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The Mineralogy of Titanium

General Properties
Symbol:Ti
Atomic Number:22
Standard atomic weight (Ar):47.867(1)
Electron configuration:[Ar] 3d2 4s2
Photos
<
Titanium crystal bar
>
Atomic Properties
Electronegativity (Pauling scale):1.54
Atomic Radius:176 pm
Ionic Radius:86 pm (+2)
1st Ionization energy:659 kJ/mol
1st Electron affinity:-8 kJ/mol
Oxidation States:-1,2,3,4
Physical Properties
Standard State:solid
Bonding Type:metallic
Melting Point:1941 K
Boiling Point:3560 K
Density:4.51 g/cm3
Metal/Non-Metal:transition metal
Main isotopes of Titanium
Isotope% in NatureHalf LifeDecay typeDecay product
44Tisynthetic63yε44Sc
46Ti8.0%stable
47Ti7.3%stable
48Ti73.8%stable
49Ti5.5%stable
50Ti5.4%stable
Main ions of Titanium
NameIonExample minerals
titanium(III)Ti3+
titanium(IV)Ti4+
titanateTiO32-Perovskite
Other Information
Year Discovered:1791
Discovered By:
William Gregor
Year Isolated:1825
Isolated By:
Jöns Jakob Berzelius
Named For:Titans of Greek mythology
CPK color coding:#BFC2C7
External Links:WikipediaWebElementsLos Alamos National LaboratoryTheodore Gray's PeriodicTable.com
Simple Compounds and Mineral Names
Nitridestitanium nitrideTiN+3Osbornite
Sulfidestitanium sulphideTiS+2Wassonite
titanium disulphideTiS2+4
dititanium trisulphideTi2S3+3
Hydridestitanium dihydrideTiH2+2
Fluoridestitanium difluorideTiF2+2
titanium trifluorideTiF3+3
titanium tetrafluorideTiF4+4
Chloridestitanium dichlorideTiCl2+2
titanium trichlorideTiCl3+3
titanium tetrachlorideTiCl4+4
Bromidestitanium tribromideTiBr3+3
titanium tetrabromideTiBr4+4
Iodidestitanium diiodideTiI2+2
titanium triiodideTiI3+3
titanium tetraiodideTiI4+4
Oxidestitanium oxideTiO+2Akaogiite, Anatase, Brookite, Rutile
titanium dioxideTiO2+4
dititanium trioxideTi2O3+3
trititanium pentoxideTi3O5+3,+4
Titanium as a chromophore in minerals and gems
ChromophoreDescription
Fe2+ - Ti4+ IVCTIntervalence Charge Transfer - brown to brownish-red colouration eg in some dravite and neptunite (where the reddish tint is more noticeable in thin section.
Ti3+ - Ti4+ IVCTSimilar to above, orange-red colour in some dravite.
Mineral Diversity of Titanium
1. Elements 5 valid mineral species
2. Sulfides And Sulfosalts 1 valid mineral species
4. Oxides 80 valid mineral species
5. Carbonates 1 valid mineral species
6. Borates1 valid mineral species
7. Sulfates 1 valid mineral species
8. Phosphates, Arsenates, Vanadates4 valid mineral species
9. Silicates 163 valid mineral species
Total:256 valid species containing essential Titanium
Geochemistry of Titanium
Goldschmidt classification:Lithophile
Ti3+ is enriched in Ca-Al-rich inclusions in meteorites relative to the composition of the solar system.
Ti4+ enters early-forming phases in igneous rocks.
Ti4+ is commonly concentrated in residual soils and sediments.
Ti4+ is concentrated in deep-sea ferromanganese nodules relative to seawater.
Elemental Abundance for Titanium
Crust (CRC Handbook)5.65 x 10-3mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Kaye & Laby)8.6 x 10-3mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Greenwood)6.320 x 10-3mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Ahrens/Taylor)5.400 x 10-3mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Ahrens/Wänke)5.250 x 10-3mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Ahrens/Weaver)3.600 x 10-3mass fraction, kg/kg
Upper Crust (Ahrens/Taylor)3.000 x 10-3mass fraction, kg/kg
Upper Crust (Ahrens/Shaw)3.120 x 10-3mass fraction, kg/kg
Sea Water (CRC Handbook)1 x 10-9mass per volume fraction, kg/L
Sea Water (Kaye & Laby)1 x 10-9mass per volume fraction, kg/L
The Sun (Kaye & Laby)2.7 x 10-3atom mole fraction relative to Si=1
Solar System (Kaye & Laby)2.4 x 10-3atom mole fraction relative to Si=1
Solar System (Ahrens)2.40 x 10-3 (5.0%)atom mole fraction relative to Si=1 (% uncertainty)
Element association of Titanium in the Mineral World
This table compares the known valid mineral species listed listed with Titanium and the other elements listed based on the official IMA formula. Note that unlike other sections on this page this includes non-essential elements.

The first data column contains the total number of minerals listed with Titanium and the element listed for that row.

The second data column lists this number as a percentage of all minerals listed with Titanium.

The final data column compares this percentage against the percentage of all minerals that contain the element listed in each row.

Click on a heading to sort.
ElementValid Minerals listed with element and Titanium% of Ti mineralsRelative to % in all minerals
Oxygen1097 minerals with Ti and O98.12%22.46% higher
Silicon692 minerals with Ti and Si61.90%118.93% higher
Hydrogen599 minerals with Ti and H53.58%4.12% lower
Sodium490 minerals with Ti and Na43.83%128.82% higher
Iron458 minerals with Ti and Fe40.97%86.80% higher
Calcium347 minerals with Ti and Ca31.04%26.95% higher
Niobium254 minerals with Ti and Nb22.72%667.65% higher
Potassium234 minerals with Ti and K20.93%122.82% higher
Fluorine224 minerals with Ti and F20.04%157.06% higher
Barium217 minerals with Ti and Ba19.41%324.05% higher
Manganese206 minerals with Ti and Mn18.43%66.51% higher
Magnesium156 minerals with Ti and Mg13.95%5.72% higher
Aluminium130 minerals with Ti and Al11.63%42.18% lower
Cerium118 minerals with Ti and Ce10.55%258.86% higher
Zirconium103 minerals with Ti and Zr9.21%300.94% higher
Yttrium96 minerals with Ti and Y8.59%259.32% higher
Strontium86 minerals with Ti and Sr7.69%201.05% higher
Vanadium54 minerals with Ti and V4.83%7.69% higher
Zinc53 minerals with Ti and Zn4.74%9.19% lower
Uranium53 minerals with Ti and U4.74%8.87% lower
Phosphorus53 minerals with Ti and P4.74%59.58% lower
Chromium51 minerals with Ti and Cr4.56%155.83% higher
Lithium46 minerals with Ti and Li4.11%98.08% higher
Tantalum40 minerals with Ti and Ta3.58%199.44% higher
Chlorine39 minerals with Ti and Cl3.49%52.91% lower
Thorium35 minerals with Ti and Th3.13%336.68% higher
Boron34 minerals with Ti and B3.04%41.54% lower
Lead34 minerals with Ti and Pb3.04%70.24% lower
Lanthanum33 minerals with Ti and La2.95%158.99% higher
Arsenic32 minerals with Ti and As2.86%76.62% lower
Carbon18 minerals with Ti and C1.61%79.29% lower
Antimony16 minerals with Ti and Sb1.43%70.95% lower
Sulfur16 minerals with Ti and S1.43%93.16% lower
Beryllium15 minerals with Ti and Be1.34%39.68% lower
Neodymium10 minerals with Ti and Nd0.89%52.06% higher
Caesium8 minerals with Ti and Cs0.72%55.71% higher
Scandium6 minerals with Ti and Sc0.54%53.66% higher
Copper6 minerals with Ti and Cu0.54%95.91% lower
Tellurium5 minerals with Ti and Te0.45%85.77% lower
Tin5 minerals with Ti and Sn0.45%74.92% lower
Nitrogen3 minerals with Ti and N0.27%87.63% lower
Tungsten3 minerals with Ti and W0.27%67.56% lower
Periodic Table
1H 2He
3Li 4Be 5B 6C 7N 8O 9F 10Ne
11Na 12Mg 13Al 14Si 15P 16S 17Cl 18Ar
19K 20Ca 21Sc 22Ti 23V 24Cr 25Mn 26Fe 27Co 28Ni 29Cu 30Zn 31Ga 32Ge 33As 34Se 35Br 36Kr
37Rb 38Sr 39Y 40Zr 41Nb 42Mo 43Tc 44Ru 45Rh 46Pd 47Ag 48Cd 49In 50Sn 51Sb 52Te 53I 54Xe
55Cs 56Ba 57La 72Hf 73Ta 74W 75Re 76Os 77Ir 78Pt 79Au 80Hg 81Tl 82Pb 83Bi 84Po 85At 86Rn
87Fr 88Ra 89Ac 104Rd 105Db 106Sg 107Bh 108Hs 109Mt 110Ds 111Rg 112Cn 113Nh 114Fl 115Mc 116Lv 117Ts 118Og
 
58Ce 59Pr 60Nd 61Pm 62Sm 63Eu 64Gd 65Tb 66Dy 67Ho 68Er 69Tm 70Yb 71Lu
90Th 91Pa 92U 93Np 94Pu 95Am 96Cm 97Bk 98Cf 99Es 100Fm 101Md 102No 103Lr
Default Categories CPK Electronegativity Atomic Radius Lowest Oxidation Highest Oxidation Crustal Abundance Goldschmidt Mineral Species Minerals with Ti Relative Frequency
Scandium << Titanium >> Vanadium


Most widespread minerals containing Titanium
This list of minerals containing Titanium is built from the mindat.org locality database. This is based on the number of localities entered for mineral species and is therefore slanted towards minerals interesting to collectors with less coverage of common rock-forming-minerals so it does not give an undistorted distribution of Titanium mineral species. It is more useful when comparing rare species rather than common species.
NameFormulaCrystal SystemMindat Localities
RutileTiO2Tetragonal4880
IlmeniteFe2+TiO3Trigonal5350
TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)OMonoclinic4926
Photos

Localities with greatest number of different Titanium mineral species
map should go here
2Poudrette quarry (De-Mix quarry; Demix quarry; Uni-Mix quarry; Carrière Mont Saint-Hilaire; MSH), Mont Saint-Hilaire, La Vallée-du-Richelieu RCM, Montérégie, Québec, Canada40 Ti minerals
7Koashva Open Pit (Vostochnyi Mine), Koashva Mt, Khibiny Massif, Murmanskaya Oblast', Northern Region, Russia27 Ti minerals
4Dara-i-Pioz Glacier (Dara-Pioz), Alai Range (Alayskiy), Tien Shan Mtn, Region of Republican Subordination, Tajikistan29 Ti minerals
5Karnasurt Mt, Lovozero Massif, Murmanskaya Oblast', Northern Region, Russia28 Ti minerals
Kukisvumchorr Mt, Khibiny Massif, Murmanskaya Oblast', Northern Region, Russia28 Ti minerals
8Alluaiv Mt, Lovozero Massif, Murmanskaya Oblast', Northern Region, Russia27 Ti minerals


Spotted a mistake/omission? - These pages are a work in progress, so please send all comments/corrections to jolyon@mindat.org. Thank you.

Constants and physical property data from:

David R. Lide (ed.), CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 85th Edition. CRC Press. Boca Raton, Florida (2005).
Kaye and Laby Tables of Physical & Chemical Constants (2005). Section 3.1.3, Abundances of the elements
A. Earnshaw, N. Greenwood, Chemistry of the Elements, 2nd edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, (1997)
Thomas J. Ahrens (ed.), Global Earth Physics : A Handbook of Physical Constants, American Geophysical Union (1995)
L.B. Railsback, An Earth Scientist's Periodic Table of the Elements and Their Ions : Geology 31:9 p737-740 (2003)
Emsley, J. Nature's Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements. New York: Oxford University Press (2001)
Mineral and/or Locality  
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