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Permian

Hierarchy:Phanerozoic Paleozoic
  Permian
Classification:Period (as per International Commission on Stratigraphy)
Top:252.17 ± 0.06 Ma
Base:298.9 ± 0.15 Ma
Preceeds:Mesozoic Triassic  Early Triassic   Induan
Follows:Carboniferous Pennsylvanian  Gzhelian
Primary Divisions:LopingianGuadalupianCisuralian
FGDC code:P
Fossil Record

Data via PaleoBioDB


Taxa Count Key
First appearance
Extinction
First appearance and extinction
Related precursors
KingdomPhylumClassTaxa Count
AnimaliaAnnelida Clitellata6
AnimaliaAnnelida Polychaeta30
AnimaliaArthropoda Arachnida46
AnimaliaArthropoda Branchiopoda14
AnimaliaArthropoda Cephalocarida1
AnimaliaArthropoda Chilopoda3
AnimaliaArthropoda Diplopoda3
AnimaliaArthropoda Entognatha1
AnimaliaArthropoda Insecta3,441
AnimaliaArthropoda Malacostraca48
AnimaliaArthropoda Maxillopoda13
AnimaliaArthropoda Merostomata1
AnimaliaArthropoda Ostracoda1,039
AnimaliaArthropoda Pycnogonida1
AnimaliaArthropoda Remipedia1
AnimaliaArthropoda Trilobita159
AnimaliaBrachiopoda Chileata16 ✝
AnimaliaBrachiopoda Craniata28
AnimaliaBrachiopoda Lingulata69
AnimaliaBrachiopoda Rhynchonellata2,652
AnimaliaBrachiopoda Strophomenata2,497
AnimaliaBryozoa Gymnolaemata16
AnimaliaBryozoa Stenolaemata1,232
AnimaliaChordata Actinopterygii35
AnimaliaChordata Amphibia86
AnimaliaChordata Ascidiacea1
AnimaliaChordata Cephalaspidomorphi1
AnimaliaChordata Elasmobranchii5
AnimaliaChordata Holocephali5
AnimaliaChordata Myxini1
AnimaliaChordata Reptilia558
AnimaliaChordata Sarcopterygii6
AnimaliaCnidaria Anthozoa1,050
AnimaliaCnidaria Cubozoa1
AnimaliaCnidaria Hydrozoa7
AnimaliaCnidaria Scyphozoa7
AnimaliaCnidaria Staurozoa24
AnimaliaEchinodermata Asteroidea11
AnimaliaEchinodermata Crinoidea378
AnimaliaEchinodermata Echinoidea26
AnimaliaEchinodermata Holothuroidea71
AnimaliaEchinodermata Ophiuroidea21
AnimaliaHemichordata Enteropneusta4
AnimaliaHemichordata Pterobranchia2
AnimaliaMollusca Bivalvia1,235
AnimaliaMollusca Cephalopoda1,649
AnimaliaMollusca Gastropoda1,148
AnimaliaMollusca Monoplacophora1
AnimaliaMollusca Polyplacophora57
AnimaliaMollusca Scaphopoda22
AnimaliaNematoda Adenophorea1
AnimaliaPorifera Calcarea10
AnimaliaPorifera Demospongiae125
AnimaliaPorifera Hexactinellida120
BacteriaCyanobacteria Cyanophyceae7
ChromistaForaminifera Globothalamea41
ChromistaForaminifera Monothalamea23
ChromistaForaminifera Tubothalamea362
ChromistaHaptophyta Prymnesiophyceae2
ChromistaMyzozoa Dinophyceae2
ChromistaRadiozoa Polycystina165
PlantaeCharophyta Charophyceae3
PlantaeChlorophyta Chlorophyceae4
PlantaeChlorophyta Trebouxiophyceae2
PlantaeChlorophyta Ulvophyceae65
PlantaeMarchantiophyta Marchantiopsida1
PlantaeRhodophyta Florideophyceae13
PlantaeRhodophyta Rhodophyceae20
PlantaeTracheophyta Cycadopsida6
PlantaeTracheophyta Ginkgoopsida10
PlantaeTracheophyta Gnetopsida4
PlantaeTracheophyta Lycopodiopsida13
PlantaeTracheophyta Magnoliopsida6
PlantaeTracheophyta Pinopsida21
PlantaeTracheophyta Polypodiopsida40
Landmasses unite into supercontinent Pangaea, creating the Appalachians.

End of Permo-Carboniferous glaciation.

Synapsid reptiles (pelycosaurs and therapsids) become plentiful, while parareptiles and temnospondyl amphibians remain common. In the mid-Permian, coal-age flora are replaced by cone-bearing gymnosperms (the first true seed plants) and by the first true mosses. Beetles and flies evolve.

Marine life flourishes in warm shallow reefs; productid and spiriferid brachiopods, bivalves, forams, and ammonoids all abundant.

Permian-Triassic extinction event occurs 251 Ma: 95% of life on Earth becomes extinct, including all trilobites, graptolites, and blastoids.

Ouachita and Innuitian orogenies in North America.

Uralian orogeny in Europe/Asia tapers off.

Altaid orogeny in Asia.

Hunter-Bowen Orogeny on Australian continent begins (c. 260–225 Ma), forming the MacDonnell Ranges.
 

Geologic Events

Event NameTypeAgeArea
Hunter-Bowen orogeny (begins)Orogeny260 - 225 MaAustralia
Mauritanide Belt orogeny (concludes)Orogeny~320 - ~270 MaWest Africa
Uralian orogeny (concludes)Orogeny~320 - ~175 MaRussia
Pangaea assembly (concludes)Continental Assembly335 - 272 MaGlobal
Variscan/Hercynian orogeny (concludes)Orogeny~400 - ~280 MaEurope/North America


Overview of geological time

List all geological events
 
Mineral and/or Locality  
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