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Björkdal Mine, Sandfors, Skellefte mining district, Skellefteå, Västerbotten, Swedeni
Regional Level Types
Björkdal MineMine
Sandfors- not defined -
Skellefte mining districtMining District
SkellefteåMunicipality
VästerbottenCounty
SwedenCountry
Björkdal Mine, Sandfors, Skellefte mining district, Västerbotten Province, Sweden

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Name in Swedish:Björkdalsgruvan, Sandfors, Skelleftefältet, Skellefteå kommun, Västerbottens län, Sverige
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 64° 55' 57'' North , 20° 35' 42'' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 64.93255,20.59517
GeoHash:G#: u7w9kssgw
Locality type:Mine
Köppen climate type:Dfc : Subarctic climate
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Liden269 (2012)9.0km
Kusmark448 (2017)11.1km
Tällberg637 (2012)11.2km
Boliden1,661 (2017)12.4km
Svartå592 (2011)13.8km


Located approximately 40 km from Skellefteå and 11km NE of Boliden.
In 1988-99 it was the largest gold mine in Europe. Closed for a short period (around the year 2000) when the Terra Mining AB went bankrupt.

The gold at Björkdalsgruvan is associated with centimetre- to metre-wide subvertical quartz veins within a biotite-altered granodiorite. The gold mineralization is localized near the contact between the intrusive and the overlying Skellefteå Group. The veins mainly trend NE and NNE and terminate at the sediment-intrusive contact. The gold is found both as free milling gold and also associated with pyrite.

OP& UG operation since autumn 2007.

Today owned by Gold Ore Resources.

Regions containing this locality

Västerbotten Province, SwedenProvince (Historical)
Eurasian PlateTectonic Plate
EuropeContinent
ScandinaviaRegion

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


36 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Actinolite
Formula: ☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Beyerite
Formula: Ca(BiO)2(CO3)2
'Biotite'
Bismuth
Formula: Bi
Bismutite
Formula: (BiO)2CO3
Bornite
Formula: Cu5FeS4
Breithauptite
Formula: NiSb
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
'Chlorite Group'
Copper
Formula: Cu
Covellite
Formula: CuS
Cubanite
Formula: CuFe2S3
Cuprite
Formula: Cu2O
Dravite
Formula: Na(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
'Electrum'
Formula: (Au, Ag)
Ferberite
Formula: FeWO4
Frohbergite
Formula: FeTe2
Galena
Formula: PbS
Gold
Formula: Au
Graphite
Formula: C
Hedleyite
Formula: Bi7Te3
Hessite
Formula: Ag2Te
'Hydromuscovite'
Kettnerite ?
Formula: CaBiCO3OF
Laumontite
Formula: CaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
'Limonite'
Formula: (Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Mackinawite
Formula: (Fe,Ni)9S8
Malachite
Formula: Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Muscovite var: Sericite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Nickeline
Formula: NiAs
Pilsenite
Formula: Bi4Te3
Pingguite
Formula: Bi6Te4+2O13
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Pyrrhotite
Formula: Fe7S8
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Scheelite
Formula: Ca(WO4)
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Tellurobismuthite
Formula: Bi2Te3
'Tourmaline'
Formula: A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Tsumoite
Formula: BiTe
Valleriite
Formula: (Fe2+,Cu)4(Mg,Al)3S4(OH,O)6

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Bismuth1.CA.05Bi
Copper1.AA.05Cu
'Electrum'1.AA.05(Au, Ag)
Gold1.AA.05Au
Graphite1.CB.05aC
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Bornite2.BA.15Cu5FeS4
Breithauptite2.CC.05NiSb
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Covellite2.CA.05aCuS
Cubanite2.CB.55aCuFe2S3
Frohbergite2.EB.10aFeTe2
Galena2.CD.10PbS
Hedleyite2.DC.05Bi7Te3
Hessite2.BA.60Ag2Te
Mackinawite2.CC.25(Fe,Ni)9S8
Nickeline2.CC.05NiAs
Pilsenite2.DC.05Bi4Te3
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Pyrrhotite2.CC.10Fe7S8
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
Tellurobismuthite2.DC.05Bi2Te3
Tsumoite2.DC.05BiTe
Valleriite2.FD.30(Fe2+,Cu)4(Mg,Al)3S4(OH,O)6
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Cuprite4.AA.10Cu2O
Ferberite4.DB.30FeWO4
Pingguite4.JL.20Bi6Te4+2O13
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Beyerite5.BE.35Ca(BiO)2(CO3)2
Bismutite5.BE.25(BiO)2CO3
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Kettnerite ?5.BE.30CaBiCO3OF
Malachite5.BA.10Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Scheelite7.GA.05Ca(WO4)
Group 9 - Silicates
Actinolite9.DE.10☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Dravite9.CK.05Na(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Laumontite9.GB.10CaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
Muscovite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
var: Sericite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Biotite'-
'Chlorite Group'-
'Hydromuscovite'-
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
'Tourmaline'-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Copper1.1.1.3Cu
Gold1.1.1.1Au
Semi-metals and non-metals
Bismuth1.3.1.4Bi
Graphite1.3.6.2C
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:1
Hessite2.4.2.1Ag2Te
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 3:2
Bornite2.5.2.1Cu5FeS4
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 4:3
Hedleyite2.6.3.3Bi7Te3
Pilsenite2.6.2.5Bi4Te3
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 9:8
Mackinawite2.7.2.1(Fe,Ni)9S8
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Breithauptite2.8.11.2NiSb
Covellite2.8.12.1CuS
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Nickeline2.8.11.1NiAs
Pyrrhotite2.8.10.1Fe7S8
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
Tsumoite2.8.20.1BiTe
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
Cubanite2.9.13.1CuFe2S3
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:3
Tellurobismuthite2.11.7.2Bi2Te3
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Frohbergite2.12.2.3FeTe2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Hydroxysulfides and Hydrated Sulfides
Valleriite2.14.1.1(Fe2+,Cu)4(Mg,Al)3S4(OH,O)6
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X
Cuprite4.1.1.1Cu2O
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Beyerite16a.2.3.1Ca(BiO)2(CO3)2
Bismutite16a.3.5.1(BiO)2CO3
Kettnerite ?16a.3.7.1CaBiCO3OF
Malachite16a.3.1.1Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Group 34 - SELENITES, TELLURITES AND SULFITES
A(X3O8)
Pingguite34.5.4.1Bi6Te4+2O13
Group 48 - ANHYDROUS MOLYBDATES AND TUNGSTATES
AXO4
Ferberite48.1.1.2FeWO4
Scheelite48.1.2.1Ca(WO4)
Group 61 - CYCLOSILICATES Six-Membered Rings
Six-Membered Rings with borate groups
Dravite61.3.1.9Na(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Group 77 - TECTOSILICATES Zeolites
Zeolite group - True zeolites
Laumontite77.1.1.4CaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
Actinolite-☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
'Biotite'-
'Chlorite Group'-
'Electrum'-(Au, Ag)
'Hydromuscovite'-
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Muscovite
var: Sericite
-KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
'Tourmaline'-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H LaumontiteCaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
H Valleriite(Fe2+,Cu)4(Mg,Al)3S4(OH,O)6
H Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
H MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
H Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
H Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H DraviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
BBoron
B TourmalineA(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
B DraviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
CCarbon
C GraphiteC
C CalciteCaCO3
C MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
C Bismutite(BiO)2CO3
C BeyeriteCa(BiO)2(CO3)2
C KettneriteCaBiCO3OF
OOxygen
O FerberiteFeWO4
O LaumontiteCaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
O ScheeliteCa(WO4)
O Valleriite(Fe2+,Cu)4(Mg,Al)3S4(OH,O)6
O QuartzSiO2
O CalciteCaCO3
O Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
O MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
O TourmalineA(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
O Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
O Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O CupriteCu2O
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O Bismutite(BiO)2CO3
O PingguiteBi6Te24+O13
O BeyeriteCa(BiO)2(CO3)2
O DraviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
O KettneriteCaBiCO3OF
FFluorine
F KettneriteCaBiCO3OF
NaSodium
Na DraviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
MgMagnesium
Mg Valleriite(Fe2+,Cu)4(Mg,Al)3S4(OH,O)6
Mg Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Mg DraviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
AlAluminium
Al LaumontiteCaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
Al Valleriite(Fe2+,Cu)4(Mg,Al)3S4(OH,O)6
Al Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al DraviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
SiSilicon
Si LaumontiteCaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
Si QuartzSiO2
Si Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Si Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si DraviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
SSulfur
S CovelliteCuS
S CubaniteCuFe2S3
S Mackinawite(Fe,Ni)9S8
S Valleriite(Fe2+,Cu)4(Mg,Al)3S4(OH,O)6
S PyrrhotiteFe7S8
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S BorniteCu5FeS4
S GalenaPbS
S SphaleriteZnS
S PyriteFeS2
KPotassium
K Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
CaCalcium
Ca LaumontiteCaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
Ca ScheeliteCa(WO4)
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Ca BeyeriteCa(BiO)2(CO3)2
Ca KettneriteCaBiCO3OF
FeIron
Fe CubaniteCuFe2S3
Fe FerberiteFeWO4
Fe FrohbergiteFeTe2
Fe Mackinawite(Fe,Ni)9S8
Fe Valleriite(Fe2+,Cu)4(Mg,Al)3S4(OH,O)6
Fe PyrrhotiteFe7S8
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe BorniteCu5FeS4
Fe Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Fe Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Fe PyriteFeS2
NiNickel
Ni BreithauptiteNiSb
Ni Mackinawite(Fe,Ni)9S8
Ni NickelineNiAs
CuCopper
Cu CopperCu
Cu CovelliteCuS
Cu CubaniteCuFe2S3
Cu Valleriite(Fe2+,Cu)4(Mg,Al)3S4(OH,O)6
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Cu BorniteCu5FeS4
Cu MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
Cu CupriteCu2O
ZnZinc
Zn SphaleriteZnS
AsArsenic
As NickelineNiAs
AgSilver
Ag HessiteAg2Te
Ag Electrum(Au, Ag)
SbAntimony
Sb BreithauptiteNiSb
TeTellurium
Te FrohbergiteFeTe2
Te HedleyiteBi7Te3
Te HessiteAg2Te
Te PilseniteBi4Te3
Te TsumoiteBiTe
Te TellurobismuthiteBi2Te3
Te PingguiteBi6Te24+O13
WTungsten
W FerberiteFeWO4
W ScheeliteCa(WO4)
AuGold
Au GoldAu
Au Electrum(Au, Ag)
PbLead
Pb GalenaPbS
BiBismuth
Bi BismuthBi
Bi HedleyiteBi7Te3
Bi PilseniteBi4Te3
Bi TsumoiteBiTe
Bi TellurobismuthiteBi2Te3
Bi Bismutite(BiO)2CO3
Bi PingguiteBi6Te24+O13
Bi BeyeriteCa(BiO)2(CO3)2
Bi KettneriteCaBiCO3OF

Geochronology

Mineralization age: Orosirian : 1893 ± 34 Ma

Important note: This table is based only on rock and mineral ages recorded below and is not necessarily a complete representation of the geochronology, but does give an indication of possible mineralization events relevant to this locality. As more age information is added this table may expand in the future. A break in the table simply indicates a lack of data entered here, not necessarily a break in the geologic sequence. Grey background entries are from different, related, localities.

Geologic TimeRocks, Minerals and Events
Precambrian
 Proterozoic
  Paleoproterozoic
   Orosirian
ⓘ Scheelite1893 ± 34 Ma

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Paleoproterozoic
1600 - 2500 Ma



ID: 633904
Igneous: intrusive; Intrusive: tonalitic-granodioritic

Age: Proterozoic (1600 - 2500 Ma)

Description: Northern Europe, Svecofennian and Lapland-Kola orogens

Comments: Orogen, fold-thrust belt, folded region; Koistinen et al., 2001; Sigmond, 2002; Solli, unpublished compilation, 2007-08; Bergman et al., unpublished revisions, 2007-08

Lithology: Tonalite, granite, diorite, granodiorite, monzonite, migmatite

Reference: J.C. Harrison, M.R. St-Onge, O.V. Petrov, S.I. Strelnikov, B.G. Lopatin, F.H. Wilson, S. Tella, D. Paul, T. Lynds, S.P. Shokalsky, C.K. Hults, S. Bergman, H.F. Jepsen, and A. Solli. Geological map of the Arctic. doi:10.4095/287868. Geological Survey of Canada Map 2159A. [2]

Paleoproterozoic
1600 - 2500 Ma



ID: 3142274
Proterozoic I meta-rhyolite

Age: Proterozoic (1600 - 2500 Ma)

Description: undifferentiated metamorphic

Lithology: Meta-rhyolite

Reference: Asch, K. The 1:5M International Geological Map of Europe and Adjacent Areas: Development and Implementation of a GIS-enabled Concept. Geologisches Jahrbuch, SA 3. [147]

Paleoproterozoic
1600 - 2500 Ma



ID: 3185071
Paleoproterozoic sedimentary rocks

Age: Proterozoic (1600 - 2500 Ma)

Lithology: Sedimentary rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Orosirian
1800 - 2050 Ma



ID: 2630595

Age: Orosirian (1800 - 2050 Ma)

Description: Svecokarelian orogen; Bothnia-Skellefteå lithotectonic unit

Lithology: Limestone, dolomite, metamorphic

Reference: Bergman, S., M.B. Sephens, J. Andersson, B. Kathol, T. Bergman. Sveriges berggrund, skala 1:1 miljon. Sveriges geologiska undersökning K 423. [95]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Grensman, F. (1989) Björkdalsgruvan. NAGS-nytt 16 (2): 15.
Nysten, P. (1990) Tsumoite from the Björkdal gold deposit, Västerbotten County, northern Sweden. GFF 112, 59-60.
Broman, C., Billström, K., Gustavsson, K., and Fallick, A.E. (1994) Fluid inclusions, stable isotopes and gold deposition at Björkdal, northern Sweden. Mineralium Deposita 29, 139-149.
Roberts, S., Palmer, M.R., and Waller, L. (2006) Sm-Nd and REE Characteristics of Tourmaline and Scheelite from the Björkdal Gold Deposit, Northern Sweden: Evidence of an Intrusion-Related Gold Deposit? Economic Geology 101, 1415-1425.

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