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The Mineralogy of Titanium

General Properties
Atomic Number:22
Standard atomic weight (Ar):47.867(1)
Electron configuration:[Ar] 3d2 4s2
Titanium crystal bar
Atomic Properties
Electronegativity (Pauling scale):1.54
Atomic Radius:176 pm
Ionic Radius:86 pm (+2)
1st Ionization energy:659 kJ/mol
1st Electron affinity:-8 kJ/mol
Oxidation States:-1,2,3,4
Physical Properties
Standard State:solid
Bonding Type:metallic
Melting Point:1941 K
Boiling Point:3560 K
Density:4.51 g/cm3
Metal/Non-Metal:transition metal
Main isotopes of Titanium
Isotope% in NatureHalf LifeDecay typeDecay product
Main ions of Titanium
NameIonExample minerals
Other Information
Year Discovered:1791
Discovered By:
William Gregor
Year Isolated:1825
Isolated By:
Jöns Jakob Berzelius
Named For:Titans of Greek mythology
CPK color coding:#BFC2C7
External Links:WikipediaWebElementsLos Alamos National LaboratoryTheodore Gray's
Simple Compounds and Mineral Names
Nitridestitanium nitrideTiN+3Osbornite
Sulfidestitanium sulphideTiS+2Wassonite
titanium disulphideTiS2+4
dititanium trisulphideTi2S3+3
Hydridestitanium dihydrideTiH2+2
Fluoridestitanium difluorideTiF2+2
titanium trifluorideTiF3+3
titanium tetrafluorideTiF4+4
Chloridestitanium dichlorideTiCl2+2
titanium trichlorideTiCl3+3
titanium tetrachlorideTiCl4+4
Bromidestitanium tribromideTiBr3+3
titanium tetrabromideTiBr4+4
Iodidestitanium diiodideTiI2+2
titanium triiodideTiI3+3
titanium tetraiodideTiI4+4
Oxidestitanium oxideTiO+2Akaogiite, Anatase, Brookite, Rutile
titanium dioxideTiO2+4
dititanium trioxideTi2O3+3
trititanium pentoxideTi3O5+3,+4
Titanium as a chromophore in minerals and gems
Fe2+ - Ti4+ IVCTIntervalence Charge Transfer - brown to brownish-red colouration eg in some dravite and neptunite (where the reddish tint is more noticeable in thin section.
Ti3+ - Ti4+ IVCTSimilar to above, orange-red colour in some dravite.
Mineral Diversity of Titanium
1. Elements 5 valid mineral species
2. Sulfides And Sulfosalts 1 valid mineral species
4. Oxides 79 valid mineral species
5. Carbonates 1 valid mineral species
6. Borates1 valid mineral species
7. Sulfates 1 valid mineral species
8. Phosphates, Arsenates, Vanadates4 valid mineral species
9. Silicates 163 valid mineral species
Total:255 valid species containing essential Titanium
Geochemistry of Titanium
Goldschmidt classification:Lithophile
Ti3+ is enriched in Ca-Al-rich inclusions in meteorites relative to the composition of the solar system.
Ti4+ enters early-forming phases in igneous rocks.
Ti4+ is commonly concentrated in residual soils and sediments.
Ti4+ is concentrated in deep-sea ferromanganese nodules relative to seawater.
Elemental Abundance for Titanium
Crust (CRC Handbook)5.65 x 10-3mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Kaye & Laby)8.6 x 10-3mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Greenwood)6.320 x 10-3mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Ahrens/Taylor)5.400 x 10-3mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Ahrens/Wänke)5.250 x 10-3mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Ahrens/Weaver)3.600 x 10-3mass fraction, kg/kg
Upper Crust (Ahrens/Taylor)3.000 x 10-3mass fraction, kg/kg
Upper Crust (Ahrens/Shaw)3.120 x 10-3mass fraction, kg/kg
Sea Water (CRC Handbook)1 x 10-9mass per volume fraction, kg/L
Sea Water (Kaye & Laby)1 x 10-9mass per volume fraction, kg/L
The Sun (Kaye & Laby)2.7 x 10-3atom mole fraction relative to Si=1
Solar System (Kaye & Laby)2.4 x 10-3atom mole fraction relative to Si=1
Solar System (Ahrens)2.40 x 10-3 (5.0%)atom mole fraction relative to Si=1 (% uncertainty)
Element association of Titanium in the Mineral World
This table compares the known valid mineral species listed listed with Titanium and the other elements listed based on the official IMA formula. Note that unlike other sections on this page this includes non-essential elements.

The first data column contains the total number of minerals listed with Titanium and the element listed for that row.

The second data column lists this number as a percentage of all minerals listed with Titanium.

The final data column compares this percentage against the percentage of all minerals that contain the element listed in each row.

Click on a heading to sort.
ElementValid Minerals listed with element and Titanium% of Ti mineralsRelative to % in all minerals
Oxygen365 minerals with Ti and O98.12%28.77% higher
Silicon232 minerals with Ti and Si62.37%125.20% higher
Hydrogen195 minerals with Ti and H52.42%2.32% lower
Iron162 minerals with Ti and Fe43.55%91.26% higher
Sodium160 minerals with Ti and Na43.01%127.79% higher
Calcium125 minerals with Ti and Ca33.60%36.89% higher
Niobium94 minerals with Ti and Nb25.27%650.01% higher
Potassium80 minerals with Ti and K21.51%122.55% higher
Manganese78 minerals with Ti and Mn20.97%81.81% higher
Barium75 minerals with Ti and Ba20.16%335.65% higher
Fluorine72 minerals with Ti and F19.35%132.86% higher
Magnesium54 minerals with Ti and Mg14.52%5.68% higher
Aluminium48 minerals with Ti and Al12.90%34.86% lower
Zirconium43 minerals with Ti and Zr11.56%380.33% higher
Cerium40 minerals with Ti and Ce10.75%226.33% higher
Yttrium30 minerals with Ti and Y8.06%208.97% higher
Strontium30 minerals with Ti and Sr8.06%186.61% higher
Zinc19 minerals with Ti and Zn5.11%4.20% lower
Uranium19 minerals with Ti and U5.11%6.94% higher
Phosphorus17 minerals with Ti and P4.57%58.51% lower
Vanadium16 minerals with Ti and V4.30%4.19% higher
Lithium16 minerals with Ti and Li4.30%92.02% higher
Lanthanum13 minerals with Ti and La3.49%105.20% higher
Thorium13 minerals with Ti and Th3.49%293.29% higher
Chromium13 minerals with Ti and Cr3.49%112.11% higher
Chlorine13 minerals with Ti and Cl3.49%53.50% lower
Lead12 minerals with Ti and Pb3.23%66.23% lower
Tantalum12 minerals with Ti and Ta3.23%138.71% higher
Boron12 minerals with Ti and B3.23%36.40% lower
Arsenic10 minerals with Ti and As2.69%76.35% lower
Carbon6 minerals with Ti and C1.61%78.16% lower
Antimony6 minerals with Ti and Sb1.61%67.00% lower
Sulfur6 minerals with Ti and S1.61%91.73% lower
Tin5 minerals with Ti and Sn1.34%26.66% lower
Beryllium5 minerals with Ti and Be1.34%39.49% lower
Neodymium4 minerals with Ti and Nd1.08%11.70% higher
Scandium2 minerals with Ti and Sc0.54%81.52% higher
Caesium2 minerals with Ti and Cs0.54%21.01% higher
Copper2 minerals with Ti and Cu0.54%95.70% lower
Tellurium1 mineral with Ti and Te0.27%91.15% lower
Nitrogen1 mineral with Ti and N0.27%85.90% lower
Tungsten1 mineral with Ti and W0.27%64.58% lower
Periodic Table
1H 2He
3Li 4Be 5B 6C 7N 8O 9F 10Ne
11Na 12Mg 13Al 14Si 15P 16S 17Cl 18Ar
19K 20Ca 21Sc 22Ti 23V 24Cr 25Mn 26Fe 27Co 28Ni 29Cu 30Zn 31Ga 32Ge 33As 34Se 35Br 36Kr
37Rb 38Sr 39Y 40Zr 41Nb 42Mo 43Tc 44Ru 45Rh 46Pd 47Ag 48Cd 49In 50Sn 51Sb 52Te 53I 54Xe
55Cs 56Ba 57La 72Hf 73Ta 74W 75Re 76Os 77Ir 78Pt 79Au 80Hg 81Tl 82Pb 83Bi 84Po 85At 86Rn
87Fr 88Ra 89Ac 104Rd 105Db 106Sg 107Bh 108Hs 109Mt 110Ds 111Rg 112Cn 113Nh 114Fl 115Mc 116Lv 117Ts 118Og
58Ce 59Pr 60Nd 61Pm 62Sm 63Eu 64Gd 65Tb 66Dy 67Ho 68Er 69Tm 70Yb 71Lu
90Th 91Pa 92U 93Np 94Pu 95Am 96Cm 97Bk 98Cf 99Es 100Fm 101Md 102No 103Lr
Default Categories CPK Electronegativity Atomic Radius Lowest Oxidation Highest Oxidation Crustal Abundance Goldschmidt Mineral Species Minerals with Ti Relative Frequency
Scandium << Titanium >> Vanadium

Most widespread minerals containing Titanium
This list of minerals containing Titanium is built from the locality database. This is based on the number of localities entered for mineral species and is therefore slanted towards minerals interesting to collectors with less coverage of common rock-forming-minerals so it does not give an undistorted distribution of Titanium mineral species. It is more useful when comparing rare species rather than common species.
NameFormulaCrystal SystemMindat Localities
Kaersutite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg3AlTi}(Al2Si6O22)O2 Monoclinic174

Localities with greatest number of different Titanium mineral species
map should go here
1Poudrette quarry (De-Mix quarry; Demix quarry; Uni-Mix quarry; Carrière Mont Saint-Hilaire; MSH), Mont Saint-Hilaire, La Vallée-du-Richelieu RCM, Montérégie, Québec, Canada40 Ti minerals
2Koashva Open Pit (Vostochnyi Mine), Koashva Mt, Khibiny Massif, Murmanskaya Oblast', Northern Region, Russia27 Ti minerals
Kukisvumchorr Mt, Khibiny Massif, Murmanskaya Oblast', Northern Region, Russia26 Ti minerals
4Rasvumchorr Mt, Khibiny Massif, Murmanskaya Oblast', Northern Region, Russia25 Ti minerals
5Dara-i-Pioz Glacier (Dara-Pioz), Alai Range (Alayskiy), Tien Shan Mtn, Region of Republican Subordination, Tajikistan25 Ti minerals
Ilímaussaq complex, Narsaq, Kujalleq, Greenland22 Ti minerals
7Kirovskii apatite mine (Kirovsky Mine; Kirovskii Mine; Kirov Mine), Kukisvumchorr Mt, Khibiny Massif, Murmanskaya Oblast', Northern Region, Russia22 Ti minerals
Eveslogchorr Mt, Khibiny Massif, Murmanskaya Oblast', Northern Region, Russia18 Ti minerals

Spotted a mistake/omission? - These pages are a work in progress, so please send all comments/corrections to Thank you.

Constants and physical property data from:

David R. Lide (ed.), CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 85th Edition. CRC Press. Boca Raton, Florida (2005).
Kaye and Laby Tables of Physical & Chemical Constants (2005). Section 3.1.3, Abundances of the elements
A. Earnshaw, N. Greenwood, Chemistry of the Elements, 2nd edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, (1997)
Thomas J. Ahrens (ed.), Global Earth Physics : A Handbook of Physical Constants, American Geophysical Union (1995)
L.B. Railsback, An Earth Scientist's Periodic Table of the Elements and Their Ions : Geology 31:9 p737-740 (2003)
Emsley, J. Nature's Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements. New York: Oxford University Press (2001)
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