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Commonwealth Mine (Pearce Mine; Silver Ware Mine; Brockman Mine; Smith Mine; Rinaud Mine; Ritter Mine; Eisenhart vein), Pearce, Pearce District, Pearce Hills, Sulphur Springs Valley, Cochise Co., Arizona, USA

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Key
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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 31° 54' 4'' North , 109° 48' 56'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 31.90111,-109.81556
GeoHash:G#: 9t9vmp6v2
Locality type:Mine
Köppen climate type:BSk : Cold semi-arid (steppe) climate


A former small underground Ag-Au-Mo-Cu-Pb-V-Silica mine located in the NE¼ sec. 5, T.18S., R.25E, 1/2 mile E of Pearce, on private land. Discovered by John Pearce in 1895. Produced 1895-1979. One of Arizona's major silver producers. Owned at times, or in part, by the C.O.R. Ford Corp. of Dallas, TX (1979); Commonwealth Mining and Milling Co.; Montana Tonopah Mining & Milling Co.; and the Commonwealth Development Co. Operated by GOURMET CHIEF INC. (1975). Additional names associated with this mine: Main Mine, North Mine, Hartery veins, Footwall Mine, Discovery stope.

Mineralization is irregular silver-gold halides and minor sulfo-salts with some manganese in quartz-calcite fissure veins and in fault breccia zones (on the hanging wall) in silicified Tertiary rhyolite and andesite volcanics. The ore zone is 1,219.2 meters long, 106.68 meters wide, depth to bottom of 152.4 meters, and 18.29 meters thick, striking N-S (main vein), and dipping 60E. Alteration is propylitic, silicification, and oxidation. It is more intense in and near vein fractures. Sericitic and K-feldspar alteration exists closest to the veins, with extensive argillic and propylitic alteration away from the veins. The associated rock units are the Pearce volcanics and the Brockman Andesite.

Local structures include volcanic flows that dip 35-40E. Fissure veins and fault breccia zones; N-S faults are pre-mineralization, others are post-mineralization.

Workings include a shaft(s). Two inclined shafts, 62 degrees, with extensive workings on 8 levels. The water level was at 700 feet, and a majority of mining was done above the water table, although shaft "C" was eventually sunk to 1,000 feet. There are about 20 miles of underground workings. The workings are 9,144 meters long in total and 152.4 meters deep. Over 1,000,000 tons of ore were produced from 1895 to 1942. Tailings being reworked, 1976-19, flotation methods. Intermittent shipments of tailings were made in the mid-1980'S. About 100,000 tons of tailings had been sold for use as high-silica smelter flux. It is estimated that up to a million tons of tailings remained. In addition, there are approximately 150,000 tons of mine dump material in the area that average 2.5 oz of Ag/t.

Regions containing this locality

Sonoran Desert, North America

Desert - 1,135 mineral species & varietal names listed

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


28 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Acanthite
Formula: Ag2S
Reference: Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 100, 147, 169, 212-213, 259; Endlich, F.M. (1897), The Pearce mining distict, Engr.Mining Jour.: 63(23): 571; Guild, F.N. (1910), The Mineralogy of Arizona, The Chemical Publishing Co., Easton, PA; Galbraith, F.W. (1947), Minerals of AZ, AZ Bur. of mines Bull. 153: 14; Galbraith, F.W. & D.J. Brennan (1959), Minerals of AZ: 43.
Alunite
Formula: KAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Reference: MRDS database Dep. ID file #10103554, MRDS ID #M030569.
Bromargyrite
Formula: AgBr
Reference: Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 100, 147, 169, 212-213, 259; Endlich, F.M. (1897), The Pearce mining distict, Engr.Mining Jour.: 63(23): 571; Guild, F.N. (1910), The Mineralogy of Arizona, The Chemical Publishing Co., Easton, PA; Galbraith, F.W. (1947), Minerals of AZ, AZ Bur. of mines Bull. 153: 14; Galbraith, F.W. & D.J. Brennan (1959), Minerals of AZ: 43.
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: MRDS database Dep. ID file #10103554, MRDS ID #M030569.
Chalcocite
Formula: Cu2S
Reference: MRDS database Dep. ID file #10103554, MRDS ID #M030569.
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Reference: MRDS database Dep. ID file #10103554, MRDS ID #M030569.
Chlorargyrite
Formula: AgCl
Reference: Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 100, 147, 169, 182, 212-213, 259, 261; Endlich, F.M. (1897), The Pearce mining distict, Engr.Mining Jour.: 63(23): 571; Guild, F.N. (1910), The Mineralogy of Arizona, The Chemical Publishing Co., Easton, PA; Galbraith, F.W. (1947), Minerals of AZ, AZ Bur. of mines Bull. 153: 8, 14; Galbraith, F.W. & D.J. Brennan (1959), Minerals of AZ: 42, 43, 64; Univ. of AZ Bull. 41 (1916-17), Mineralogy of Useful Minerals in AZ: 26.
Chlorargyrite var: Bromian Chlorargyrite
Formula: Ag(Cl,Br)
Reference: Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 100, 147, 169, 212-213, 259, 425; Endlich, F.M. (1897), The Pearce mining distict, Engr.Mining Jour.: 63(23): 571; Guild, F.N. (1910), The Mineralogy of Arizona, The Chemical Publishing Co., Easton, PA; Galbraith, F.W. (1947), Minerals of AZ, AZ Bur. of mines Bull. 153: 8, 14; Galbraith, F.W. & D.J. Brennan (1959), Minerals of AZ: 43.; MRDS database Dep. ID file #10103554, MRDS ID #M030569.; MRDS database Dep. ID file #10232286, MAS ID #0040030120.
Chrysocolla
Formula: Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Reference: MRDS database Dep. ID file #10103554, MRDS ID #M030569.
Conichalcite
Formula: CaCu(AsO4)(OH)
Reference: Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 182.
Fluorite
Formula: CaF2
Reference: MRDS database Dep. ID file #10103554, MRDS ID #M030569.
Galena
Formula: PbS
Reference: MRDS database Dep. ID file #10103554, MRDS ID #M030569.
Gold
Formula: Au
Description: Occurs as broad splotches & leaf forms.
Reference: Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 234; Endlich, F.M. (1897), The Pearce mining distict, Engr.Mining Jour.: 63(23): 571.
Gypsum
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Reference: MRDS database Dep. ID file #10103554, MRDS ID #M030569.
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Reference: MRDS database Dep. ID file #10103554, MRDS ID #M030569.
Iodargyrite
Formula: AgI
Reference: Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 100, 147, 169, 212-213, 259; Endlich, F.M. (1897), The Pearce mining distict, Engr.Mining Jour.: 63(23): 571; Guild, F.N. (1910), The Mineralogy of Arizona, The Chemical Publishing Co., Easton, PA; Galbraith, F.W. (1947), Minerals of AZ, AZ Bur. of mines Bull. 153: 14; Galbraith, F.W. & D.J. Brennan (1959), Minerals of AZ: 43; Dana 7:II:24.
Jarosite
Formula: KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Reference: Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 261; Galbraith, F.W. (1947), Minerals of AZ, AZ Bur. of mines Bull. 153: 8; Galbraith, F.W. & D.J. Brennan (1959), Minerals of AZ: 64.
Kaolinite
Formula: Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Reference: MRDS database Dep. ID file #10103554, MRDS ID #M030569.
'Limonite'
Formula: (Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Reference: MRDS database Dep. ID file #10103554, MRDS ID #M030569.
Mimetite
Formula: Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
Reference: Rolf Luetcke
Molybdenite
Formula: MoS2
Reference: MRDS database Dep. ID file #10103554, MRDS ID #M030569.
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: MRDS database Dep. ID file #10103554, MRDS ID #M030569.
Muscovite var: Sericite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: MRDS database Dep. ID file #10103554, MRDS ID #M030569.
Proustite
Formula: Ag3AsS3
Reference: Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 335, 392; Galbraith, F.W. (1947), Minerals of AZ, AZ Bur. of mines Bull. 153: 27.
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: MRDS database Dep. ID file #10103554, MRDS ID #M030569.
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 100, 147, 169; Endlich, F.M. (1897), The Pearce mining distict, Engr.Mining Jour.: 63(23): 571.
Quartz var: Amethyst
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Clive Bailey
Rhodochrosite
Formula: MnCO3
Reference: MRDS database Dep. ID file #10103554, MRDS ID #M030569.
Siderite
Formula: FeCO3
Reference: MRDS database Dep. ID file #10103554, MRDS ID #M030569.
Silver
Formula: Ag
Reference: Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 261, 372; Endlich, F.M. (1897), The Pearce mining distict, Engr.Mining Jour.: 63(23): 571; Galbraith, F.W. (1947), Minerals of AZ, AZ Bur. of mines Bull. 153: 8; Galbraith, F.W. & D.J. Brennan (1959), Minerals of AZ: 64.
Tetrahedrite
Formula: Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Reference: Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 335, 392; Galbraith, F.W. (1947), Minerals of AZ, AZ Bur. of mines Bull. 153: 27.
Wulfenite
Formula: Pb(MoO4)
Description: Occurs lining cavities with embolite.
Reference: Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 425; Endlich, F.M. (1897), The Pearce mining distict, Engr.Mining Jour.: 63(23): 571.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Gold1.AA.05Au
Silver1.AA.05Ag
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
'Acanthite'2.BA.35Ag2S
Chalcocite2.BA.05Cu2S
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Galena2.CD.10PbS
Molybdenite2.EA.30MoS2
Proustite2.GA.05Ag3AsS3
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Tetrahedrite2.GB.05Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Group 3 - Halides
Bromargyrite3.AA.15AgBr
Chlorargyrite3.AA.15AgCl
var: Bromian Chlorargyrite3.AA.15Ag(Cl,Br)
Fluorite3.AB.25CaF2
Iodargyrite3.AA.10AgI
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Hematite4.CB.05Fe2O3
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
var: Amethyst4.DA.05SiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Rhodochrosite5.AB.05MnCO3
Siderite5.AB.05FeCO3
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
'Alunite'7.BC.10KAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Gypsum7.CD.40CaSO4 · 2H2O
Jarosite7.BC.10KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Wulfenite7.GA.05Pb(MoO4)
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Conichalcite8.BH.35CaCu(AsO4)(OH)
Mimetite8.BN.05Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
Group 9 - Silicates
Chrysocolla9.ED.20Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Kaolinite9.ED.05Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Muscovite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
var: Sericite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
Limonite-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Gold1.1.1.1Au
Silver1.1.1.2Ag
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:1
Acanthite2.4.1.1Ag2S
Chalcocite2.4.7.1Cu2S
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Molybdenite2.12.10.1MoS2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 3 - SULFOSALTS
3 <ø < 4
Tetrahedrite3.3.6.1Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
ø = 3
Proustite3.4.1.1Ag3AsS3
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X3
Hematite4.3.1.2Fe2O3
Group 9 - NORMAL HALIDES
AX
Bromargyrite9.1.4.2AgBr
Chlorargyrite9.1.4.1AgCl
Iodargyrite9.1.5.1AgI
AX2
Fluorite9.2.1.1CaF2
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Rhodochrosite14.1.1.4MnCO3
Siderite14.1.1.3FeCO3
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4·xH2O
Gypsum29.6.3.1CaSO4 · 2H2O
Group 30 - ANHYDROUS SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)2(XO4)Zq
Alunite30.2.4.1KAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Jarosite30.2.5.1KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Group 41 - ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)2(XO4)Zq
Conichalcite41.5.1.2CaCu(AsO4)(OH)
A5(XO4)3Zq
Mimetite41.8.4.2Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
Group 48 - ANHYDROUS MOLYBDATES AND TUNGSTATES
AXO4
Wulfenite48.1.3.1Pb(MoO4)
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Group 74 - PHYLLOSILICATES Modulated Layers
Modulated Layers with joined strips
Chrysocolla74.3.2.1Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
Chlorargyrite
var: Bromian Chlorargyrite
-Ag(Cl,Br)
Kaolinite-Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Muscovite
var: Sericite
-KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Quartz
var: Amethyst
-SiO2

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
H ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
H ConichalciteCaCu(AsO4)(OH)
H GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
H JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
H KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
H Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
CCarbon
C CalciteCaCO3
C RhodochrositeMnCO3
C SideriteFeCO3
OOxygen
O AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
O Quartz (var: Amethyst)SiO2
O CalciteCaCO3
O ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
O ConichalciteCaCu(AsO4)(OH)
O GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
O HematiteFe2O3
O JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
O KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
O Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
O MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O QuartzSiO2
O RhodochrositeMnCO3
O Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O SideriteFeCO3
O WulfenitePb(MoO4)
FFluorine
F FluoriteCaF2
AlAluminium
Al AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Al ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Al KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
SiSilicon
Si Quartz (var: Amethyst)SiO2
Si ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Si KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si QuartzSiO2
Si Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
SSulfur
S AcanthiteAg2S
S AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
S ChalcociteCu2S
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S GalenaPbS
S GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
S JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
S MolybdeniteMoS2
S ProustiteAg3AsS3
S PyriteFeS2
S TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
ClChlorine
Cl Chlorargyrite (var: Bromian Chlorargyrite)Ag(Cl,Br)
Cl ChlorargyriteAgCl
Cl MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
KPotassium
K AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
K JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
CaCalcium
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca ConichalciteCaCu(AsO4)(OH)
Ca FluoriteCaF2
Ca GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
MnManganese
Mn RhodochrositeMnCO3
FeIron
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe HematiteFe2O3
Fe JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Fe Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe SideriteFeCO3
Fe TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
CuCopper
Cu ChalcociteCu2S
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Cu ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Cu ConichalciteCaCu(AsO4)(OH)
Cu TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
ZnZinc
Zn TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
AsArsenic
As ConichalciteCaCu(AsO4)(OH)
As MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
As ProustiteAg3AsS3
BrBromine
Br BromargyriteAgBr
Br Chlorargyrite (var: Bromian Chlorargyrite)Ag(Cl,Br)
MoMolybdenum
Mo MolybdeniteMoS2
Mo WulfenitePb(MoO4)
AgSilver
Ag AcanthiteAg2S
Ag BromargyriteAgBr
Ag Chlorargyrite (var: Bromian Chlorargyrite)Ag(Cl,Br)
Ag ChlorargyriteAgCl
Ag IodargyriteAgI
Ag ProustiteAg3AsS3
Ag SilverAg
SbAntimony
Sb TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
IIodine
I IodargyriteAgI
AuGold
Au GoldAu
PbLead
Pb GalenaPbS
Pb MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
Pb WulfenitePb(MoO4)

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Quaternary - Miocene
0 - 23.03 Ma



ID: 3185380
Cenozoic sedimentary rocks

Age: Cenozoic (0 - 23.03 Ma)

Lithology: Sedimentary rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Tortonian - Bartonian
7.246 - 41.3 Ma



ID: 2850177
Middle Miocene to Oligocene volcanic rocks

Age: Cenozoic (7.246 - 41.3 Ma)

Stratigraphic Name: Peach Springs Tuff; Apache Leap Tuff

Description: Lava, tuff, fine-grained intrusive rock, and diverse pyroclastic rocks. These compositionally variable volcanic rocks include basalt, andesite, dacite, and rhyolite. Thick felsic volcanic sequences form prominent cliffs and range fronts in the Black (Mohave County), Superstition, Kofa, Eagletail, Galiuro, and Chiricahua Mountains. This unit includes regionally extensive ash-flow tuffs, such as the Peach Springs tuff of northwestern Arizona and the Apache Leap tuff east of Phoenix. Most volcanic rocks are 20-30 Ma in southeastern Arizona and 15 to 25 Ma in central and western Arizona, but this unit includes some late Eocene rocks near the New Mexico border in east-central Arizona. (11-38 Ma)

Lithology: Major:{basalt,andesite,dacite}, Minor:{rhyolite}

Reference: Horton, J.D., C.A. San Juan, and D.B. Stoeser. The State Geologic Map Compilation (SGMC) geodatabase of the conterminous United States. doi: 10.3133/ds1052. U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 1052. [133]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Endlich, F.M. (1897), The Pearce Mining Distict, Engineering and Mining Journal: 63(23): 571.
Guild, F.N. (1910), The Mineralogy of Arizona, The Chemical Publishing Co., Easton, PA.
Scott, W.A. (1916a) Commonwealth mine and mill at Pearce, Arizona: Mining and Engineering World (Chicago): 45: 187-188.
University of Arizona Bull. 41 (1916-17), Mineralogy of Useful Minerals in Arizona: 26.
Smith, L.A. (1927) The geology of the Commonwealth mine: Tucson, University of Arizona, M.S. thesis, 73 p.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 24.
Galbraith, F.W. (1947), Minerals of Arizona, Arizona Bureau of Mines Bull. 153: 8, 14, 27.
Galbraith, F.W. & D.J. Brennan (1959), Minerals of Arizona: 42, 43, 64.
U.S. Atomic Energy Commission Preliminary Reconnaissance Report PRR A-P-46 (1953).
Keith, Stanton B. (1973), Arizona Bureau of Geology & Mineral Technology, Geological Survey Branch Bull. 187, Index of Mining Properties in Cochise County, Arizona: 69 (Table 4).
Howell, K.K. (1977) Geology and alteration of the Commonwealth mine, Cochise County, Arizona: Tucson, University of Arizona, M.S. thesis, 225 p.
Niemuth, N.J. (1987), Arizona Mineral Development 1984-1986, Arizona Department of Mines & Mineral Resources Directory 29, 46 pp.
Heylmun, Edgar B. (1988) Commonwealth Silver-Gold Mine, Arizona. California Mining Journal: 57(5): 14-16.
Sawyer, M.B., Gurmendi, A.C., Daley, M.R., and Howell, S.B. (1992) Principal Deposits of Strategic and Critical Minerals in Arizona, U.S. Bureau of Mines Special Publication, 334 pp.
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd. ed.: 100, 147, 169, 182, 212-213, 234, 259, 261, 335, 372, 392, 425.
Atlas Corporation news release (1995) 9-7-1995.
Randol Mining Directory (1996/1997) U.S. Mines and Mining Companies: 133.
American Mining Handbook (1996): 242.
American Mining Handbook (1997): 277.
Arizona Bureau of Mines file data.
MRDS database Dep. ID file #10103554, MRDS ID #M030569; and, Dep. ID #10232286, MAS ID #0040030120.


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Mineral and/or Locality  
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