
sodium peroxideNa2O2+1
sodium superoxideNaO2+1
Mineral Diversity of Sodium
2. Sulfides And Sulfosalts 8 valid mineral species
3. Halides27 valid mineral species
4. Oxides 35 valid mineral species
5. Carbonates 60 valid mineral species
6. Borates21 valid mineral species
7. Sulfates 64 valid mineral species
8. Phosphates, Arsenates, Vanadates123 valid mineral species
9. Silicates 428 valid mineral species
10. Organic Compounds6 valid mineral species
Total:772 valid species containing essential Sodium
Geochemistry of Sodium
Goldschmidt classification:Lithophile
Na+ is one of the eight most abundant solutes in average river water.
Elemental Abundance for Sodium
Crust (CRC Handbook)2.36 x 10-2mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Kaye & Laby)2.3 x 10-2mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Greenwood)2.2700 x 10-2mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Ahrens/Taylor)2.3000 x 10-2mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Ahrens/Wänke)2.4400 x 10-2mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Ahrens/Weaver)3.1000 x 10-2mass fraction, kg/kg
Upper Crust (Ahrens/Taylor)2.89 x 10-2mass fraction, kg/kg
Upper Crust (Ahrens/Shaw)2.57 x 10-2mass fraction, kg/kg
Sea Water (CRC Handbook)1.08 x 10-2mass per volume fraction, kg/L
Sea Water (Kaye & Laby)1.1 x 10-2mass per volume fraction, kg/L
The Sun (Kaye & Laby)6.0 x 10-2atom mole fraction relative to Si=1
Solar System (Kaye & Laby)5.7 x 10-2atom mole fraction relative to Si=1
Solar System (Ahrens)5.74 x 10-2 (7.1%)atom mole fraction relative to Si=1 (% uncertainty)
Element association of Sodium in the Mineral World
This table compares the known valid mineral species listed listed with Sodium and the other elements listed based on the official IMA formula. Note that unlike other sections on this page this includes non-essential elements.

The first data column contains the total number of minerals listed with Sodium and the element listed for that row.

The second data column lists this number as a percentage of all minerals listed with Sodium.

The final data column compares this percentage against the percentage of all minerals that contain the element listed in each row.

Click on a heading to sort.
ElementValid Minerals listed with element and Sodium% of Na mineralsRelative to % in all minerals
Oxygen997 minerals with Na and O97.75%27.81% higher
Hydrogen678 minerals with Na and H66.47%23.40% higher
Silicon590 minerals with Na and Si57.84%108.10% higher
Calcium415 minerals with Na and Ca40.69%65.14% higher
Aluminium319 minerals with Na and Al31.27%57.31% higher
Iron258 minerals with Na and Fe25.29%10.68% higher
Potassium244 minerals with Na and K23.92%146.64% higher
Fluorine205 minerals with Na and F20.10%140.91% higher
Magnesium192 minerals with Na and Mg18.82%36.53% higher
Manganese167 minerals with Na and Mn16.37%41.44% higher
Titanium160 minerals with Na and Ti15.69%126.94% higher
Phosphorus141 minerals with Na and P13.82%25.04% higher
Sulfur132 minerals with Na and S12.94%33.86% lower
Carbon104 minerals with Na and C10.20%37.53% higher
Chlorine98 minerals with Na and Cl9.61%27.36% higher
Barium82 minerals with Na and Ba8.04%73.07% higher
Zirconium80 minerals with Na and Zr7.84%224.71% higher
Niobium78 minerals with Na and Nb7.65%126.13% higher
Strontium71 minerals with Na and Sr6.96%146.47% higher
Boron68 minerals with Na and B6.67%30.95% higher
Cerium54 minerals with Na and Ce5.29%60.07% higher
Lithium54 minerals with Na and Li5.29%135.48% higher
Arsenic43 minerals with Na and As4.22%63.05% lower
Copper39 minerals with Na and Cu3.82%69.51% lower
Yttrium33 minerals with Na and Y3.24%23.49% higher
Beryllium31 minerals with Na and Be3.04%36.31% higher
Vanadium29 minerals with Na and V2.84%31.38% lower
Uranium29 minerals with Na and U2.84%40.69% lower
Zinc25 minerals with Na and Zn2.45%54.20% lower
Lanthanum20 minerals with Na and La1.96%14.71% higher
Nitrogen14 minerals with Na and N1.37%28.28% lower
Lead13 minerals with Na and Pb1.27%86.71% lower
Antimony13 minerals with Na and Sb1.27%74.02% lower
Chromium12 minerals with Na and Cr1.18%28.86% lower
Thorium10 minerals with Na and Th0.98%9.93% higher
Tantalum10 minerals with Na and Ta0.98%27.72% lower
Molybdenum9 minerals with Na and Mo0.88%23.41% lower
Caesium8 minerals with Na and Cs0.78%75.88% higher
Neodymium6 minerals with Na and Nd0.59%39.12% lower
Tungsten5 minerals with Na and W0.49%35.65% lower
Bismuth4 minerals with Na and Bi0.39%90.41% lower
Iodine4 minerals with Na and I0.39%15.58% lower
Tin3 minerals with Na and Sn0.29%84.01% lower
Cobalt3 minerals with Na and Co0.29%79.17% lower
Selenium3 minerals with Na and Se0.29%87.44% lower
Nickel2 minerals with Na and Ni0.20%93.97% lower
Gadolinium1 mineral with Na and Gd0.10%12.06% lower
Tellurium1 mineral with Na and Te0.10%96.78% lower
Praseodymium1 mineral with Na and Pr0.10%163.82% higher
Scandium1 mineral with Na and Sc0.10%67.02% lower
Dysprosium1 mineral with Na and Dy0.10%31.91% higher
Periodic Table
1H 2He
3Li 4Be 5B 6C 7N 8O 9F 10Ne
11Na 12Mg 13Al 14Si 15P 16S 17Cl 18Ar
19K 20Ca 21Sc 22Ti 23V 24Cr 25Mn 26Fe 27Co 28Ni 29Cu 30Zn 31Ga 32Ge 33As 34Se 35Br 36Kr
37Rb 38Sr 39Y 40Zr 41Nb 42Mo 43Tc 44Ru 45Rh 46Pd 47Ag 48Cd 49In 50Sn 51Sb 52Te 53I 54Xe
55Cs 56Ba 57La 72Hf 73Ta 74W 75Re 76Os 77Ir 78Pt 79Au 80Hg 81Tl 82Pb 83Bi 84Po 85At 86Rn
87Fr 88Ra 89Ac 104Rd 105Db 106Sg 107Bh 108Hs 109Mt 110Ds 111Rg 112Cn 113Nh 114Fl 115Mc 116Lv 117Ts 118Og
58Ce 59Pr 60Nd 61Pm 62Sm 63Eu 64Gd 65Tb 66Dy 67Ho 68Er 69Tm 70Yb 71Lu
90Th 91Pa 92U 93Np 94Pu 95Am 96Cm 97Bk 98Cf 99Es 100Fm 101Md 102No 103Lr
Default Categories CPK Electronegativity Atomic Radius Lowest Oxidation Highest Oxidation Crustal Abundance Goldschmidt Mineral Species Minerals with Na Relative Frequency
Neon << Sodium >> Magnesium

Most widespread minerals containing Sodium
This list of minerals containing Sodium is built from the locality database. This is based on the number of localities entered for mineral species and is therefore slanted towards minerals interesting to collectors with less coverage of common rock-forming-minerals so it does not give an undistorted distribution of Sodium mineral species. It is more useful when comparing rare species rather than common species.
NameFormulaCrystal SystemMindat Localities
AnalcimeNa(AlSi2O6) · H2OTriclinic1582
Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2OMonoclinic1361
NatroliteNa2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2OOrthorhombic1197

Localities with greatest number of different Sodium mineral species
map should go here
1Poudrette quarry (Demix quarry; Uni-Mix quarry; Carrière Mont Saint-Hilaire; MSH), Mont Saint-Hilaire, La Vallée-du-Richelieu RCM, Montérégie, Québec, Canada187 Na minerals
2Alluaiv Mt, Lovozero Massif, Murmanskaya Oblast', Northern Region, Russia72 Na minerals
Ilímaussaq complex, Narsaq, Kujalleq, Greenland72 Na minerals
Kukisvumchorr Mt, Khibiny Massif, Murmanskaya Oblast', Northern Region, Russia68 Na minerals
5Koashva Open Pit (Vostochnyi Mine), Koashva Mt, Khibiny Massif, Murmanskaya Oblast', Northern Region, Russia64 Na minerals
6Demix-Varennes quarry, Saint-Amable sill, Varennes & St-Amable, Lajemmerais RCM, Montérégie, Québec, Canada57 Na minerals
7Karnasurt Mt, Lovozero Massif, Murmanskaya Oblast', Northern Region, Russia55 Na minerals
8Kirovskii apatite mine (Kirovsky Mine; Kirovskii Mine; Kirov Mine), Kukisvumchorr Mt, Khibiny Massif, Murmanskaya Oblast', Northern Region, Russia54 Na minerals

Spotted a mistake/omission? - These pages are a work in progress, so please send all comments/corrections to Thank you.

Constants and physical property data from:

David R. Lide (ed.), CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 85th Edition. CRC Press. Boca Raton, Florida (2005).
Kaye and Laby Tables of Physical & Chemical Constants (2005). Section 3.1.3, Abundances of the elements
A. Earnshaw, N. Greenwood, Chemistry of the Elements, 2nd edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, (1997)
Thomas J. Ahrens (ed.), Global Earth Physics : A Handbook of Physical Constants, American Geophysical Union (1995)
L.B. Railsback, An Earth Scientist's Periodic Table of the Elements and Their Ions : Geology 31:9 p737-740 (2003)
Emsley, J. Nature's Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements. New York: Oxford University Press (2001)
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