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Rock Currier August 10, 2010 10:31AM
Click here to view Hematite Namibia to USA, here to view Best Minerals H and here for Best Minerals A to Z and here for Fast Navigation of all Best Minerals articles.

Can you help make this a better article? What good localities have we missed? Can you supply pictures of better specimens than those we show here? Can you give us more and better information about the specimens from these localities? Can you supply better geological or historical information on these localities?

HematiteFe2O3 trigonal

Hematite & Audlaria, Central St Gotthard Massif, Leventina, Ticino, Switzerland

The -ite ending was first used in "Hematite" by the ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle (384 BC – 322 BC). He described Hematite as "λίθος <...> αἱματίτης, ως αίματος ξηρού πεπηγότος" = "the stone <...> haematitis, as dried and condensed blood" . "Haematitis" is an adjective to the word "λίθος" <"lithos"> = stone, and derives from the Greek word αἱμα ("haema" ) = blood, alluding to the color of the streak, and the adjective ending -itis meaning something like "related to" or describing a property. The very same -itis adjective ending (meaning "related to" ) is found in several English words derived from the Greek language, mainly in the field of medicine (e.g. Hepatitis, from the word "hepar"=liver, i.e. liver-related disease; and many others).

Most crystals of hematite are black but if the crystals are small and thin enough they are a dark blood red. There are some examples below of micro hematite crystals that are so thin that they appear to be red. If you take black Hematite and powder it finely, it becomes a dark red and is used extensively as a red pigment in pint. Preforming a scratch text on hematite does the same thing with less effort. Just take a bit of hematite and scratch it across an unglazed white tile and it will leave a dark red streak. If you don't have a bit of unglazed white tile handy, just remove the top of any toilets water reservoir and turn it over. The underside is unglazed tile and you can do your streak testing there until you can get some tile. Hematite will become magnetic if it is heated and though it has perfect conchoidal cleavage parting is common on r & c faces due to twinning.

Hematite is one of the common minerals found in the earths crust and is found in many different forums. Below we will discuss perhaps the most commonly encountered types and show pictures of them. Though often one form of hematite will grade into others I have arbitrarily broken them down into the following categories and discussed them as thought they were discrete types when in fact they are often not.

1. Massive deposits. Though often of minimal interest to collectors except for the interesting specimens that they sometimes produce, Hematite is found in huge deposits in many places. These deposits are often of vital economic importance to people. The iron deposits of Cumbria, England were one of the crucial factors that permitted the development of what is sometimes called the industrial age. Though most iron mines usually do not produce specimens of interest to collectors, there are many notable exceptions, like the iron mines of Cumbria and the Tilly Foster iron mine in New York, USA to site just two examples.

2. Limonitic and finely divided earthy forms. Although the most common mineral found in limonite is Goethite, I have included it here in the Hematite article because hematite is almost always a common mineral found in these forms and many pictures in the Hematite gallery here in mindat include these forms. It is hard to know where to place these pictures because of their variable composition so many of them have ended up under Hematite. The important thing to remember is that you are looking at pictures of specimens labeled hematite but they are not pure hematite, but of specimens that have many fine grained minerals in their structure and that Hematite may not even be the most abundant mineral in their structure. Limonite is a fine grained substance comprised of Goethite, Hematite, Maghemite, Lepidocrocite, Hisingerite, Pitticite, Jarosite group species, etc. These often take the form of earthy masses, coatings, stalactitic forms or bubbly masses. The color of these forms, because of their variable mineral content and grain size can range from black to red with many shades of brown and yellow. It is also a common component of colored chalcedony, agates and jaspers. Hematite and other find grained iron minerals are responsible for many of the various colors in the most spectacular cut and polished agates. Limonite is also commonly often found staining the surface of quartz crystals or included in the structure of the quartz making them appear red, yellow or brown. When the material is on the surface it can occasionally make them look very pretty but in most cases collectors want to know how to remove it so their specimens will look better. In case you would like to know how to remove it, click here to view an article about how to clean quartz.

3. Specularite. Often hematite forms in great masses of nearly microscopic flat plate like crystals with mirror like faces that readily reflect light. Such material has been given the name specularite. The crystals can vary in size and there is really no agreed upon cut off point where the name specularite no longer applies but when they get large enough they are just specimens of bright shiny bladed hematite crystals and seldom called specularite. Sometimes when these mirror like black crystals are larger than a millimeter or two it is sometimes called specular Hematite. One locality that has produced specularite material is the Andrade mine in Brazil and here some of the specularite is also iridescent.

4. Iron Roses Sometimes flat hematite crystals are found arranged in a flower like arrangement with depressed centers and are called "iron roses". Fine examples of these are cherished by collectors and make striking specimens. You will see a number of examples of iron roses below.

5. Blocky and rounded and flat platy crystals. forms.Besides tabular crystals hematite can form cube like rhombohedrons whose rhombohedral faces are horizontally striated. Sometimes rutile crystals are found growing on hematite crystals in an oriented fashion. Some examples of this are also shown below.

6. Reinform, radiating and splintery forms.Sometimes hematite is found in in reniform masses and referred to as "kidney ore". These can range in color from shiny black to earthy red. Cumbria is famous for specimens of this type. Compact splintery masses of hematite are also know and are called by various names like needle ore.

7. Compact hematite. Hundreds of tons of compact black Hematite from the Iron Quadrangle in Minas Gerais Brazil have been exported to China where it has been cut and polished into countless small objects like balls, eggs and beads. There are other huge deposits of hematite and other minerals that are called banded ironstone formations and sometimes these huge sedimentary deposits produce very attractive hematite rich rock that is banded red and black. Sometimes the hematite is layered with red jasper and is called jaspillite.

8. Pseudomorphs after various minerals. These pseudomorphs like the limonitic forms are most likely not pure hematite but usually mixtures of fine grained iron minerals that have replaced other minerals. Though Hematite may be their main component there are other minerals in their structure. Perhaps the most common of these pseudomorphs are those formed after Pyrite, but shown below are also examples of "hematite" after Marcasite, Siderite, Calcite and Magnetite. Often octahedral forms of Magnetite are altered to Hematite and have the variety name martite. In the case of pyrite, examples of partial alteration are common from just skin deep all the way to total replacement.

9. Very thin flattened crystals. Sometimes very thin crystals thought to be sublimates of volcanic activity are found. Sometimes when small hematite crystals grow thin enough, they are blood red in transmitted light. Examples of all of these forms of hematite are shown below.

Probably the best specimens of hematite are found in Europe, most notably in Switzerland and also in Brazil that has produced fine examples of several different kinds of hematite. The best examples of the reniform variety of Hematite are found in England but good examples are also known from the United States. For many years, fine examples of specimens consisting of small brilliant Hematite crystals from Elba were common on the market, but now the are not often seen. Though not abundant, some very fine specimens of hematite from the manganese mine near Kuraman in the Republic of South Africa have been found and even more recently some remarkable hoppered crystals of hematite after Magnetite from Argentina.

HematiteArgentineLa Rioja, Milagros

Hematite 3.6cm tall
Hematite 3.4cm wide

HematiteArgentinaMendoza, Altiplano de Payún Matru, Payún volcano

Hematite after magnetite 8.3cm tall
Hematite after magnetite 11.8cm tall

Hematite after magnetite 11.7cm
Hematite after magnetite 8cm wide

Hematite after magnetite 10.9cm tall
Hematite after magnetite 7.9cm tall

Hematite after magnetite 10cm wide
Hematite after magnetite 4.75cm tall

The best of these specimens are at least as good as those shown above and up to perhaps 20cm in diameter.

HematiteArgentinaMendoza, Malargüe Department

Hematite 4.5cm wide
Hematite 3.3cm wide

HematiteArgentinaSan Luis, Inti Huasi, San Juan Mine

Hematite after Pyrite 3cm wide

HematiteAustraliaSouth Australia, Flinders Range, North Flinders Ranges, Arkaroola area

Hematite & Quartz 4cm wide
Hematite 4cm wide

HematiteAustraliaVictoria, City of Greater Geelong, Anakie, Mount Anakie

Hematite FOV 2mm

HematiteAustraliaVictoria, Gippsland, Dumbalk

Hematite 6cm wide

HematiteAustriaCarinthia, Friesach - Hüttenberg area

Hematite 7.5 cm tall

HematiteAustriaTyrol, North Tyrol, Ziller valley, Zemmgrund, Mörchner area

Hematite on Muscovite 9cm wide

HematiteAustriaTyrol, North Tyrol, Ziller valley, Zemmgrund, Mörchner area, Mörchnerkar

Hematite & Adularia 4cm wide

Hematite, Quartz & Audlaria ~8cm tall
Hematite & a little oriented Rutile 6.5cm tall

HematiteAustriaTyrol, North Tyrol, Ziller valley, Zemmgrund, Schlegeis tunnel

Hematite iron rose 5.2cm wide

HematiteBrazilBahia, Brumado (Bom Jesus dos Meiras), Serra das Éguas

Hematite 5cm wide
Hematite 4cm wide

Brumado is a big open pit magnesite mine and thus far produces the best crystals of magnesite in the world. In addition it occasionally produces fine specimens of other minerals including nice specimens of hematite. The hematite crystals are almost always flattened sharp bright crystals. Iron roses are not known from Brumado at all. The hematite is sometimes associated with small sharp shiny Uvite crystals. The hematite specimens from this locality are never plentiful and I don't think I have ever seen an entire box full of them, just the odd specimen here and there.

HematiteBrazilBahia, Novo Horizonte

Hematite & oriented Rutile 3.3cm wide
Hematite 5.2cm tall

Hematite 7.1cm wide
Hematite xl with minor Rutile 9.3cm

Historically Nova Horizontal and the little towns of Ibitiara and Remedios, have been centers for the production or quartz crystals containing inclusions of golden colored Rutile crystals. Sometimes flat balded hematite crystals are found included inside the clear or smoky quartz crystals that have oriented crystals of golden Rutile crystals growing on them and radiating out past the edges of the hematite. Some of these specimens are spectacular. Historically, the golden Rutile crystals were almost always found growing only inside the quartz crystals, but about ten years ago a find was made of hematite crystals with the thin needle like golden Rutile crystals growing on hematite blades but not included in quartz. The best of these made spectacular specimens. We have only a modest example pictured here. Some of the Hematies were about 5 cm in diameter and the radiating Rutile makeing them even larger and sometimes there were inter-grown clusters of these as well. Really amazing stuff.

HematiteBrazilMinas Gerais, Congonhas do Campo

Hematite ~6cm wide
Hematite 3.7cm wide

HematiteBrazilMinas Gerais, Congonhas do Campo, Casa de Pedra Mine

Hematite 4.5cm tall
Hematite 3.8cm tall
Hematite 12.5cm wide

This mine has produced probably the best examples of brilliant blocky hematite crystals known. Some are so good that it is hard to believe that they are really hematite. One of the good ones is shown here. Can you tell which it is?

HematiteBrazilMinas Gerais, Conselheiro Lafaiete (old Queluz de Minas), Morro da Mina Mine

Hematite 15cm wide

This is probably a wrong locality because this mine is a manganese mine and the ore is composed of a metamorphic black manganese carbonate rock (queluzite) interbedded with gondites (quartz-spessartine) and some thin graphite layers; rhodonite is formed by contact metamorphism in fractures created by the intrusion of a leucocratic volcanic rock; there are no hematite layers interbedded with these carbonate manganese rocks, so there is no possibility to have a large hematite crystal cluster like that to have been formed inside this mine. We will shortly figure out where it came from. The number of localities that it could be from is limited because of its size.

HematiteBrazilMinas Gerais, Iron Quadrangle, João Monlevade, Andrade Mine

Iridescent Hematite ~100cm
Iridescent Hematite

Iridescent Hematite
Iridescent hematite in situ

Back in the 1990s a friend showed me a small flat piece of specular hematite that was iridescent. I was told that it came from the Andrade iron mine near Belo Horizonte. On my next trip to Brazil, I and a friend, Osorio Neto went out to visit the mine and found an area in the mine, pictured above that produced this beautiful material. Initially I thought of it only as cheap "color rock" and though if we could get enough of it cheaply enough, it would sell well to rock shops and study material. Osorio arranged with the mine to allow him to dig and collect about ten tons of the material and it was shipped to us in a sea container and we sold it cheaply by the 55 gallon barrel. After much of it was sold some people started using it to make "druzy" jewelry and what was once selling by the pound was now a high priced jewelry item, at least for selected pieces. I wish I had been the one to think of this application for it. As far as I know almost all of this material that came to the specimen market came from this container. We tried hard to get more of the material, but the mine would not allow more to be collected because mining and collecting more would disrupt their system of roads in the big open pit mine and would cost the mine much more to move the roads than they could possibly recover from the sale of this material. We were told that in past years they had mined truck loads of this material and spread it around on the streets on the occasion of a local festival.

The iridescence of this material was found to be caused by a nano sized phosphate mineral oriented on the surface of the tiny hematite crystals.1. The mineral has not been given a name because the current standards set by the IMA for naming minerals, because of its small size, have not yet been met by the researchers that have studied it.
1. Rossman....

HematiteBrazilMinas Gerais, Iron Quadrangle, Itabira

Hematite 4.5cm wide
Hematite 4.5cm wide

HematiteBrazilMinas Gerais, Iron Quadrangle, Nova Lima, Aguas Claras Mine

Hematite ~4cm tall

HematiteBrazilMinas Gerais, Jequitinhonha valley, Diamantina

Hematite 3cm wide

The "iron roses" from the Diamantina region are not common nor large. They can be distinguished from those from Ouro Preto because their edges are shiny and not dull like those from Ouro Preto. Diamontina is famous for its historical production of diamonds and gold and is located in the part of Brazil with large deposits of sandstone and is a little east of the granitic pegmatite area of Minas Gerais. The area is also known for its production of quartz crystals, but once in a while it does produce some nice specimens of hematite. Some hematites from the Diamantina region have a coating of iron or manganese hydroxides ofer the edges that can easily be removed with an X-acto blade.

HematiteBrazilMinas Gerais, Jequitinhonha valley, Itamarandiba

Hematite 7.5cm wide
Hematite 6.3cm wide

HematiteBrazilMinas Gerais, Ouro Preto

Hematite 5.7cm wide
Hematite ~8cm wide

Hematite & Mica6.9cm wide
Hematite 5.5cm wide

Hematite 4.5cm wide
Hematite 7.2cm wide

Hematite 5.1cm wide
Hematite 4.1cm wide

Hematite 10.8cm tall
Hematite 5cm wide

Hematite 11cm wide

Only the localities near Ouro Preto and Diamontina produce "iron roses" and the two can be distinguished from each other in that the iron roses from Ouro Preto have dull edges while those from the Diamontina area have shin edges and are usually much smaller. Some of but not all of the "open" hematite roses from this locality are associated with small white to light gray crystals of pyrophyllite. It is a typical association. The best specimens from this locality will rival or exceed any produced in Switzerland. The hematite roses from this locality can exceed 20 cm in diameter

HematiteBrazilMinas Gerais, Ouro Preto, Miguel Burnier (São Julião)

Hematite 5.6cm wide
Hematite 4.5cm wide

HematiteBulgariaSmolyan Oblast, Rhodope Mts, Madan ore field, Angel Yanakiev Mine, Karaaliev dol deposit

Hematite 13cm wide

HematiteBulgariaSofiya (Sofia) Oblast, Kremikovtsi

Hematite 4.5cm wide

HematiteBurma (Myanmar)Mandalay Division, Mt. Popa

Hematite 5cm wide

HematiteCanadaNorthwest Territories, Inuvik Region, Victoria Island, Hadley Bay

Hematite 5.5cm wide

HematiteCanadaNova Scotia, Hants Co., Black Rock

Hematite & Calcite 5cm wide
Hematite 14cm wide

HematiteCanadaOntario, Hastings Co., Bancroft District, Faraday Township, Madawaska Mine (Faraday Mine)

Hematite on Calcite 9.2cm wide
Hematite on Calcite 4.7cm tall

Hematite, longest is ~4cm tall
Hematite & Calcite 8.5cm wide

HematiteCanadaOntario, Rainy River District, Hutchinson Township, Atikokan

Hematite 6cm wide

HematiteCanadaOntario, Rainy River District, Hutchinson Township, Atikokan, Caland pit

Hematite 7.5cm wide
Hematite 9.5cm wide

HematiteCanadaOntario, Thunder Bay District

Hematite in Quartz var. amethyst 6.5cm

The Thunder Bay area is known to mineral collectors for the many specimens of amethyst that have been found there. Tens of thousands of quartz/amethyst specimens have been dug from various mines and prospects in the area, many of them by weekend collectors. Almost always these specimens consist of wall clusters of quartz crystals showing mostly their pyramidal terminations and specimens of prismatic quartz from this locality are not known. The specimens are abundant and can still be dug today by those willing to put in the hard work necessary to get them. Although they are abundant, they can not compare in quantity to the massive amounts of amethyst specimens produced by the amethyst mines of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Sometimes the quartz crystals found in this region, though amethystine, have abundant hematite and probably other fine grained iron minerals included in their structure. These iron minerals often lye just at or below the surface of the quartz. These specimens though probably more properly displayed under quartz are included here under hematite because their most striking feature is their red color, caused mostly by hematite, that can vary from brown to brick red to bright red. This specimen is from one of the mines in the Thunder Bay area, but which one is not known so it is used here to be representative of all similar specimens produced at this locality.

HematiteCanadaOntario, Thunder Bay District, Pearl Station, Blue Point Amethyst Mine

Hematite in Quartz 6.4cm wide
Hematite in Quartz 8.8cm wide

HematiteCanadaOntario, Thunder Bay District, Pearl Station, Diamond Willow Mine

Hematite in Quartz var. amethyst 4.3cm

HematiteCanadaOntario, Thunder Bay District, Pearl Station, Purple Haze Mine

Hematite in Quartz 7.5cm wide

HematiteChinaGuangdong Province, Heyuan Prefecture, Lianping Co.

Hematite on quartz ~17cm wide

HematiteChinaGuangdong Province, Heyuan Prefecture, Longchuan (Lungchuan) Co., Jinlong hill

Hematite on Quartz 7.5cm tall
Hematite on Quartz 9.4cm wide
Hematite on Quartz 8cm wide

Hematite on Quartz 6.9cm tall

The Jinlong iron mine is at Kinlong Xia (''lower) village, close to Shangping town in the northeastern area of Longchuan "
County which lies in the northeast of Guangdong Province at the border of Jangxi. Digging for quartz and iron ore began in the early 1990s. Currentl, several farmers are working in small underground mines around a small hill at Jinlong Xia village. Access is convenient, via the Beijing-Kowloon Railway and national freeway 205, to the county seat (Laolong town) but there is only a muddy road to the mine.1 The locality is probably best known for its often striking bladed Hematite and Quartz combinations, but it has also produced some world class specimens of Helvite. Sometimes the quartz is a beautiful pink or red color and these growing with attractive bladed hematite make for striking specimens. Hematite from this locality is seldom brilliant and shiny and most of the specimens without damage are rare. Large quantities of specimen have been produced.
1. Fine Minerals of China by Guanghua Liu, 2006, P55.

HematiteChinaGuangdong Province, Shaoguan Prefecture, Lechang Co., Lechang Mine

Hematite on Quartz 6.2cm tall
Hematite on Quartz 5.7cm tall

Hematite & Quartz 8.4cm wide
Hematite on Quartz 9.2cm wide

HematiteChinaSichuan Province, Liangshan Autonomous Prefecture, Xichang Mine, Xichang Co.

Hematite on Quartz 4.1cm wide

HematiteCubaOriente Province, Sierra Maestra Mts, Santiago de Cuba, El Cobre Mine

Hematite 4.6cm tall

HematiteCzech RepubkicBohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen), Karlovy Vary Region, Krušné Hory Mts (Erzgebirge), Nejdek (Neudek)

Hematite 10cm wide

HematiteCzech RepublicBohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen), Ústí Region, Krušné Hory Mts (Erzgebirge), Klášterec nad Ohří, Měděnec (Kupferberg)

Hematite 3cm tall

HematiteEgyptMatruh Governorate, Farafra Oasis

Hematite after marcasite 3cm wide
Hematite after marcasite 2.8cm wide

Hematite after marcacite 16.2cm tall
Hematite after marcasite 7.2cm tall
Hematite after marcasite 5.5cm tall

HematiteFranceAlsace, Haut-Rhin, Ste Marie-aux-Mines (Markirch), Brézouard Massif, Le Haïcot

Hematite on Quartz 4cm wide
Hematite after pyrite? 15.8cm wide

HematiteFranceCentre, Gien, Loiret, Loire River alluvials

Hematite .4mm wide
Hematite .4mm wide

HematiteFranceFranche-Comté, Haute-Saône, Faucogney-Saphoz

Hematite 11cm wide
Hematite 6.5cm wide

HematiteGermanyLower Saxony, Harz Mts, Bad Lauterberg, Knollengrube

Hematite 11.5cm wide
Hematite 8.9cm wide

Hematite 19cm tall

HematiteGermanyRhineland-Palatinate, Eifel Mts, Polch, Ochtendung, Wannenköpfe

Hematite rhombus .7mm tall
Hematite "frame" 1.2mm wide

Hematite FOV 1.5mm wide
Hematite X & Christobalite 1.5mm tall

Hematite "fan" & Christobalite 1mm
Hematite rhombus FOV 2mm wide

Hematite & Christobalite FOV 2.5mm
1.08mm etched Hematite crystal

Hematite xls .82mm
Hematite on Amphibole FOV 1.6mm

Hematite FOV 1mm
Hematite "skeleton" .5mm tall

The locality appears to be an abandoned quarry with interesting mineralization found at only in one place in the quarry and the "good"places are covered by meters of rubble. Some collectors living near the quarry specialize in the minerals from this quarry. Usually for a common mineral like hematite I don't include images of micros, but these Hematite pictures were so striking that I could not resist putting a selection of them in Best Minerals. For more information about the quarry and its minerals click here to see Fred Kruijen's excellent website about the locality.

HematiteGermanyRhineland-Palatinate, Rhineland-Palatinate, Saarburg, Greimerath, Luise Mine

Hematite 14.5cm wide

Saxony, Erzgebirge, Freiberg District, Gersdorf, Roßwein

Hematite 7cm tall

HematiteGermanySaxony, Erzgebirge, Schwarzenberg District, Langenberg, Graul

Hematite after Calcite 5cm wide

HematiteGermanySaxony, Glauchau, St Egidien

Hematite? in polished Agate FOV 2.5mm

HematiteGermanyThuringia, Thuringian Forest, Ilmenau

Hematite on Calcite 4.4cm tall

HematiteGreeceMacedonia Department, Dráma Prefecture, Kato Nevrokopi basin

Hematite 3cm wide

HematiteGreeceMacedonia Department, Dráma Prefecture, Kato Nevrokopi basin, Dasoto

Hematite 4.5cm wide

HematiteIranHenjam Island

Hematite xls, lartgest ~1cm

HematiteIranHormozgan Province, Jezirat Hormuz; Hormoz), Ormuz Island; Hormuz Island (Jazireh-ye Hormoz)

Hematite 1.9cm wide
Hematite 3.2cm wide

Hematite xl 2cm wide

HematiteItalyCampania, Naples Province, Somma-Vesuvius Complex, Monte Somma

Hematite "tree" ~1cm tall

HematiteItalyCampania, Naples Province, Somma-Vesuvius Complex, Monte Somma, Sant'Anastasia, Lagno Amendolare

Hematite 12cm wide
Hematite 1.5cm wide

HematiteItalyPiedmont, Cuneo Province, Varaita Valley

Hematite on Quartz 2.2cm tall

HematiteItalyPiedmont, Torino Province, Canavese District, Chiusella Valley, Traversella

Hematite & Quartz ~7.5cm tall

HematiteItalyPiedmont, Verbano-Cusio-Ossola Province, Formazza Valley

Hematite 3.5cm wide
Hematite 11cm wide

HematiteItalyPiedmont, Verbano-Cusio-Ossola Province, Ossola Valley

Hematite, 1cm iron rose on gneiss

HematiteItalyPiedmont, Verbano-Cusio-Ossola Province, Ossola Valley, Baceno, Devero Alp (Devero Valley; Val Devero), Mount Cervandone

Hematite on matrix 7.6cm tall

HematiteItalySicily, Catania Province, Etna Volcanic Complex, Biancavilla, Mt Calvario

Hematite xl .9mm & Fluoro-edenite
Hematite 2.3cm tall
Hematite 3.4cm wide

HematiteItalyTuscany, Livorno Province, Elba Island

Hematite 6cm tall
Hematite & minor Calcite 10cm wide

Hematite 5cm tall
Hematite 3cm wide

HematiteItalyTuscany, Livorno Province, Elba Island, Rio Marina

Hematite & Quartz 5.7cm
Hematite & Quartz 7.5cm wide

Hematite 8cm wide
Hematite & Quartz 6.5cm wide

Hematite 10cm tall
Hematite ~6cm tall

Hematite 5.2cm tall
Hematite 4.5cm wide

Hematite ~5cm tall
Hematite ~4cm tall

The Hematite specimens from Elba were at one time abundant and cheap. Now you rarely see a good one for sale. One wonders where they all went.

HematiteItalyTuscany, Livorno Province, Elba Island, Porto Azzurro

Hematite 7cm tall

HematiteItalyTuscany, Livorno Province, Elba Island, Rio Marina, Rio Mine (Rio Marina Mine), Valle Giove stope

Hematite 50cm wide

HematiteKazakhstanZhezqazghan Oblysy (Dzezkazgan Oblast'; Dzhezkazgan Oblast'; Djezkazgan Oblast'; Jezkazgan Oblast'), Aktas

Hematite 3.1cm wide

HematiteMadagascarFianarantsoa Province, Amoron'i Mania Region, Ambatofinandrahana District, Tetikanana (Tetikana)

Hematite & Rutile 2.5cm tall
Hematite on Rutile 2.5cm tall

HematiteMexicoDurango, Mun. de Durango, Cerro de los Remedios, Victoria de Durango, Cerro de Mercado Mine

Hematite & Apatite ~7cm wide

Matrix specimens of apatite from this locality are hard to get, though at one time single apatite crystals from this locality were abundant and cheap. Matrix specimens of apatite and excellent quality martite crystals are indeed rare and the specimen pictured here is one of the very best.

HematiteMexicoSonora, Mun. de Ures, Ures

Hematite 5cm wide

HematiteMexicoZacatecas, Mun. de Concepción del Oro

Hematite & Quartz ~10cm tall

HematiteMoroccoDoukkala-Abda Region, Safi Province, Irhoud Mine

Hematite 10.3cm wide
Hematite 5.7cm wide

Hematite 4.6cm wide
Hematite 4.2cm wide

Hematite 7cm wide

HematiteMoroccoMeknès-Tafilalet Region, Er Rachidia Province, Taouz

Hematite 7.5cm tall

HematiteMoroccoOriental Region, Nador Province, Nador

Hematite 7.5cm tall
Hematite 6.5cm tall

Hematite 6.7cm tall
Hematite 4cm tall

Hematite 2.9cm tall
Hematite 4.4cm tall

Hematite 3.9cm wide
Hematite 5.4cm wide

Hematite 11 cm tall

This locality for the most part produces very thin flat specimens of hematite of a type that is often associated with fumarolic activity. Many specimens from this locality have been produced but are more commonly seen for sale in Europe than the United States. They are quite delicate, but very interesting and usually not all that expensive. Few collectors can resist adding one or more of these to their collection. Tomasz Praszkier informs me that they come from a quarry right in the town of Nador.

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Rock Currier
Crystals not pistols.

Edited 79 time(s). Last edit at 03/11/2014 05:07PM by Rock Currier.
Rob Woodside August 23, 2010 06:22PM
Great work Rock!!! So Aristotle is responsible for the "-ite"!!!
Rock Currier August 23, 2010 06:59PM
Yes, Rob he is. I remember distinctly that when I was studying under him that that was the suffix he preferred over some of the other endings proposed by some of the degenerate Egyptians or the barbarous Normans.

Rock Currier
Crystals not pistols.
Rob Woodside August 23, 2010 08:20PM
You and Alexander had all the luck. I was stuck at the museum in Alexandria.

If you judge a scientist's work by the length of time it takes for people to come up with better ideas or significant improvements, Aristotle is the hands down winner. 1800 years until Gallileo did better at mechanics. 1900 years until Newton did better with gravity and cosmology. 2000 years until the the 19th century logicians improved on syllogisms, etc. I'm told that Mediterranean biologists are still reporting discoveries as new when Aristotle had already reported them. Of course the dark ages (the Age of Faith) helped.
Ralph Bottrill August 24, 2010 01:51AM
I'm sure Aristotle would roll in his grave to see we lost the "a" in haematite

Luiz Alberto Dias Menezes, Fo. August 24, 2010 03:16AM

I have the following comments to make about the Brazilian hematites:

- Hematite - Brazil, Bahia, Brumado (Bom Jesus dos Meiras) - 10.8 cm tall - Coll. Carles Millan - this specimens came by sure from Ouro Preo, not Brumado; this locality has never produced hematite "iron roses", only flattened bright sharp crystals; the only 2 localities that produce "iron roses" are Ouro Preto and Diamantina, and they can be easily distinguished by the fact that the "roses" from Ouro Preto show dull edges whilst on those from Diamantina the edges are flat and bright complaint letter sent. OK, locality changed and corrected.

- Hematite - Brazil, Bahia, Brumado (Bom Jesus dos Meiras), Serra das Éguas - 5.4 cm tall - Dan & Diana Weinrich Minerals - it is also not from Brumado, for the same reason: Brumado's hematites are always flattened, never rhombohedral, like this on the photo; it is very likely from Casa de Pedra mine, Congonhas do Campo, Minas Gerais. This one fixed and locality changed.

- I dislike the mention of Bom Jesus dos Meiras on tens of references on Mindat on minerals from Brumado; it was the old name of that town, that was changed more than 50 years ago, so I see no reason to mention it on the labels; Ouro Preto was called initially Villa Rica, and I am glad that nobody had found it out yet, so the hematite, imperial topaz, euclase labels are written only as from Ouro Preto, not "Ouro Preto (Villa Rica)" Looks like you have some work cut out for you. I don't think anyone will object to you making this change in the database, but you should probably start a locality thread for this and get peoples comments first.

- 2 Hematites from Rob Lavinsky, one 5.1 cm wide, the ther 4.1 cm wide - both are from Ouro Preto (Villa Rica), ops!, only Ouro Preto! These two fixed and locality changed.

- Hematite, 5 cm wide - Rob Lavinsky - it is from Brumado; This one is OK

- Hematite, 4 cm wide - Fabre Minerals - it looks mor likely to be from Novo Horizonte, Bahia, than from Brumado; I will ask Álvaro Lúcio's opinion about this specimen. This one left as OK for the time being.

- Hematite, about 4 cm tall - Joseph Freilich - it is not from Brumado, not from Ouro Preto, not from Casa de Pedra mine; my guess is that it can be from Águas Claras mine, Nova Lima, Minas Gerais; Locality change and correction made.

- Hematite, Brazil, Bahia, Novo Horizonte - 5.2 cm tall - Kristalle - it looks correct. This one OK.

- Hematite - 7.2 cm wide - Rob Lavinsky - it is from Ouro Preto - the association of white/light gray pyrophyllite, on the form of "open books", is a typical association on some (not all) hematite "iron roses" from Ouro Preto, and I have not seen yet this association on hematite "roses" from Diamantina. Locality changed and corrected OK

- Hematite, 7.1 cm wide, from Rob Lavinsky, and Hematite xl with minor Rutile, 9.3 cm - Weinrich Minerals - both are from Novo Horizonte, Bahia; the association with golden rutile is a definitive trademark of this locality. These are OK

- Hematite, 3 cm wide - Rob Lavinsky - it is from Diamantina (I will try to find out the precise locality, by now I am sure it is from Diamantina region, that also includes the neighbor cities of Gouveia, Couto de Magalhães and (not neighbor) Itamarandiba) OK changed and fixed.

- Hematite & oriented Rutile, 3.3 cm wide - definitively from Novo Horizonte, Bahia. This one OK

- Hematite - Brazil - Minas Gerais - Congonhas do Campo - 6 cm wide - Alan Goldstein - it might be correct, but it does nor look like the typical sharp rhombohedral crystals from Casa de Pedra mine, Congonhas do Campo, that by sure is the locality of the 3.7 cm wide xl cluster from Rob Lavinsky that is on its right side. Leave as OK for now.

- Hematite - Brazil - Minas Gerais - Congonhas do Campo - Casa de Pedra mine - 3.8 cm tall - - correct OK leave as is.

- Hematite - Brazil - Minas Gerais - Conselheiro Lafaiete (old Queluz de Minas) - Morro da Mina mine - 15 cm wide - it is a wrong locality; the manganese ore on this mine is composed of a metamorphic black manganese carbonate rock (queluzite) interbedded with gondites (quartz-spessartine) and some thin graphite layers; rhodonite is formed by contact metamorphism in fractures created by the intrusion of a leucocratic volcanic rock; there are no hematite layers interbedded with these carbonate manganese rocks, so there is no possibility to have a large hematite crystal cluster like that to have been formed inside this mine. OK, but can you give it a good locality? If not, then the best thing might be to put this image in the user only gallery.

- Rainbow Hematite - Andrade mine, Iron Quadrangle (this refers to an area with a near square shape measuring about 100 km wide) - Minas Gerais - it is correct (very nice photos). OK this one is OK - Collectors Edge Minerals - it might be correct; hematite crystals can theoretically be found in any of the tens of mines inside Iron Quadrangle, but the most famous was the Casa de Pedra mine, in Congonhas do Campo OK we will leave this one as is.

Hematite - 4.5 cm wide - Dan & Diana Winrich Minerals - pobably from Casa de Pedra mine. Complaint sent.

Hematite - Brazil - Minas Gerais - Jequitinhonha valley - Itamarandiba - 7,5 cm wide - Bráulio - the edges of the crystals look dull and oxydized, so the specimen may be from Ouro Preto; therefore, on some specimens from Diamantina region there may exist a coating of iron or manganese hydroxydes over the edges, that can easily be removed with an X-acto blade; the specimen on the right side , 6.3 cm wide, also from Bráulio, look to show sharp and bright edges, so this might be from Diamantina region What should we do about these images?

- I strongly disapprove the mention of "Jequitinhonha Valley": it is more than 2000 km long, so it means nothing; it would be the same as labelling the specimens from Elmwood mine as "Elmwood mine, Mississipi valley, Tennessee"; the same can be said about "Doce Valley", on the localities from the Governador Valadares region; this one is 1500 km long, so why write it on the labels? OK, I agree, but not all that stuff has to be written on the labels. The names are included in the locality strings so that if someone looks for that locality with the search fields, it will show up and still get them to the correct locality. I don't know if having locality pages for currently incorrect localities would work or not.

- Hematite - Brazil - Minas Gerais - Ouro Preto - 5,7 cm wide - Rob Lavinsky - looks correct; the Hematite crystal cluster, approx. 8 cm wide, on its right side, looks to be from Casa de Pedra mine This item is a duplicate of one already in the article so it was eliminated

- Hematite & Mica - 6.9 cm wide - Danny Jones - it is from Ouro Preto (the "mica" is indeed pyrophyllite)

- Hematite, 5,5 cm wide - Vasco Trancoso - Ouro Preto OK

- Hematite - 5 cm wide - Dan & Diana Weinrich Minerals - Ouro Preto OK

- Hematite - Brazil - Minas Gerais - Miguel Burnier (São Julião) - 5.6 cm wide - Eric Graff - correct. Miguel Burnier (near the border between Ouro Preto and Congonhas do Campo) is one of the 3 districts inside Ouro Preto that produce hematite "iron roses" (the others are Rodrigo Silva and Dom Bosco).

- Hematite - 4.5 cm wide - Rob Lavinsky - it is from Ouro Preto, Fixed, locality changed

- Hematite - 12.5 cm wide - Casa de Pedra mine. Fixed

- Hematite - 11 cm wide - Ouro Preto or Diamantina, Fixed. I chose Diamantina, because I find it hard to believe that the quartz area around Diamantina ever produced a 11 cm hematite rose.

- Hematite - 5.7 cm wide - Rob Lavinsky - Ouro Preto Complaint sent. Locality changed to Ouro Preto.


Edited 8 time(s). Last edit at 08/26/2010 08:02AM by Rock Currier.
Dana Slaughter August 24, 2010 04:01AM
Ahhhhhhhhh....pure heaven! I've never seen so many beautiful rocks in one place! Keep your rhodos and wulfies---I love the hematites! Awesome work.

Rock Currier August 24, 2010 06:54AM
I was hoping that you would show up and take a look at the Brazilian Hematites. When going through them and selecting them I realized it was a bit of a mess. I also have never seen anything but nice sharp bladed hematites from Brumado, but although I had the privileged of spending a week with four friends as a guest of the mine and collecting everything we could, my experience at the locality is not that great. When you can Luis you need to try and find the time to go into the Brazilian localities and first clean up that mess and then start going through the images and cleaning those up. The hematites are just the tip of the iceberg. I already went through and cleaned up about 100 to 200 really obvious amethysts and rutile pictures. Novo Horizonte Rutiles listed as Minas Gerais and RGS amethyst listed as Minas Gerais and Bahia and Artigas amethysts listed as as Minas Gerais or RGS. I think all the managers have confidence in you and I think you can clean up the Brazilian localities pretty much as you wish. If you are a little unsure about the changes you want to make, go to the locality forum or the managers forum and post what you would like to do.

If the pictures are really bad I just consign them to the user gallery only. If they are really obvious errors I just go ahead and fix them. If they are probably errors, I give the unloader the benefit of the doubt and send out a complaint letter telling them what I think about the locality and asking them if they have better information than I do and ask them if they would consider changing the locality. Ill fix the ones that you commented on above. Thanks for you help.

Rock Currier
Crystals not pistols.
Rock Currier August 24, 2010 08:24AM
Luis, I have been going through your suggestions. Boy what a mess. I have a suggestion that you may find useful in doing this kind of work. When you want to refer to a particular image a good way to do it here in the message board fields like this one is to click on the image and when the big image pops up you copy the URL in the field at the top of the page and then come back to this page and write something like This Hematie. Select This Hematite and then click on the world icon with the infinity symbol in it and then copy the URL into the field in the little box that will appear and then click OK. This will link your selected text to the image. It will save you from having to laboriously type in the necessary descriptions like you did above. You will note that I edited your message and linked the images you were talking about to the actual images. Now I can click on the links, go directly to the pictures and send complaint letters directly from the big images. You can do this too, and when you start to work on the Brazil images, you will be doing this a lot. By the way, that was an excellent job you did above. I just wish there were not so many more that need cleaning up.

Rock Currier
Crystals not pistols.
Luiz Alberto Dias Menezes, Fo. August 24, 2010 10:27PM

I will try to help to clean the mess about some Brazilian localities as much as I can; therefore, now I will start my preparation for Denver, I will be able to start ding it only after my return to Brazil on the end of September.

Thank you for your suggestions, they will save me a lot of time.

Rock Currier August 25, 2010 04:30AM
Good hunting, see you in Denver soon.

Rock Currier
Crystals not pistols.
Rock Currier August 26, 2010 08:38AM
I think I have fixed most of the problems with the Brazilian Hematite images although there are a few that we left intact pending your checking with Alvaro etc. We could really use some commentary on the various localities and the specimens that come from there, especially Ouro Preto. This is a big town and the hematites must come from various mines near there.

Rock Currier
Crystals not pistols.
Erik Vercammen August 26, 2010 09:47AM
The iron-rose pictured in
was found to be fake, glued together a century or so ago. It is no longer in display in Bern.

See page 52 'Die Mineralien der Schweiz' by Max Weibel, Stefan Graeser, Walter F. Oberholzer, Hans-Anton Stalder & Walter Gabriel1990, Birkhauser Verlag, Basel
Rock Currier August 26, 2010 08:31PM
Erich, you are breaking my heart! But thanks for the heads up. I think I will leave the picture there and put your comment and reference below it.

Rock Currier
Crystals not pistols.
Rock Currier August 29, 2010 12:53AM
The first draft of the Best Minerals article on Hematite - Argentina to Morocco has been finished.

Rock Currier
Crystals not pistols.
Steven Kuitems September 01, 2010 04:59PM
Hematite has been well known from the Franklin, NJ mining area for almost two centuries. Even franklinite in the early 1800's was erroneously thought to be an ore of iron and became the source of much litigation dividing zinc from iron mineral rights. True hematite has been sporadically found at both the Franklin Mine and the Sterling Hill Mine but not in commercially viable ammounts. The most common presentation of hematite is as large grained massive bands or vein-like structures which although notable have not attracted much collector interest. The most interesting form present in the majority of collections are the sharp parting blocks of hematite with prominent 90 degree stiations. These straitions are not cleavages, but form on the surface from the parting planes. Hematite is usually associated with andradite, calcite, franklinite, rhodonite, epidote, actinolite and gahnite. The surface striations are also found on many of the crystalized forms found in the mines. Isolated fine crystals of hematite are found in carbonate veins, cavities, and fissures, they usually are small and very splendant with pseudo-cubic forms and rarely hexagonal forms. Several notable rare occurances of the hexagonal form are found with open cavities in which freidelite has crystalized and also in some of the bementite occurences at the Franklin Mine. Blocky pseudo-cubic crystals have been found several times at Franklin,NJ often with little studied secondary minerals some of these may be pseudomorphs of magnetite or franklinite. The hematite associated with rhodonite, actinolite and epidote forms one of the more colorfull assemblages of hematite at Franklin, NJ. Palache has documented and desribed the find of small tabular to specular hematite from the 300' level at the Franklin Mine and these appear on the specimen market from time to time often because of the aesthetic sphalerite crystals and quartz crystals found on this level along with the rare mineral lennilenapeite. At the sterling Hill Mine in Ogdensburg, NJ a similar find of the tiny crystals on calcite came from the 900' level. The finest tabular crystals found came from a late excavation on the 1100' level in the safety stope area in 1989 with thin tabular crystals up to 5cm in pockets within calcite, quartz and hedenbergite. In the North Ore Body at the Sterling Hill Mine hematite is more common in massive and oxidized forms but the more unusuall type is as mammelary or botryoidal froms found near the keel of the ore body.
Roger Lang March 11, 2014 04:46PM
the moroccan hematites under the headline Mt. Ouichane, Segangane, Nador are from a different locality:
Tom Praskiers pic of the large hematite already links to that locality which is near the town of Nador.

Rock Currier March 11, 2014 05:10PM
Yes, thanks for the post. Tomasz Praszkier informs me that the quarry from which these hematites come is right in the town of Nador.

Rock Currier
Crystals not pistols.
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