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Phoenix United Mine, Minions, Linkinhorne, Cornwall, England, UK

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 50° 31' 26'' North , 4° 27' 1'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 50.52399,-4.45041
GeoHash:G#: gbuz6tx79
UK National Grid Reference:SX265723
Locality type:Mine
Köppen climate type:Cfb : Temperate oceanic climate


Mining first commenced in 1836 under the name of Cornwall Great United Mines, but was unsuccessful. Reopened about 1844 as Phoenix Mine, West Phoenix Mine was included within the set in 1875, after which the mine was worked as Phoenix United.

Most of dumps removed at closure, including engine houses, but Prince of Wales Shaft has complex of buildings associated with it.

Note on the mineral list: for "coeruleolactite" see references and information given for Planerite-Turquoise Series.



This mine is on the flank of Bodmin Moor beyond the crest of Caradon Hill where unlike South Caradon the country rock has largely been eroded away to expose the granite at surface and what country rock remains is significantly more altered by regional metamorphism.
As with South Caradon, in the early years of operation after 1824 Phoenix was a faltering concern with a number of ownerships and name changes. In 1852 however a rich copper lode was struck and for 10 years output approached that of South Caradon but then rapidly declined.
A simplistic notion of hypogene deposition was already well understood and this seemed to have been confirmed by the findings at Dolcoath Mine where the copper gave way to tin at the granite-country rock contact. There were indications of tin at Phoenix and tin streaming had taken place on both Caradon Hill and adjacent to the Cheesewring Quarry nearby on the higher moorland. Furthermore Cassiterite was being worked at nearby Marke Valley Mine lower down the hillside. Gambling on there being tin reserves at depth a controlling share in the mine was bought by William West, a mining engineer who was at the time working for the company.
His gamble paid off and the workforce at the mine tripled within a year so that in 1877 a peak production of 34000 tons of tin ore was brought to the surface. Production thereafter declined but continued for another 20 years.
In 1907 the Prince of Wales shaft with its magnificent engine house was commenced. It was however a financial disaster, finally reaching a depth of 200 fathoms but with only 95 tons of black tin produced over seven years.
To help interpret these figures it should be noted that tin ore typically yields 1-2% Cassiterite aka ‘black tin’. So from 1853 to 1913 approximately 16500 tons of black tin was produced from this group of mines. By that simple reckoning the 1877 production was between 340 and 700 tons of black tin from the 34000 tons of ore, which over the 20 years of peak production would indeed give a total output approaching the total of 16500 tons of black tin.
Similarly the 80 000 tons of copper ore raised at Phoenix United yielded around 6.75% copper, in other words 5400 tons of copper. Compare this to the peak year at South Caradon which in 1864 produced 5144 tons of copper from a 10% ore.
Adding to the above figures the volume of waste rock that was removed from shafts, adits and barren ground or wall rock to permit access then it is easy to see how the total amount excavated could readily reach ½ a million tons or more, little wonder then the extensive tips.
Whilst little surface evidence remains in the undergrowth down the slope from the tips there are buddles and leats and reservoirs.

Alternative Label Names

This is a list of additional names that have been recorded for mineral labels associated with this locality in the minID database. This may include previous versions of the locality name hierarchy from mindat.org, data entry errors, and it may also include unconfirmed sublocality names or other names that can only be matched to this level.

Phoenix United Mine, Minions, Linkinhorne, Liskeard District, Cornwall, England, UK
Wheal Phoenix (Phoenix United Mine; West Phoenix Mine), Linkinhorne, Caradon & Phoenix Area (South-Eastern Bodmin Moor), Liskeard District, Cornwall, England, UK

Regions containing this locality

Devon and Cornwall metalliferous mining district, England, UK

Mining District - 760 mineral species & varietal names listed

Liskeard Mining District, Cornwall, England, UK

Mining District - 178 mineral species & varietal names listed

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

48 valid minerals. 1 (TL) - type locality of valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Allophane
Formula: (Al2O3)(SiO2)1.3-2 · 2.5-3H2O
Reference: No reference listed
'Andrewsite'
Reference: Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 802, 950.; Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications
Arsenolite
Formula: As2O3
Reference: Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications
Azurite
Formula: Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Reference: Golley & Williams (1995): Cornish Mineral Reference Manual, p. 7
Barbosalite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2(PO4)2(OH)2
Reference: Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications
Beraunite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+5(PO4)4(OH)5 · 6H2O
Reference: Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications
Brochantite
Formula: Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
Reference: Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications
Cacoxenite
Formula: Fe3+24AlO6(PO4)17(OH)12 · 75H2O
Reference: Golley & Williams (1995): Cornish Mineral Reference Manual, p. 13
Cassiterite
Formula: SnO2
Reference: Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications
Chalcanthite
Formula: CuSO4 · 5H2O
Reference: Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications
Chalcocite
Formula: Cu2S
Chalcophyllite
Formula: Cu18Al2(AsO4)4(SO4)3(OH)24 · 36H2O
Reference: Specimens in numerous collections (e.g. Steve Rust, Ian Acworth)
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Reference: Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications
Chalcosiderite (TL)
Formula: CuFe3+6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
Reference: Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 802, 950; American Mineralogist (1965): 50: 227; Lapis (1999): 12: 9; Mineralogical Record: 12: 351-352.
Chamosite
Formula: (Fe2+,Mg,Al,Fe3+)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH,O)8
Reference: Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications
Chenevixite
Formula: Cu2Fe3+2(AsO4)2(OH)4
Reference: Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications
'Chlorite Group'
Chrysocolla
Formula: Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Reference: Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications
'Coeruleolactite'
Reference: Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications
Connellite
Formula: Cu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2O
Reference: No reference listed
Copper
Formula: Cu
Reference: Golley & Williams (1995): Cornish Mineral Reference Manual, p. 19
Cornubite
Formula: Cu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
Reference: Handbook of Mineralogy - Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols; Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications
Cornwallite
Formula: Cu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
Reference: Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications
Covellite
Formula: CuS
Reference: Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications
Cuprite
Formula: Cu2O
Reference: Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 802; Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications
Cuprite var: Chalcotrichite
Formula: Cu2O
Reference: Golley & Williams (1995): Cornish Mineral Reference Manual, p. 21; Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications
Cuprite var: Tile ore
Formula: Cu2O
Reference: No reference listed
Cyanotrichite
Formula: Cu4Al2(SO4)(OH)12 · 2H2O
Reference: Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications
Dufrénite
Formula: Ca0.5Fe2+Fe3+5(PO4)4(OH)6 · 2H2O
Reference: Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 802, 874, 950.; Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications
Faustite
Formula: (Zn,Cu)Al6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
Reference: Golley & Williams (1995): Cornish Mineral Reference Manual, p. 27
Goethite
Formula: α-Fe3+O(OH)
Reference: Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 950.; Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications
Gorceixite
Formula: BaAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
Reference: Nat Hist Museum London & Steve Rust Collection
'Halloysite'
Formula: Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Reference: Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications
Hentschelite
Formula: CuFe3+2(PO4)2(OH)2
Reference: Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications
Hisingerite
Formula: Fe3+2(Si2O5)(OH)4 · 2H2O
Reference: Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications
Kaolinite
Formula: Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Kidwellite
Formula: NaFe3+9+x(PO4)6(OH)11 · 3H2O, x = 0.33
Reference: Mineralogical Magazine, 43, 952-953; Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications
Langite
Formula: Cu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
Reference: Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications
Libethenite
Formula: Cu2(PO4)(OH)
Reference: Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 863; Golley & Williams, 1995, 38 - "Cornish Mineral Reference Manual"] [Embrey & Symes, 1987, 110 - "Minerals of Cornwall and Devon"]
'Limonite'
Formula: (Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Reference: Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 802.
Malachite
Formula: Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Reference: Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Olivenite
Formula: Cu2(AsO4)(OH)
Pharmacosiderite
Formula: KFe3+4(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
Reference: Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications
Phenakite
Formula: Be2SiO4
Reference: [Golley & Williams, 1995 - "Cornish Mineral Reference Manual"]
'Planerite-Turquoise Series'
Reference: [Golley & Williams, 1995, "Cornish Mineral Reference Manual", 18] Foord, E.E. & Taggart, J.E. (1998): A reexamination of the turquoise group; the mineral aheylite, planerite (redefined), turquoise and coeruleolactite. Mineralogical Magazine, 62, 93-111.
Pseudomalachite
Formula: Cu5(PO4)2(OH)4
Reference: [Golley & Williams, 1995, 49 - "Cornish Mineral Reference Manual"]
Pyrolusite
Formula: Mn4+O2
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Rory Donaldson collection (found 2002)
Quartz var: Amethyst
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Rory Donaldson collection (found 2002)
Quartz var: Jasper
Rockbridgeite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+4(PO4)3(OH)5
Reference: Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications
Scorodite
Formula: Fe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
Reference: Min Rec (1981) 12:349-353
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Reference: Collection Richard De Nul
Strengite
Formula: FePO4 · 2H2O
Reference: Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications
Tenorite
Formula: CuO
Reference: Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications
'Tourmaline'
Formula: A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Turquoise
Formula: Cu(Al,Fe3+)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
Reference: [Embrey & Symes, 1987, 126 - "Minerals of Cornwall and Devon"]; Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications
Turquoise var: Rashleighite
Formula: Cu(Al,Fe)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 5H2O
Reference: Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 951.
Waylandite
Formula: BiAl3(PO4)2(OH)6
Reference: Mineralogical Record 19, 337; Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Copper1.AA.05Cu
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Chalcocite2.BA.05Cu2S
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Covellite2.CA.05aCuS
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
Group 3 - Halides
Connellite3.DA.25Cu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2O
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Arsenolite4.CB.50As2O3
Cassiterite4.DB.05SnO2
Cuprite4.AA.10Cu2O
var: Chalcotrichite4.AA.10Cu2O
var: Tile ore4.AA.10Cu2O
Goethite4.00.α-Fe3+O(OH)
Pyrolusite4.DB.05Mn4+O2
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
var: Amethyst4.DA.05SiO2
var: Jasper4.DA.05SiO2
Tenorite4.AB.10CuO
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Azurite5.BA.05Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Malachite5.BA.10Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Brochantite7.BB.25Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
Chalcanthite7.CB.20CuSO4 · 5H2O
Cyanotrichite7.DE.10Cu4Al2(SO4)(OH)12 · 2H2O
Langite7.DD.10Cu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Barbosalite8.BB.40Fe2+Fe3+2(PO4)2(OH)2
Beraunite8.DC.27Fe2+Fe3+5(PO4)4(OH)5 · 6H2O
Cacoxenite8.DC.40Fe3+24AlO6(PO4)17(OH)12 · 75H2O
Chalcophyllite8.DF.30Cu18Al2(AsO4)4(SO4)3(OH)24 · 36H2O
Chalcosiderite (TL)8.DD.15CuFe3+6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
Chenevixite8.DD.05Cu2Fe3+2(AsO4)2(OH)4
Cornubite8.BD.30Cu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
Cornwallite8.BD.05Cu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
Dufrénite8.DK.15Ca0.5Fe2+Fe3+5(PO4)4(OH)6 · 2H2O
Faustite8.DD.15(Zn,Cu)Al6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
Gorceixite8.BL.10BaAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
Hentschelite8.BB.40CuFe3+2(PO4)2(OH)2
Kidwellite8.DK.20NaFe3+9+x(PO4)6(OH)11 · 3H2O, x = 0.33
Libethenite8.BB.30Cu2(PO4)(OH)
Olivenite8.BB.30Cu2(AsO4)(OH)
Pharmacosiderite8.DK.10KFe3+4(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
Pseudomalachite8.BD.05Cu5(PO4)2(OH)4
Rockbridgeite8.BC.10Fe2+Fe3+4(PO4)3(OH)5
Scorodite8.CD.10Fe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
Strengite8.CD.10FePO4 · 2H2O
Turquoise8.DD.15Cu(Al,Fe3+)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
var: Rashleighite8.DD.15Cu(Al,Fe)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 5H2O
Waylandite8.BL.13BiAl3(PO4)2(OH)6
Group 9 - Silicates
'Allophane'9.ED.20(Al2O3)(SiO2)1.3-2 · 2.5-3H2O
Chamosite9.EC.55(Fe2+,Mg,Al,Fe3+)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH,O)8
Chrysocolla9.ED.20Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Halloysite9.ED.10Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Hisingerite9.ED.10Fe3+2(Si2O5)(OH)4 · 2H2O
Kaolinite9.ED.05Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Muscovite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Phenakite9.AA.05Be2SiO4
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
Andrewsite-
Chlorite Group-
Coeruleolactite-
Limonite-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Planerite-Turquoise Series-
Tourmaline-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Copper1.1.1.3Cu
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:1
Chalcocite2.4.7.1Cu2S
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Covellite2.8.12.1CuS
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X
Cuprite4.1.1.1Cu2O
AX
Tenorite4.2.3.1CuO
A2X3
Arsenolite4.3.9.1As2O3
AX2
Cassiterite4.4.1.5SnO2
Pyrolusite4.4.1.4Mn4+O2
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
XO(OH)
Goethite6.1.1.2α-Fe3+O(OH)
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Azurite16a.2.1.1Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Malachite16a.3.1.1Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4·xH2O
Chalcanthite29.6.7.1CuSO4 · 5H2O
Group 30 - ANHYDROUS SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)m(XO4)pZq, where m:p>2:1
Brochantite30.1.3.1Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
Group 31 - HYDRATED SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)m(XO4)pZq·xH2O, where m:p > 6:1
Connellite31.1.1.1Cu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2O
(AB)6(XO4)Zq·xH2O
Cyanotrichite31.2.1.1Cu4Al2(SO4)(OH)12 · 2H2O
(AB)4(XO4)Zq·xH2O
Langite31.4.3.1Cu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
Group 40 - HYDRATED NORMAL PHOSPHATES,ARSENATES AND VANADATES
(AB)5(XO4)2·xH2O
Scorodite40.4.1.3Fe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
Strengite40.4.1.2FePO4 · 2H2O
Group 41 - ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)5(XO4)2Zq
Cornubite41.4.2.1Cu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
Cornwallite41.4.2.2Cu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
Pseudomalachite41.4.3.1Cu5(PO4)2(OH)4
(AB)2(XO4)Zq
Waylandite41.5.12.1BiAl3(PO4)2(OH)6
A2(XO4)Zq
Libethenite41.6.6.2Cu2(PO4)(OH)
Olivenite41.6.6.1Cu2(AsO4)(OH)
(AB)5(XO4)3Zq
Rockbridgeite41.9.2.1Fe2+Fe3+4(PO4)3(OH)5
(AB)3(XO4)2Zq
Barbosalite41.10.1.4Fe2+Fe3+2(PO4)2(OH)2
Hentschelite41.10.1.3CuFe3+2(PO4)2(OH)2
Group 42 - HYDRATED PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)2(XO4)Zq·xH2O
Chenevixite42.7.10.1Cu2Fe3+2(AsO4)2(OH)4
Gorceixite42.7.3.2BaAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
(AB)5(XO4)3Zq·xH2O
Kidwellite42.8.2.1NaFe3+9+x(PO4)6(OH)11 · 3H2O, x = 0.33
Pharmacosiderite42.8.1a.1KFe3+4(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
(AB)7(XO4)4Zq·xH2O
Chalcosiderite (TL)42.9.3.4CuFe3+6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
'Coeruleolactite'42.9.3.2
Dufrénite42.9.1.2Ca0.5Fe2+Fe3+5(PO4)4(OH)6 · 2H2O
Faustite42.9.3.3(Zn,Cu)Al6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
Turquoise42.9.3.1Cu(Al,Fe3+)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
(AB)3(XO4)2Zq·xH2O
Beraunite42.11.16.1Fe2+Fe3+5(PO4)4(OH)5 · 6H2O
Miscellaneous
Cacoxenite42.13.5.1Fe3+24AlO6(PO4)17(OH)12 · 75H2O
Group 43 - COMPOUND PHOSPHATES, ETC.
Hydrated Compound Phosphates, etc·, Containing Hydroxyl or Halogen
Chalcophyllite43.5.14.1Cu18Al2(AsO4)4(SO4)3(OH)24 · 36H2O
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in [4] coordination
Phenakite51.1.1.1Be2SiO4
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 1:1 layers
Allophane71.1.5.1(Al2O3)(SiO2)1.3-2 · 2.5-3H2O
'Halloysite'71.1.1.4Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Hisingerite71.1.5.2Fe3+2(Si2O5)(OH)4 · 2H2O
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Sheets of 6-membered rings interlayered 1:1, 2:1, and octahedra
Chamosite71.4.1.7(Fe2+,Mg,Al,Fe3+)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH,O)8
Group 74 - PHYLLOSILICATES Modulated Layers
Modulated Layers with joined strips
Chrysocolla74.3.2.1Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Andrewsite'-
'Chlorite Group'-
Cuprite
var: Chalcotrichite
-Cu2O
var: Tile ore-Cu2O
Kaolinite-Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
'Planerite-Turquoise Series'-
Quartz
var: Amethyst
-SiO2
var: Jasper-SiO2
'Tourmaline'-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Turquoise
var: Rashleighite
-Cu(Al,Fe)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 5H2O

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H Allophane(Al2O3)(SiO2)1.3-2 · 2.5-3H2O
H AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
H BarbosaliteFe2+Fe23+(PO4)2(OH)2
H BerauniteFe2+Fe53+(PO4)4(OH)5 · 6H2O
H BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
H CacoxeniteFe243+AlO6(PO4)17(OH)12 · 75H2O
H ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2O
H ChalcophylliteCu18Al2(AsO4)4(SO4)3(OH)24 · 36H2O
H ChalcosideriteCuFe63+(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
H Chamosite(Fe2+,Mg,Al,Fe3+)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH,O)8
H ChenevixiteCu2Fe23+(AsO4)2(OH)4
H ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
H ConnelliteCu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2O
H CornubiteCu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
H CornwalliteCu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
H CyanotrichiteCu4Al2(SO4)(OH)12 · 2H2O
H DufréniteCa0.5Fe2+Fe53+(PO4)4(OH)6 · 2H2O
H Faustite(Zn,Cu)Al6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
H Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
H GorceixiteBaAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
H HalloysiteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
H HentscheliteCuFe23+(PO4)2(OH)2
H HisingeriteFe23+(Si2O5)(OH)4 · 2H2O
H KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
H KidwelliteNaFe3+9+x(PO4)6(OH)11 · 3H2O, x = 0.33
H LangiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
H LibetheniteCu2(PO4)(OH)
H Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
H MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H OliveniteCu2(AsO4)(OH)
H PharmacosideriteKFe43+(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
H PseudomalachiteCu5(PO4)2(OH)4
H Turquoise (var: Rashleighite)Cu(Al,Fe)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 5H2O
H RockbridgeiteFe2+Fe43+(PO4)3(OH)5
H ScoroditeFe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
H StrengiteFePO4 · 2H2O
H TurquoiseCu(Al,Fe3+)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
H WaylanditeBiAl3(PO4)2(OH)6
BeBeryllium
Be PhenakiteBe2SiO4
BBoron
B TourmalineA(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
CCarbon
C AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
C MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
OOxygen
O Allophane(Al2O3)(SiO2)1.3-2 · 2.5-3H2O
O Quartz (var: Amethyst)SiO2
O ArsenoliteAs2O3
O AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
O BarbosaliteFe2+Fe23+(PO4)2(OH)2
O BerauniteFe2+Fe53+(PO4)4(OH)5 · 6H2O
O BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
O CacoxeniteFe243+AlO6(PO4)17(OH)12 · 75H2O
O CassiteriteSnO2
O ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2O
O ChalcophylliteCu18Al2(AsO4)4(SO4)3(OH)24 · 36H2O
O ChalcosideriteCuFe63+(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
O Cuprite (var: Chalcotrichite)Cu2O
O Chamosite(Fe2+,Mg,Al,Fe3+)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH,O)8
O ChenevixiteCu2Fe23+(AsO4)2(OH)4
O ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
O ConnelliteCu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2O
O CornubiteCu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
O CornwalliteCu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
O CupriteCu2O
O CyanotrichiteCu4Al2(SO4)(OH)12 · 2H2O
O DufréniteCa0.5Fe2+Fe53+(PO4)4(OH)6 · 2H2O
O Faustite(Zn,Cu)Al6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
O Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
O GorceixiteBaAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
O HalloysiteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
O HentscheliteCuFe23+(PO4)2(OH)2
O HisingeriteFe23+(Si2O5)(OH)4 · 2H2O
O KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
O KidwelliteNaFe3+9+x(PO4)6(OH)11 · 3H2O, x = 0.33
O LangiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
O LibetheniteCu2(PO4)(OH)
O Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
O MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O OliveniteCu2(AsO4)(OH)
O PharmacosideriteKFe43+(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
O PhenakiteBe2SiO4
O PseudomalachiteCu5(PO4)2(OH)4
O PyrolusiteMn4+O2
O QuartzSiO2
O Turquoise (var: Rashleighite)Cu(Al,Fe)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 5H2O
O RockbridgeiteFe2+Fe43+(PO4)3(OH)5
O ScoroditeFe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
O StrengiteFePO4 · 2H2O
O TenoriteCuO
O Cuprite (var: Tile ore)Cu2O
O TourmalineA(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
O TurquoiseCu(Al,Fe3+)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
O WaylanditeBiAl3(PO4)2(OH)6
NaSodium
Na KidwelliteNaFe3+9+x(PO4)6(OH)11 · 3H2O, x = 0.33
MgMagnesium
Mg Chamosite(Fe2+,Mg,Al,Fe3+)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH,O)8
AlAluminium
Al Allophane(Al2O3)(SiO2)1.3-2 · 2.5-3H2O
Al CacoxeniteFe243+AlO6(PO4)17(OH)12 · 75H2O
Al ChalcophylliteCu18Al2(AsO4)4(SO4)3(OH)24 · 36H2O
Al Chamosite(Fe2+,Mg,Al,Fe3+)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH,O)8
Al ChenevixiteCu2Fe23+(AsO4)2(OH)4
Al ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Al CyanotrichiteCu4Al2(SO4)(OH)12 · 2H2O
Al Faustite(Zn,Cu)Al6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
Al GorceixiteBaAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
Al HalloysiteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Al KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al Turquoise (var: Rashleighite)Cu(Al,Fe)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 5H2O
Al TurquoiseCu(Al,Fe3+)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
Al WaylanditeBiAl3(PO4)2(OH)6
SiSilicon
Si Allophane(Al2O3)(SiO2)1.3-2 · 2.5-3H2O
Si Quartz (var: Amethyst)SiO2
Si Chamosite(Fe2+,Mg,Al,Fe3+)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH,O)8
Si ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Si HalloysiteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Si HisingeriteFe23+(Si2O5)(OH)4 · 2H2O
Si KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si PhenakiteBe2SiO4
Si QuartzSiO2
PPhosphorus
P BarbosaliteFe2+Fe23+(PO4)2(OH)2
P BerauniteFe2+Fe53+(PO4)4(OH)5 · 6H2O
P CacoxeniteFe243+AlO6(PO4)17(OH)12 · 75H2O
P ChalcosideriteCuFe63+(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
P DufréniteCa0.5Fe2+Fe53+(PO4)4(OH)6 · 2H2O
P Faustite(Zn,Cu)Al6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
P GorceixiteBaAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
P HentscheliteCuFe23+(PO4)2(OH)2
P KidwelliteNaFe3+9+x(PO4)6(OH)11 · 3H2O, x = 0.33
P LibetheniteCu2(PO4)(OH)
P PseudomalachiteCu5(PO4)2(OH)4
P Turquoise (var: Rashleighite)Cu(Al,Fe)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 5H2O
P RockbridgeiteFe2+Fe43+(PO4)3(OH)5
P StrengiteFePO4 · 2H2O
P TurquoiseCu(Al,Fe3+)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
P WaylanditeBiAl3(PO4)2(OH)6
SSulfur
S BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
S ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2O
S ChalcociteCu2S
S ChalcophylliteCu18Al2(AsO4)4(SO4)3(OH)24 · 36H2O
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S ConnelliteCu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2O
S CovelliteCuS
S CyanotrichiteCu4Al2(SO4)(OH)12 · 2H2O
S LangiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
S SphaleriteZnS
ClChlorine
Cl ConnelliteCu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2O
KPotassium
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K PharmacosideriteKFe43+(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
CaCalcium
Ca DufréniteCa0.5Fe2+Fe53+(PO4)4(OH)6 · 2H2O
MnManganese
Mn PyrolusiteMn4+O2
FeIron
Fe BarbosaliteFe2+Fe23+(PO4)2(OH)2
Fe BerauniteFe2+Fe53+(PO4)4(OH)5 · 6H2O
Fe CacoxeniteFe243+AlO6(PO4)17(OH)12 · 75H2O
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe ChalcosideriteCuFe63+(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
Fe Chamosite(Fe2+,Mg,Al,Fe3+)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH,O)8
Fe ChenevixiteCu2Fe23+(AsO4)2(OH)4
Fe DufréniteCa0.5Fe2+Fe53+(PO4)4(OH)6 · 2H2O
Fe Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
Fe HentscheliteCuFe23+(PO4)2(OH)2
Fe HisingeriteFe23+(Si2O5)(OH)4 · 2H2O
Fe KidwelliteNaFe3+9+x(PO4)6(OH)11 · 3H2O, x = 0.33
Fe Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Fe PharmacosideriteKFe43+(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
Fe Turquoise (var: Rashleighite)Cu(Al,Fe)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 5H2O
Fe RockbridgeiteFe2+Fe43+(PO4)3(OH)5
Fe ScoroditeFe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
Fe StrengiteFePO4 · 2H2O
Fe TurquoiseCu(Al,Fe3+)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
CuCopper
Cu AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Cu BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
Cu ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2O
Cu ChalcociteCu2S
Cu ChalcophylliteCu18Al2(AsO4)4(SO4)3(OH)24 · 36H2O
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Cu ChalcosideriteCuFe63+(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
Cu Cuprite (var: Chalcotrichite)Cu2O
Cu ChenevixiteCu2Fe23+(AsO4)2(OH)4
Cu ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Cu ConnelliteCu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2O
Cu CopperCu
Cu CornubiteCu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
Cu CornwalliteCu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
Cu CovelliteCuS
Cu CupriteCu2O
Cu CyanotrichiteCu4Al2(SO4)(OH)12 · 2H2O
Cu Faustite(Zn,Cu)Al6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
Cu HentscheliteCuFe23+(PO4)2(OH)2
Cu LangiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
Cu LibetheniteCu2(PO4)(OH)
Cu MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
Cu OliveniteCu2(AsO4)(OH)
Cu PseudomalachiteCu5(PO4)2(OH)4
Cu Turquoise (var: Rashleighite)Cu(Al,Fe)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 5H2O
Cu TenoriteCuO
Cu Cuprite (var: Tile ore)Cu2O
Cu TurquoiseCu(Al,Fe3+)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
ZnZinc
Zn Faustite(Zn,Cu)Al6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
Zn SphaleriteZnS
AsArsenic
As ArsenoliteAs2O3
As ChalcophylliteCu18Al2(AsO4)4(SO4)3(OH)24 · 36H2O
As ChenevixiteCu2Fe23+(AsO4)2(OH)4
As CornubiteCu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
As CornwalliteCu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
As OliveniteCu2(AsO4)(OH)
As PharmacosideriteKFe43+(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
As ScoroditeFe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
SnTin
Sn CassiteriteSnO2
BaBarium
Ba GorceixiteBaAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
BiBismuth
Bi WaylanditeBiAl3(PO4)2(OH)6

Geochronology

Geologic TimeRocks, Minerals and Events
Phanerozoic
 Paleozoic
  Permian
   Guadalupian
ⓘ Major polymetallic mineralization~270 MaCornwall, England, UK
   Cisuralian
ⓘ Porphyry dikes intruded (latest age)~275 MaCornwall, England, UK
ⓘ Greisenization (latest age)~280 MaCornwall, England, UK
ⓘ Porphyry dikes intruded (earliest age)~280 MaCornwall, England, UK
ⓘ Formation of metallized pegmatites~285 MaCornwall, England, UK
ⓘ Greisenization (earliest age)~285 MaCornwall, England, UK
ⓘ Emplacement of major plutons~295 MaCornwall, England, UK

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Permian - Carboniferous
251.902 - 358.9 Ma



ID: 2028951
Unnamed Igneous Intrusion, Carboniferous To Permian

Age: Phanerozoic (251.902 - 358.9 Ma)

Lithology: Felsic-rock

Reference: British Geological Survey. DiGMapGB-625. British Geological Survey ©NERC. [23]

Early Carboniferous
323.2 - 358.9 Ma



ID: 3192903
Paleozoic sedimentary rocks

Age: Mississippian (323.2 - 358.9 Ma)

Lithology: Sedimentary rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Ordovician
443.8 - 485.4 Ma



ID: 3151916
Ordovician granite

Age: Ordovician (443.8 - 485.4 Ma)

Lithology: Granite group

Reference: Asch, K. The 1:5M International Geological Map of Europe and Adjacent Areas: Development and Implementation of a GIS-enabled Concept. Geologisches Jahrbuch, SA 3. [147]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
- Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 951.
- Dines, H.G. (1956): The metalliferous mining region of south-west England. HMSO Publications (London), Vol. 2, pp. 591-594.

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