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The Mineralogy of Vanadium

General Properties
Atomic Number:23
Standard atomic weight (Ar):50.9415(1)
Electron configuration:[Ar] 3d3 4s2
Vanadium disc
Atomic Properties
Electronegativity (Pauling scale):1.63
Atomic Radius:171 pm
Ionic Radius:79 pm (+2)
1st Ionization energy:651 kJ/mol
1st Electron affinity:-51 kJ/mol
Oxidation States:-1,2,3,4
Physical Properties
Standard State:solid
Bonding Type:metallic
Melting Point:2183 K
Boiling Point:3680 K
Density:6.11 g/cm3
Metal/Non-Metal:transition metal
Main isotopes of Vanadium
Isotope% in NatureHalf LifeDecay typeDecay product
Main ions of Vanadium
NameIonExample minerals
Other Information
Year Discovered:1801
Discovered By:
Andrés Manuel del Río
Year Isolated:1830
Isolated By:
Nils Gabriel Sefström
Named For:
the Norse Vanr goddess Freyja
CPK color coding:#A6A6AB
External Links:WikipediaWebElementsLos Alamos National LaboratoryTheodore Gray's
Simple Compounds and Mineral Names
Nitridesvanadium nitrideVN+3
Sulfidesvanadium disulphideVS2+4
divanadium trisulphideV2S3+3
vanadium tetrasulphideVS4+4Patrónite
Selenidesvanadium diselenideVSe2+4
Telluridesvanadium ditellurideVTe2+4
Hydridesvanadium hydrideVH+1
divanadium hydrideV2H
Fluoridesvanadium difluorideVF2+2
vanadium trifluorideVF3+3
vanadium tetrafluorideVF4+4
vanadium pentafluorideVF5+5
Chloridesvanadium dichlorideVCl2+2
vanadium trichlorideVCl3+3
vanadium tetrachlorideVCl4+4
Bromidesvanadium dibromideVBr2+2
vanadium tribromideVBr3+3
vanadium tetrabromideVBr4+4
Iodidesvanadium diiodideVI2+2
vanadium triiodideVI3+3
vanadium tetraiodideVI4+4
Oxidesvanadium oxideVO+2
vanadium dioxideVO2+4Paramontroseite
divanadium trioxideV2O3+3Karelianite
divanadium pentoxideV2O5+5Shcherbinaite
trivanadium pentoxideV3O5+3,+4Oxyvanite
Vanadium as a chromophore in minerals and gems
V3+Causes the green colour in tsavorite garnet. Contributes to the colour in tanzanite and in some emerald.
VO2+Causes bright blue colour in cavansite and the green colour in some Indian fluorapophyllite
Mineral Diversity of Vanadium
1. Elements 1 valid mineral species
2. Sulfides And Sulfosalts 8 valid mineral species
4. Oxides 68 valid mineral species
7. Sulfates 8 valid mineral species
8. Phosphates, Arsenates, Vanadates67 valid mineral species
9. Silicates 27 valid mineral species
Total:179 valid species containing essential Vanadium
Geochemistry of Vanadium
Goldschmidt classification:Lithophile
V3+ was one of the ions least depleted from the mantle in the formation of the crust.
V3+ enters early-forming phases in igneous rocks.
V5+ is commonly concentrated in residual soils and sediments.
V5+ is essential to nutrition of at least some vertebrates ('essential minerals').
Elemental Abundance for Vanadium
Crust (CRC Handbook)1.20 x 10-4mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Kaye & Laby)1.7 x 10-4mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Greenwood)1.36 x 10-4mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Ahrens/Taylor)2.30 x 10-4mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Ahrens/Wänke)1.34 x 10-4mass fraction, kg/kg
Upper Crust (Ahrens/Taylor)6.0 x 10-5mass fraction, kg/kg
Upper Crust (Ahrens/Shaw)5.3 x 10-5mass fraction, kg/kg
Sea Water (CRC Handbook)2.5 x 10-9mass per volume fraction, kg/L
Sea Water (Kaye & Laby)1.9 x 10-9mass per volume fraction, kg/L
The Sun (Kaye & Laby)2.8 x 10-4atom mole fraction relative to Si=1
Solar System (Kaye & Laby)2.9 x 10-4atom mole fraction relative to Si=1
Solar System (Ahrens)2.93 x 10-4 (5.1%)atom mole fraction relative to Si=1 (% uncertainty)
Element association of Vanadium in the Mineral World
This table compares the known valid mineral species listed listed with Vanadium and the other elements listed based on the official IMA formula. Note that unlike other sections on this page this includes non-essential elements.

The first data column contains the total number of minerals listed with Vanadium and the element listed for that row.

The second data column lists this number as a percentage of all minerals listed with Vanadium.

The final data column compares this percentage against the percentage of all minerals that contain the element listed in each row.

Click on a heading to sort.
ElementValid Minerals listed with element and Vanadium% of V mineralsRelative to % in all minerals
Oxygen214 minerals with V and O95.96%25.92% higher
Hydrogen147 minerals with V and H65.92%22.81% higher
Calcium51 minerals with V and Ca22.87%6.85% lower
Silicon39 minerals with V and Si17.49%36.86% lower
Iron38 minerals with V and Fe17.04%25.17% lower
Aluminium36 minerals with V and Al16.14%18.51% lower
Copper31 minerals with V and Cu13.90%11.23% higher
Manganese30 minerals with V and Mn13.45%16.63% higher
Sodium29 minerals with V and Na13.00%31.14% lower
Magnesium24 minerals with V and Mg10.76%21.66% lower
Lead23 minerals with V and Pb10.31%7.96% higher
Barium20 minerals with V and Ba8.97%93.76% higher
Sulfur17 minerals with V and S7.62%60.90% lower
Arsenic17 minerals with V and As7.62%32.94% lower
Potassium16 minerals with V and K7.17%25.76% lower
Titanium16 minerals with V and Ti7.17%4.17% higher
Phosphorus14 minerals with V and P6.28%43.01% lower
Uranium14 minerals with V and U6.28%31.42% higher
Chlorine9 minerals with V and Cl4.04%46.31% lower
Zinc8 minerals with V and Zn3.59%32.72% lower
Chromium8 minerals with V and Cr3.59%117.71% higher
Strontium7 minerals with V and Sr3.14%11.54% higher
Bismuth7 minerals with V and Bi3.14%22.94% lower
Fluorine5 minerals with V and F2.24%73.03% lower
Boron4 minerals with V and B1.79%64.64% lower
Antimony4 minerals with V and Sb1.79%63.30% lower
Yttrium3 minerals with V and Y1.35%48.47% lower
Nickel3 minerals with V and Ni1.35%58.48% lower
Thallium2 minerals with V and Tl0.90%20.59% lower
Lithium2 minerals with V and Li0.90%59.97% lower
Nitrogen2 minerals with V and N0.90%52.97% lower
Tin2 minerals with V and Sn0.90%51.07% lower
Carbon2 minerals with V and C0.90%87.86% lower
Lanthanum2 minerals with V and La0.90%47.35% lower
Cerium2 minerals with V and Ce0.90%72.79% lower
Beryllium1 mineral with V and Be0.45%79.82% lower
Molybdenum1 mineral with V and Mo0.45%60.94% lower
Mercury1 mineral with V and Hg0.45%73.96% lower
Neodymium1 mineral with V and Nd0.45%53.42% lower
Caesium1 mineral with V and Cs0.45%0.92% higher
Tellurium1 mineral with V and Te0.45%85.23% lower
Silver1 mineral with V and Ag0.45%86.47% lower
Germanium1 mineral with V and Ge0.45%16.48% lower
Cobalt1 mineral with V and Co0.45%68.13% lower
Tungsten1 mineral with V and W0.45%40.93% lower
Periodic Table
1H 2He
3Li 4Be 5B 6C 7N 8O 9F 10Ne
11Na 12Mg 13Al 14Si 15P 16S 17Cl 18Ar
19K 20Ca 21Sc 22Ti 23V 24Cr 25Mn 26Fe 27Co 28Ni 29Cu 30Zn 31Ga 32Ge 33As 34Se 35Br 36Kr
37Rb 38Sr 39Y 40Zr 41Nb 42Mo 43Tc 44Ru 45Rh 46Pd 47Ag 48Cd 49In 50Sn 51Sb 52Te 53I 54Xe
55Cs 56Ba 57La 72Hf 73Ta 74W 75Re 76Os 77Ir 78Pt 79Au 80Hg 81Tl 82Pb 83Bi 84Po 85At 86Rn
87Fr 88Ra 89Ac 104Rd 105Db 106Sg 107Bh 108Hs 109Mt 110Ds 111Rg 112Cn 113Nh 114Fl 115Mc 116Lv 117Ts 118Og
58Ce 59Pr 60Nd 61Pm 62Sm 63Eu 64Gd 65Tb 66Dy 67Ho 68Er 69Tm 70Yb 71Lu
90Th 91Pa 92U 93Np 94Pu 95Am 96Cm 97Bk 98Cf 99Es 100Fm 101Md 102No 103Lr
Default Categories CPK Electronegativity Atomic Radius Lowest Oxidation Highest Oxidation Crustal Abundance Goldschmidt Mineral Species Minerals with V Relative Frequency
Titanium << Vanadium >> Chromium

Most widespread minerals containing Vanadium
This list of minerals containing Vanadium is built from the locality database. This is based on the number of localities entered for mineral species and is therefore slanted towards minerals interesting to collectors with less coverage of common rock-forming-minerals so it does not give an undistorted distribution of Vanadium mineral species. It is more useful when comparing rare species rather than common species.
NameFormulaCrystal SystemMindat Localities
CarnotiteK2(UO2)2(VO4)2 · 3H2OMonoclinic1184
TyuyamuniteCa(UO2)2(VO4)2 · 5-8H2OOrthorhombic637
VolborthiteCu3(V2O7)(OH)2 · 2H2OMonoclinic146
MetatyuyamuniteCa(UO2)2(VO4)2 · 3-5H2OOrthorhombic122

Localities with greatest number of different Vanadium mineral species
map should go here
1Valgraveglia Mine (Gambatesa Mine), Reppia, Graveglia Valley, Ne, Genova Province, Liguria, Italy23 V minerals
2Mounana Mine (Mouana Mine), Franceville, Haut-Ogooué Province, Gabon20 V minerals
3Vanadium Queen Mine, La Sal, La Sal District (Paradox Valley District), San Juan Co., Utah, USA20 V minerals
4Molinello Mine, Graveglia Valley, Ne, Genova Province, Liguria, Italy20 V minerals
5Monument No. 2 Mine, Monument No. 2 channel, Yazzi Mesa, Monument Valley, Navajo Indian Reservation, Apache Co., Arizona, USA20 V minerals
6Clara Mine, Rankach valley, Oberwolfach, Wolfach, Black Forest, Baden-Württemberg, Germany20 V minerals
Firefly–Pigmay Mine, La Sal Quadrangle, San Juan Co., Utah, USA18 V minerals
8Kurumsak V Deposit, Aksumbe, Karatau Range, Southern Kazakhstan Province (Ongtüstik Qazaqstan Oblysy; Yuzhno-Kazakhstanskaya Oblast'), Kazakhstan17 V minerals

Spotted a mistake/omission? - These pages are a work in progress, so please send all comments/corrections to Thank you.

Constants and physical property data from:

David R. Lide (ed.), CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 85th Edition. CRC Press. Boca Raton, Florida (2005).
Kaye and Laby Tables of Physical & Chemical Constants (2005). Section 3.1.3, Abundances of the elements
A. Earnshaw, N. Greenwood, Chemistry of the Elements, 2nd edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, (1997)
Thomas J. Ahrens (ed.), Global Earth Physics : A Handbook of Physical Constants, American Geophysical Union (1995)
L.B. Railsback, An Earth Scientist's Periodic Table of the Elements and Their Ions : Geology 31:9 p737-740 (2003)
Emsley, J. Nature's Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements. New York: Oxford University Press (2001)
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