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Pseudomorphs & Replacements D to I

Posted by Rock Currier  
Rock Currier December 25, 2010 09:18PM
Click here to view Pseudomorphs & Replacements A & B. Click here to view Pseudomorphs & Replacements C. Click here to view Pseudomorphs & Replacements J to M. Click here for Pseudomorphs & Replacements N to P. Click here to view Pseudomorphs & Replacements Quartz. Click here to view Pseudomorphs & Replacements R to Z. Click here to view Best Minerals P, click here to view and here for Best Minerals A to Z and here for Fast Navigation of completed Best Minerals articles.

Can you help make this a better article? What good localities have we missed? Can you supply pictures of better specimens than those we show here? Can you give us more and better information about the specimens from these localities? Can you supply better geological or historical information on these localities?

Datolite & Quartz after AnhydriteUSANew Jersey, Passaic Co., Haledon, Braen Quarry (Braen Stone Industry Quarry; Sam Braen Quarry)

Datolite after Anhydrite 8.1cm wide
Datolite after Anhydrite 5.4cm wide

Datolite & Quartz after Anhydrite ~14cm
Datolite after Anhydrite ~14cm wide

Datolite after Anhydrite 5.4cm wide

Many of these pseudomorphs may be somewhat complex. It may be that most of them were originally crystals of Anhydrite covered by a thin crusts or even partial crusts of quartz. Later the Anhydrite was dissolved and then Datolite and other minerals were deposited on the quartz at a later date. Often it may be that the amount of Datolite and other minerals are much greater than the amount of the quartz in the specimen.

Datolite after Anhydrite with Apophyllite/b>USANew Jersey, Somerset Co., Bernards Township, Millington Quarry (Morris County Crushed Stone Co. Quarry; Tilcon Quarry)

Datolite after Anhydrite 5cm wide
Back side of left

Danburite after Topaz with TopazBurma (Myanmar)Mandalay Division, Sagaing District, Mogok

Danburite @ Topaz w Topaz 8.4cm tall

Descloizite after Vanadinite with CalciteMexicoChihuahua, Mun. de Coyame, Cuchillo Parado, Aurora Mine

Descloizite @ Vanadinite & Calcite 2.5cm

Descloizite after VanadinitePortugalBeja District, Moura, Sobral da Adiça

Descloizite after Vanadinite 3cm wide

Descloizite after VanadiniteNamibiaOtjozondjupa Region, Grootfontein District, Grootfontein, Abenab Mine

Descloizite @ Vanadinite & Calcite 3.6cm
Descloizite after Vanadinite ~5.5cm tall

Descloizite after Vanadinite ~7.6cm wide

These are old time specimens and I don't think any of them have been produced during the last 75 years or so. They used to be fairly abundant and you can often see them in old institutional collections. All that I have seen have sustained some damage and most of them still have altered at least on the surface to Descloizite and all have cores of red Vanadinite. I have seen some crystals of at least four inches, and if these had been encountered and carefully collected in an unaltered state they would have produced undoubtedly the worlds finest Vanadinite specimens.

Descloizite after WulfeniteUSAArizona, Pinal Co., Mammoth District, Tiger, St. Anthony deposit, Mammoth-Saint Anthony Mine (Mammoth-St Anthony Mine; Mammoth Mine; St. Anthony Mine)

Descloizite @ Wulfenite 1.5cm wide

Digenite after ChalcociteUKCornwall, St Just District, Cornwall, St Just, Botallack, Botallack Mine

Digenite after Chalcocite ~6.5cm wide

Dioptase after CalciteDemocratic Republic of Congo (Zaïre)Katanga (Shaba), Katanga Copper Crescent, Central area, Shinkolobwe, Tantara Mine

Dioptase after Calcite 9.7cm across
Dioptase after Calcite 6.5cm wide

Dolomite after AragoniteItalyTuscany, Grosseto Province, Gavorrano, Gavorrano Mine

Dolomite @ Aragonite ~5cm wide

Dolomite after AragoniteNamibiaOtjikoto (Oshikoto) Region, Tsumeb, Tsumeb Mine (Tsumcorp Mine)

Dolomite after Aragonite 4cm tall

Dolomite after AragoniteUSANew Mexico, Eddy Co.

Dolomite @ Aragonite to 5.5cm wide

Every area of the world where collectors exist in large numbers, there are local localities like these that produce specimens that are not very notable, but never the less cherished and collected by local collectors. Even though they may be locally abundant, they do not achieve wide distribution in the collector community because of their unremarkable character and it will pay no one enough to go to the trouble of collecting them and selling them. These may be prime examples of such specimens but in truth I have no idea of how abundant these specimens are and I hope someone who has collected them may read this and volunteer specific information about this locality and its specimens.

Dolomite after AragoniteUSANew Mexico, Guadalupe Co.

Dolomite @ Aragonite 4.1cm wide

Dolomite after AragoniteUSAWyoming, Big Horn Co., Lovell

Dolomite @ Aragonite 2.7cm
Dolomite after Aragonite 5cm wide

Dolomite after CalciteBelgiumNamur Province, Namur, Beez

Dolomite after Calcite 8.2cm tall

Dolomite after CalciteBulgariaPlovdiv Oblast, Rhodope Mts, Laki (Luki), Djurkovo Complex, Droujba (Drujba) Mine

Dolomite after Calcite 6cm tall

Dolomite after CalciteBulgariaPlovdiv Oblast, Rhodope Mts, Laki (Luki), Govedarnika Mine

Dolomite after Calcite 10cm wide

Dolomite after CalciteGermanyNorth Rhine-Westphalia, Sauerland, Lennestadt, Grevenbrück quarry

Dolomite @ Calcite 7.5cm wide
Dolomite after Calcite 5.5cm wide

Dolomite @ Calcite 11cm wide
Dolomite after Calcite 9cm wide

Dolomite after CalciteGermanySaxony, Erzgebirge, Schlema-Hartenstein District, Shaft 371

Dolomite @ Calcite 6cm tall

Dolomite after Calcite & CalciteMexicoGuanajuato

Dolomite after Calcite 5.9cm wide

Dolomite after CalciteNamibiaOtjikoto (Oshikoto) Region, Tsumeb, Tsumeb Mine (Tsumcorp Mine)

Dolomite after Calcite 7.1cm wide
Dolomite after Calcite 2.8cm wide

Dolomite after Calcite 7.5cm tall
Back side of left

Dolomite after Calcite 9cm wide

Dolomite after Calcite & CalcitePolandLower Silesia (Dolnoslaskie), Rudawy Janowickie Mts, Czarnów, Redziny, Dolomite quarry

Dolomite after Calcite 16cm wide
Dolomite after Calcite 12cm wide

Dolomite after CalciteRomaniaMaramures Co., Cavnic (Kapnic; Kapnik)

Dolomite after Calcite 9.5cm wide
Dolomite after Calcite 13cm wide

Dolomite after CalciteRomaniaMaramures Co., Cavnic (Kapnic; Kapnik), Cavnic Mine (Kapnikbánya)

Dolomite @ Calcite 8cm wide

Dolomite after HaliteUSAOklahoma, Major Co., Fairfiew

Dolomite after Halite 7.5cm wide

Dolomite after MagnesiteItalyPiedmont, Torino Province, Canavese District, Chiusella Valley, Traversella, Traversella Mine

Dolomite @ Magnesite FOV 6cm

Dolomite after QuartzRomaniaMaramures Co., Cavnic (Kapnic; Kapnik), Cavnic Mine (Kapnikbánya)

Dolomite after Quartz 9.8cm

Dolomite after SideriteRomaniaMaramures Co., Cavnic (Kapnic; Kapnik)

Dolomite after Siderite 14cm wide

Dolomite after SideriteRomaniaMaramures Co., Baia Mare (Nagybánya), Chiuzbaia (Kisbánya), Herja Mine

Dolomite @ Siderite 12.7cm wide

Dolomite after StibniteRomaniaMaramures Co., Cavnic (Kapnic; Kapnik)

Dolomite after Stibnite 10.9cm tall

Duftite after WulfeniteNamibiaOtjikoto (Oshikoto) Region, Tsumeb

Duftite @ Azurite and Mimetite 4cm tall

Duftite after WulfeniteNamibiaOtjikoto (Oshikoto) Region, Tsumeb

Duftite @ Wulfenite 3.3cm wide
Duftite @ Wulfenite 2.5cm center

Dyscrasite after SilverCzech RepublicBohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen), Central Bohemia Region, Príbram

Dyscrasite after Silver 4cm

One wonders if this specimen is described accurately. It would appear that the shape of the crystal is all wrong for a silver crystal.

Elpadite, Aegirine etc. after EudayliteGreenlandKitaa (West Greenland) Province, Narsaq, Igaliku (Igaliko), Narssârssuk (Narsarsuk), Narssârssuk pegmatite (Narsarsuk pegmatite)

Elpadite @ Eudaylite xl. ~2cm
Elpadite @ Eudaylite xls to 1.5cm

Elpadite after Serandite; Serandite (bottom)CanadaQuébec, Montérégie, Rouville RCM, Mont Saint-Hilaire, Poudrette quarry (Demix quarry; Uni-Mix quarry; Desourdy quarry)

Elpidite after Serandite ~11cm; bottom is Serandite

Ernstite after EosphoriteBrazilMinas Gerais, Doce valley, Divino das Laranjeiras

Ernstite after Eosphorite 7.5cm wide

Epsomite after GlauberiteAustraliaSouth Australia, Mt Lofty Ranges, North Mt Lofty Ranges, Lochiel, Lake Bumbunga

Epsomite after Glauberite 5cm
Epsomite after Glauberite 5.5 cm wide

Eriochalcite after BandyliteChileAntofagasta Region, El Loa Province, Calama, Chuquicamata District, Toki Cu deposit, Queténa Mine

Eriochalcite after Bandylite 7.8cm wide
Eriochalcite @ Bandylite close up

The few good specimens of Bandylite I have seen look like little green playing cards on matrix and here you can see the some rather rough little green "playing cards". Bandylite is not very stable and probably most specimens of Bandylite have been altered to Eriochalcite.

Ettringite after calcite?South AfricaNorthern Cape Province, Kalahari manganese fields, Kuruman, N'Chwaning Mines

Ettringite after Calcite? 4.7cm tall

Euclase after BerylZimbabweMashonaland West, Karoi (Urungwe; Hurungwe) District

Euclase after Beryl 8cm tall

There are much better examples of this type of pseudomorph and when pictures become available we will place them here.

Fahlunite after CordieriteUSAConnecticut, Middlesex Co., Haddam, Timms Hill (Tim's Hill)

Fahlunite @ Cordierite 11 cm wide

Feldspar after LepidoliteBrazilMinas Gerais, Jequitinhonha valley, Capelinha

Feldspar @ lepidolite w Tourmaline4.7cm

It is debatable that the feldspar is really replacing the lepidolite in this specimen, but saying so might help sell the specimen. Also its a pretty specimen and lord knows most of the pseudomorphs pictured here can use all the help they can get.

feldspar after LeuciteCzech RepublicBohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen), Karlovy Vary Region, Krušné Hory Mts (Erzgebirge), Ostrov, Loucná

feldspar after Leucite FOV 7.5cm wide
feldspar after Leucite 4.3cm

Feldspar after TourmalineUSACalifornia, San Diego Co., Mesa Grande District, Gem Hill, Himalaya Mine (Himalaya dikes; Himalaya pegmatite)

Feldspar after Tourmaline 5.6cm tall

Ferberite after ScheeliteFranceLimousin, Haute-Vienne, Saint-Léonard-de-Noblat, Puy-les-Vignes

Ferberite after Scheelite ~7.5cm wide
Ferberite after Scheelite 7cm wide

Ferberite after ScheeliteJapanHonshu Island, Chubu region, Yamanashi prefecture, Kinpuzan district, Kofu City, Otome mine (Mitake mine)

Ferberite after Scheelite 3.8cm tall

Fluorapatite after PyromorphiteGermanySaxony, Erzgebirge, Freiberg District, Halsbrücke, Lorenz Gegentrum Mine

Fluorapatite @ Pyromorphite FOV 6mm

Fluorite after CalciteMexicoChihuahua, Mun. de Aquiles Serdán, Santa Eulalia District

Fluorite @ Calcite 14.7cm tall
Fluorite after Calcite 9.3cm wide

Fluorite after crinoid stemUKEngland, Derbyshire, Ashover, Milltown, Milltown Quarry

Fluorite after crinoid stem 1cm wide

Fluorite after micaNamibiaErongo Region, Usakos and Omaruru Districts, Erongo Mountain

Fluorite after mica 3.6cm tall
Fluorite after mica, 4.5cm tall
Fluorite after mica
Fluorite after mica

Fluorite after WoodGermanySaxony, Chemnitz, Hilbersdorf

Fluorite after Wood 5.2cm wide

Galena after CerussiteGermanyNorth Rhine-Westphalia, Niederberg area, Wülfrath, Rohdenhaus, Rohdenhaus Quarry (incl. Krieger Quarry)

Galena after Cerussite FOV 4mm

Galena after Pillaite?ItalyTuscany, Lucca Province, Apuan Alps, Stazzema, Ponte Stazzemese, Buca della Vena Mine

Galena after Pillaite? FOV 3mm?

Galena after PyromorphiteFranceBrittany, Finistère, Huelgoat

Galena @ Pyromorphite 2cm wide

Galena after PyromorphiteFranceBrittany, Finistère, Poullaouen

Galena after Pyromorphite ~7.5cm wide

Galena after PyromorphiteGermanyRhineland-Palatinate, Hunsrück Mts, Bernkastel-Kues

Galena after Pyromorphite ~4.5cm tall
Galena after Pyromorphite ~3.5cm tall
Galena after Pyromorphite ~4.5cm wide
Galena after Pyromorphite ~6.5c wide

These pseudomorphs of Galena after Pyromorphite are not always complete replacements but never the less these are amongst the most sought after pseudomorphs by collectors, and can bring thousands of dollars each. Some of the ones pictured here and below are amongst the best examples of these pseudomorphs.

Galena after PyromorphiteGermanyRhineland-Palatinate, Hunsrück Mts, Bernkastel-Kues, Kautenbach Mine

Galena after Pyromorphite ~8.5cm tall
Galena @ Pyromorphite 4cm wide
Galena @ Pyromorphite 2.6cm wide

Galena @ Pyromorphite 6cm wide

Galena after PyromorphiteUKEngland, Cornwall, St Agnes District, Perranzabuloe, Hendra Croft, Wheal Hope (incl. South Wheal Budnick; West Wheal Hope)

Pyromorphite after Galena ~8cm tall
Galena after Pyromorphite 10.5cm wide
Galena after Pyromorphite 2.7cm

Garnet after Orthoclase & EpidoteChinaHebei Province, Handan Prefecture

Garmet @ Orthoclase & Epidote 6.3cm
Another view of left

Gasparite-(Ce) after SynchysiteItalyPiedmont, Verbano-Cusio-Ossola Province, Ossola Valley, Baceno, Mount Cervandone, Devero Alp (Devero Valley; Val Devero)

1.7mm Gasparite-(Ce) @ Synchysite
1.8mm Gasparite-(Ce) @ Synchysite

Gmelinite after ChabaziteCanadaNova Scotia, Cumberland Co., Bay of Fundy, Five Islands

Gmelinite @ Chabazite 4.1 cm tall
Gmelinite @ Chabazite 4.1cm tall

Gmelinite @ Chabazite 7.6cm wide
Gmelinite after Chabazite 7.3cm wide

Gobbinsite after garronit??CanadaQuébec, Montérégie, Rouville RCM, Mont Saint-Hilaire, Poudrette quarry (Demix quarry; Uni-Mix quarry; Desourdy quarry)

Gobbinsite after Garronite?? & Analcime FOV 1.7cm

The Goethite pseudomorphs shown below in many cases would probably be more accurately labeled limonite after xxxxx. Almost certainly the majority of the specimens shown below were never accurately characterized before posting. These together with those in the section containing the limonite pseudomorphs represent a very large group of pseudomorphs, and a large collection of the many different types could be made.

Goethite after CalciteGermanySazony, Erzgebirge, Eibenstock

Goethite after Calcite 11.5cm wide

Goethite after CalciteNamibiaErongo Region, Usakos and Omaruru Districts, Erongo Mountain

Goethite after Calcite 4.5cm tall

Goethite after CupriteGermanyNorth Rhine-Westphalia, Bergisches Land, Rösrath, Hoffnungsthal, Leibnitz-Dante Mine

Goethite @ Cuprite FOV 1.2mm wide

Goethite after GypsumMexicoChihuahua, La Negra, Mun. de Carmargo, Hercules Mine (Negra Mine)

Goethite after Gypsum 4.2cm wide

Goethite after GypsumMexicoChihuahua, Mun. de Aquiles Serdán, Santa Eulalia District

Geothite after Gypsum 16.0cm tall

Goethite after Gypusm? & CalciteMoroccoAtlas Mts.

Goethite after Gypsum with Calcite 9cm wide

Goethite after IlvaiteRussiaFar-Eastern Region, Primorskiy Kray, Dal'negorsk (Dalnegorsk; Tetyukhe; Tjetjuche; Tetjuche), Nikolaevskiy Mine

Goethite @ Ilvaite 4.7cm
Goethite after Ilvaite 5.7cm tall

Goethite after Kutnohorite?South AfricaNorthern Cape Province, Kalahari manganese fields, Kuruman, N'Chwaning Mines

Goethite @ Kutnohorite? 6.5cm tall

Goethite after MarcasiteHungaryPest Co., Budai Mts., Budaörs, Frank Hill (Kakukk Hill)

Goethite after Marcasite 2cm
Goethite after Marcasite 3.5cm wide

Goethite after MarcasiteUSAWisconsin, Columbia Co.

Goethite after Marcasite 3cm wide

Goethite after SideriteUSAColorado, Park and Teller Cos., Crystal Peak area

Goethite after Siderite 5.5cm wide

Goethite after PyriteAustriaTyrol, East Tyrol, Tauern valley, Matrei in Osttirol, Nussingkogel Mt.

Goethite after Pyrite 2.9cm

Goethite after PyriteBrazilMinas Gerais, Jequitinhonha valley, Diamantina

Goethite after Pyrite 5.4cm wide

Goethite after PyriteItalyTuscany, Massa-Carrara Province, Fivizzano, Sassalbo, Ospedalaccio Pass

Goethite after Pyrite 4cm wide

Goethite after PyriteMexicoSonora, Mun. de Alamos, San Antonio

Goethite after Pyrite 11cm wide

Goethite after PyriteUKWales, Cardiff (South Glamorgan; Glamorgan), Bwlch-y-cwm, Blaengwynlais Quarry

Goethite after Pyrite, coin for scale

Goethite after PyriteUSAColorado, Summit Co., Breckenridge District

Goethite after Pyrite 2.8cm wide

Goethite after PyriteUSAIndiana, Orange Co., Paoli

Goethite after Pyrite to 1cm

Goethite after PyriteUSAWisconsin, Columbia Co.

Goethite after Pyrite ~2cm wide

Goethite after PyrrhotiteSwitzerlandWallis (Valais), Lötschen valley, Blatten

Goethite after Pyrrhotite 3.4cm tall
1.2cm Goethite after Pyrrhotite

Goethite after QuartzUSAColorado, Park Co., Lake George, Steven's Ranch, Yucca Hill, R. A. Kosnar claim

Goethite after Quartz 3.3cm wide

Goethite after SideriteUKEngland, Cornwall, St Just District, St Just, Kenidjack Valley, Wheal Drea

Goethite after Siderite FOV 1.7cm

Goethite after SideriteUSAColorado, El Paso Co., Pikes Peak, Sentinel rock, Mona Mine

Goethite @ Siderite 9.7cm tall

Goethite after Siderite & QuartzUSAColorado, Park Co., Lake George (Badger Flats) Area

Goethite after Siderite with Quartz ~7cm tall

Goethite after SideriteUSAWashington, Okanogan Co., Golden Horn Batholith, Washington Pass

Goethite @ Siderite FOV 2.2mm wide

Goethite after StrengiteGermanyBaden-Württemberg, Black Forest, Wolfach, Oberwolfach, Rankach valley, Clara Mine

Goethite @ Strengite FOV 3mm wide

Goethite after ?NamibiaErongo Region

Goethite after ? 11.5cm wide

Grossular-Hibschite (akhtaragdite) after helvite?RussiaEastern-Siberian Region, Saha Republic (Sakha Republic; Yakutia), Vilyui River Basin (Vilui River Basin; Wilui River Basin), Akhtaragda River mouth (Achtaragda River mouth)

Grossular/Hibschite @ Helvite 2.3cm

Grossular after EpidoteUSAVermont, Lowell & Eden, Orleans & Lamoille Cos., Belvidere Mountain Quarries (Vermont Asbestos Group mine; VAG mine; Ruberoid Asbestos mine; Eden Mills quarries)

Grossular after Epidote 2.4cm tall
Grossular @ Epidote 4.3cm

Grossular after ? 5cm tall
Grossular after ? 6cm tall

Grossular after Epidote 7.4cm tall

gummite after bröggeriteRussiaNorthern Region, Karelia Republic, Northern Karelia, Chupa pegmatite field

gummite after bröggerite 5cm wide
gummite @ bröggerite FOV 1.5cm

gummite @ bröggerite 5.5cm wide

gummite after UraniniteDemocratic Republic of Congo (Zaïre)Katanga (Shaba), Katanga Copper Crescent, Central area, Shinkolobwe, Shinkolobwe Mine (Kasolo Mine)

gummite @ Uraninite 7.5cm wide
close up of left

Gypsum after fossilAustraliaSouth Australia, Murray Basin, Morgan

Gypsum after fossil FOV 3.5cm

Gypsum after GlauberiteUSAArizona, Yavapai Co., Black Hills (Black Hill Range), Verde District, Jerome

Gypsum @ Glauberite ~5cm
Gypsum after Glauberite 5cm wide

The Calcite pseudomorphs after Glauberite are much more common than the Gypsum pseudomorphs after Glauberite pictured above. But I don't think you could call them rare.

Gypsum after HaliteUSACalifornia, Santa Barbara Co.

Gypsum @ Halite 4cm wide
Gypsum @ Halite 3.9cm wide

Gypsum after HaliteUSAOklahoma, Greer Co.

Gypsum after Halite 2.1cm wide

Halite on bottlePolandMalopolskie, Bochnia, Bochnia Mine

Halite to 1cm on bottle

Hausmnnite after ManganiteGermanyThuringia, Harz Mts, Nordhausen, Ilfeld

Hausmnnite after Manganite 4.4cm wide
Hausmnnite @ Manganite 3.9cm

Hausmannite @ Manganite 8.3cm wide
Close up of left

Hedenbergite after IlvaiteRussiaFar-Eastern Region, Primorskiy Kray, Dal'negorsk (Dalnegorsk; Tetyukhe; Tjetjuche; Tetjuche)

Hedenbergite after Ilvaite 8.2cm tall

Hematite after ActinoliteGermanySaxony, Zwickau, Maxhütte

Hematite @ Actinolite 10.2cm wide

Hematite after CalciteGermanyNorth Rhine-Westphalia, Sauerland, Iserlohn

Hematite after Calcite 4.2cm wide

Hematite after CalciteGermanySaxony, Erzgebirge, Schwarzenberg District, Langenberg, Graul

Hematite after Calcite 5cm wide

Hematite after CalciteGermanyThuringia, Thuringian Forest, Ilmenau

Hematite after Calcite 4.4cm wide

Hematite after EpidoteUSAWashington, King Co., North Bend, Green Mountain, Bessemer Ridge

Hematite after Epidote ~4cm tall

Hematite after MagnetiteArgentinaLa Rioja, Milagros

Hematite @ Magnetite ~3.6cm wide

Hematite after MagnetiteArgentinaMendoza, Altiplano de Payún Matru, Payún volcano

Hematite @ Magnetite 7.5cm tall
Hematite after Magnetite 7.9cm tall

Hematite @ Magnetite 4cm wide
Hematite @ Magnetite 10.3cm

Hematite after Magnetite 11.7cm wide

These showed up on the market about ten years ago and were greatly appreciated by mineral collectors. Some of the better larger specimens sold for several thousand dollars. Some of the better big specimens measured as much as 20 or more cm in diameter.

Hematite after MagnetiteNorwayAkershus, Nittedal, Bjønndalen quarry

Hematite after Magnetite 1cm wide

Hematite after MagnetiteUSAUtah, Beaver Co., Beaver Lake Mts, Beaver Lake District, Black Rock Mine

Hematite after Magnetite 6.8cm wide

Hematite after MagnetiteUSAUtah, Iron Co., Iron Springs District (Iron and Granite Mountains & Three Peaks)

Hematite @ Magnetite 5cm
Hematite after Magnetite 7cm wide

Hematite @ Magnetite 6cm tall

Hematite after MagnetiteUSAUtah, Millard Co., Twin Peak, Twin Peaks Prospect (Black Crystal; Black Diamond)

Hematite @ Magnetite 4.2cm
Hematite @ Magnetite 4.9cm wide

Hematite after MarcasiteEgyptMatruh Governorate, Farafra Oasis

Hematite after Marcasite 5cm tall
Hematite after Marcasite 5.1cm tall

Hematite @ Marcasite 5.2cm wide
Hematite @ Marcasite 5cm wide

Hematite after Marcasite 4.1cm wide
Hematite @ Marcasite 2.2cm tall

Hematite after Marcasite 6.5cm wide
Hematite @ Marcasite 7.2cm

These specimens are mostly picked up on the surface of the desert with very little digging needed. The are apparently abundant and even the best of them sold for modest prices. Everyone could afford one of these.

Hematite after PyriteArgentinaSan Luis, Inti Huasi, San Juan Mine

Hematite after Pyrite 3cm wide

Hematite after fossil shellEgyptMatruh Governorate, Farafra Oasis

Hematite after fossil shell 4.6cm

Hematite after SideriteUSAColorado, Teller Co., Crystal Peak area

Hematite after Siderite 5.8cm wide
Hematite after Siderite 6.3cm

Hematite after SideriteUSAColorado, El Paso Co., Cheyenne District (St. Peters Dome District), St Peters Dome, Eureka Tunnel (1-15 pegmatite)

Hematite after Siderite 5.3cm wide

Hematite? after SideriteUSAColorado, Park Co., Lake George, Steven's Ranch, Yucca Hill, R. A. Kosnar claim

Hematite? after Siderite 3.2cm wide
Hematite? @ Siderite 4.8cm wide

Hemimorphite after CalciteUSAWisconsin, Iowa Co., Upper Mississippi Valley District, Mineral Point

Hemimorphite after Calcite 8.6cm

Hemimorphite after DolomiteUSAMissouri, Newton Co., Tri-State District, Granby Field

Hemimorphite @ Dolomite 9.5cm tall

Heterosite after TriphyliteUSANew Hampshire, Grafton Co., Groton, Palermo No. 1 Mine (Palermo #1 pegmatite)

Heterosite @ Triphylite 1.5cm

Hingganite-(Yb) after ?NorwayTelemark, Kragerø, Tangen Feldspar Quarry

A 2cm Hingganite-(Yb) after ?

Hinsdalite after PyromorphiteAustraliaTasmania, Zeehan district, Zeehan, Zeehan Queen mine ("Sylvester-Queen") Pyromorphite lode

Hinsdalite after Pyromorphite 4.3cm wide
Hinsdalite@Pyromorphte 2.6cm

Hinsdalite to 6mm @ Pyromorphite

Hinsdalite after PyromorphiteFranceBrittany, Finistère, Huelgoat, Poullaba vein

Hinsdalite @ Pyromorphite FOV 8mm

Honessite after MilleriteUSAKentucky, Lincoln Co., Halls Gap

Honessite @ Millerite ~3cm wide
Honessite after Millerite 6.2cm wide

Huntite after HydromagnesiteCzech RepublicMoravia (Mähren; Maehren), South Moravia Region, Hrubšice, Oslavany, U Pustého Mlýna Quarry

Huntite after Hydromagnesite
Huntite after Hydromagnesite

Hydrocerussite afer AnglesiteNamibiaOtjikoto (Oshikoto) Region, Tsumeb, Tsumeb Mine (Tsumcorp Mine)

Hydrocerussite @ Anglesite 8.4cm

Hydrocerussite after CerussiteNamibiaOtjikoto (Oshikoto) Region, Tsumeb

Hydrocerussite @ Cerussite 3.6cm
A 6mm Hydrocerussite @ Cerussite

The alteration of the specimen on the left is only skin deep.

Hydrotalcite after SpinelUSANew York, Orange Co., Town of Warwick, Amity

Hydrotalcite after Spinel ~7cm wide

Hydroxylapatite after GypsumMexicoDurango, Mun. de Mapimí, Mapimí, Asterillo Mine

Hydroxylapatite after Gypsum 4.9cm tall
Close up of left

Ice after waterCanadaOntario, Welland Co., Niagara Falls

Ice after water & water ~1Km

Strictly speaking ice after water is not a pseudomorph, because water is not considered to be a mineral, but I thought it might be fun to include them here to start people thinking.

Ice after WaterSwedenUppland, Uppsala

Ice after water 1cm
Ice after Water ~2cm

Ice after Water 1.5 to 3cm
Ice after water ~2cm

Imogolite after pumiceJapanHonshu Island, Kanto Region, Tochigi Prefecture, Fukaiwa, Kanuma

Imogolite after pumice 0.6cm wide

Iriginite after Umohoite & CalcurmoliteKazakhstanAlmaty Province (Almaty Oblysy; Almati Oblast'), Chu-Ili Mts, Kyzylsai Mo-U deposit

Iringite @ Umohoite 4cm wide
Close up of left

Iriginite @ Umohoite 4.5cm

Click here to view Pseudomorphs & Replacements A & B. Click here to view Pseudomorphs & Replacements C. Click here to view Pseudomorphs & Replacements J to M. Click here for Pseudomorphs & Replacements N to P. Click here to view Pseudomorphs & Replacements Quartz. Click here to view Pseudomorphs & Replacements R to Z. Click here to view Best Minerals P, click here to view and here for Best Minerals A to Z and here for Fast Navigation of completed Best Minerals articles.

Rock Currier
Crystals not pistols.

Edited 38 time(s). Last edit at 04/20/2013 10:52AM by Rock Currier.
Andrew Tuma December 25, 2010 11:00PM
Hi Rock,

Very nice work on the article, however I have a small point of consideration on the Hinsdalite after Pyromorphite
from the (Sylverster, Zeehan Queen mine) mine, Zeehan Tasmania. Hinsdaleite was the historical name given to the pseudomorph mineral after pyromorphite from this mine and so has been the name provided to all white to yellow changed pyromorphite.

After I had posted a photo of Hinsdalite after Pyromorphite on my list, Uwe Kolitsch asked if we could discount plumbogummite. After a bit of discussion between Myself, Uwe and Ralph Bottrill over the validity of the Hinsdaleite and if it was actually plumbogummite.

As a result of the discussion, I provided some small samples for testing. The results showed that the hinsdalite from Zeehan "shows no sulphur, so is probably plumbogumite (both white and green)". We need to ask Ralph to provide more information on the test processes and results. However it is likely that a broader range of specimens require testing to be totally certain but it appears that the Hinsdaleite is actually plumbogummite from this mine at Zeehan.


Andrew Tuma
Rock Currier December 25, 2010 11:05PM
Thanks for the update. It will be incorporated into the article when it gets a bit further along. I hope others will also chip in with corrections and advice for making the article better. Right now there is still a lot of work to be done just to get the images showing properly in the articles and the sizes adjusted to make them look pretty. After that we will start to do the corrections and add the descriptive text. I hope that others beside your self will help with this. It is a daunting to contemplate trying to do it all myself.

Rock Currier
Crystals not pistols.
Andrew Tuma December 25, 2010 11:28PM
Ta Rock, Not a problem, the article looks like it will be an excellent reference to pseudomorphed mineral.

Ralph Bottrill December 26, 2010 05:43AM
We do really need to analyse a few more specimens and quantify the phosphorus and sulphur contents before we change all the labels (though I can find no published support for any sulphur present in them either, it seems to have been a guess).
Its looking a great introduction to pseudomorphs Rock!


Edited 1 time(s). Last edit at 12/26/2010 05:52AM by Ralph Bottrill.
Rock Currier December 26, 2010 08:39AM
There are sure a lot of question marks when it comes to pseudomorphs. I have even included one unknown after an unknown to illustrate the problem.

Rock Currier
Crystals not pistols.
Paul De Bondt December 26, 2010 11:04PM
Hi Rock and all,

What a huge task !!!!!!!!
How did you get it in your head to start this ????
Congrats man, it's a real delight.:)-D
I would like to thank you for selecting some of my specimens.
There is just a problem with the hematite after ? from Ste Marie.
Sorry to say but that's no pseudomorph. These are all hexagonal iron roses setting together. You can see it good in the big one at the lower right.
The Ste Marie hematite is something special.
The mineral is found in several paralel veins running up through the Brézouard granite.
The special thing is that every vein has his own crystal form. So I suppose that these veins where formed the one after the other otherwise all the structures would be the same, I guess.
The selected pic is the rarest form and is quite scarce in the district. It is locally known as " la mamelonnée ".
To my knowledge and from rumors in the area, there could be around 15 different forms.
In my collection, I have " only " 8 of them.
The Brézouard used to be a very prolific hematite occurence but with the local law, prohibiting collecting, who knows how many other forms could be hiding under the ground. We will probably never know.

I hope this helps. Keep the good work up !

Take care and best regards.

Dennis Tryon December 27, 2010 12:29AM
Very interesting article. Thanks for all you do. Noted one small problem, both New Mexico dolomite after aragonite point to the same specimen.

Rock Currier December 27, 2010 01:33AM
Thanks for the heads up about the Ste Marie hematites. I think I will take your comments and probably the image as well and transfer them to the Hematite article. You have only eight examples of the particularly rare form? I didn't think anyone was as big a pig as I was. I am not certain how it got into my head to do an article on pseudomorphs except that I suddenly realized that there had never been anything really comprehensive that had been written about them and that with the tremendous resource of the mindat image gallery, that for the first time it might be possible to do something like this. I knew it was going to be a big job, but I thought, well, I did the one one Quartz USA, or at least the framework, what could be bigger than that. Of course when I got into the Pseudomorph article a little ways, I realized that it was likely to be larger than quartz USA. Well, If I am sucessfull in creating a framework for them, then over time others can come along like you and Dennis with corrections and comments and descriptions for the many pseudos and their localities that I know little or nothing about and help make the project a success.

Ill find out what is going on with the New Mexico dolomite and get it fixed. Right now the article isn't an article, but just a selection of images that I must now slowly and painfully beat into shape and add the captions and make look as pretty as I can. The problem is of course basically that Pseudomorphs are not very pretty and it takes a mother to love them. After this is done, then we can start adding the text and comments about them, but I am not sure that I will get around to adding text and comments before Tucson.

Rock Currier
Crystals not pistols.
Ralph Bottrill December 27, 2010 02:17AM
Rock, I suspect the German hinsdalite should link to: ?
The existing link goes to pseudomalachite (hard to tell if that one is a pseudomorph or not?)

Some possible additions: gibbsite after crocoite
and gibbsite after dundasite:

A fascinating collection that will keep us thinking for ages!


Edited 1 time(s). Last edit at 12/27/2010 02:33AM by Ralph Bottrill.
Andrew Tuma December 27, 2010 08:24AM
Hi Ralph,

The specimen of Gibbsite you have shown of mine I dont think is a Psudo. The Gibbsite appears to be coating the crocoite crystals not replacing them. The crocoite crystals that have fallen out are in a very good condition.

Andrew t
Paul De Bondt December 27, 2010 10:05AM
Hi Rock,

Thank you for the reply.
No, I have 8 of the 15 known forms. A few others can be seen in my gallery.
I still have to photograph quite a few different forms.
I will post the comment and links to the Best of gallery Hematite-from Argentina to Morocco.
In this gallery, a specimen is also labeled hematite after pyrite ? from the Brézouard.
This is no pseudo either. De crystal form is hexagonal and is just another type of another vein. This type is locally known as " la carrée ".

Thanks again.
Take care and best regards.

Rock Currier December 27, 2010 07:40PM
Yes, please make all the comments and corrections that you would like. For comments other than outright mistakes or errors, write them up just like you would if you were writing the article. In these cases, I will just take your text and drop it in under the images for a particular locality and put your name at the bottom of the text with the year you submitted it. Would you like to take a crack at writing a Best Minerals article about a particular mineral?

Rock Currier
Crystals not pistols.
Ralph Bottrill December 29, 2010 01:26PM
Andrew, OK I will have to look for a better example of that replacement, this one appears to be gibbsite after dundasite on crocoite; but sometimes there is very little crocoite left. Steve had a crocoite after cerussite too.

Steve Rust December 29, 2010 05:45PM
A rare example of Hemimorphite after Calcite from Leadhills, Scotland.

Steve Rust
Rock Currier December 29, 2010 11:54PM
Steve, Thanks for bringing the specimen to my attention. How to they know it used to be calcite?

Rock Currier
Crystals not pistols.
Steve Rust December 30, 2010 07:17PM
Well these specimens have all ways been assumed to be after calcite, for at lest 100 years., if this is actually correct is a another matter.

Steve Rust
Rock Currier December 30, 2010 09:28PM
I know what you mean and there must be many similar examples in the various pseudomorphs I have put in the Best Mineral gallery. However I can't resist asking people such questions in case they may know the facts behind calling them such and such after what ever they were. In most cases they don't. That doesn't mean that I won't put them in the article, but sometimes it helps correct mistakes that have been made and pseudomorphs have more questions about their origins and any other group of minerals I think.

Rock Currier
Crystals not pistols.
Ed Godsey January 14, 2011 08:03PM
Rock, As a pseusomorph afficianado, I especially liked the recent pseudo articles. I note one unusual, and possibly unique, pseudo that seems to be missing, namely the Gypsum pseudo after Tennis Shoe displayed at the Westward Look show in 2008... LOL

Easy Goin'
Alfredo Petrov January 14, 2011 08:24PM
Not unique, Ed! Rock himself found one of those in the acid wastewater ditch when we went to the San Jose mine in Bolivia. We asked the miners how long it took a lost item to get completely encrusted in gypsum and they said "3 weeks", so then we thought we should dump a load of bras and condoms into the ditch and bring the resulting "pseudos" to Tucson... or other objects; something to offend everyone. But we never did it 8-)
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