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Khaltaro (Rayjud; Kaltoro), Haramosh Mts., Gilgit District, Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistani
Regional Level Types
Khaltaro (Rayjud; Kaltoro)- not defined -
Haramosh Mts.- not defined -
Gilgit DistrictDistrict
Gilgit-BaltistanTerritory
PakistanCountry

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 35° 58' 48'' North , 74° 43' 45'' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 35.98000,74.72917
GeoHash:G#: twmhstbne
Köppen climate type:Dfc : Subarctic climate
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Barishal2,005 (2018)38.1km
Gilgit10,414 (2013)38.1km


Valley 6 km north of Sassi, with an emerald-bearing pegmatite field located at 4500 m elevation in the northwest Haramosh Mts.

The Khaltaro emerald deposit is located in the north-western part of the Haramosh massif, on the north-eastern side of Khaltaro Valley, about 5 km north of Darchan village, at nearly 4200 m above sea level. Emerald was discovered there by the Gemstone Corporation of Pakistan in 1985 during a reconnaissance study of gem-bearing pegmatites in the Haramosh region. Access to the deposit is hindered by the elevation and rugged terrain. Small-scale mining by the Corporation produced about 600 carats of gem-quality emerald from two prospects but the deposits were abandoned owing to poor accessibility and the pale, fractured nature of the emerald. Local inhabitants occasionally mine small quantities of emerald, as well as aquamarine and fluorite crystals from nearby pegmatites.

Regions containing this locality

Eurasian PlateTectonic Plate
AsiaContinent
The Himalayas, AsiaMountain Range

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


8 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Albite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Reference: Dudley Blauwet, Bill Smith and Carol Smith (2004) Table of mineral localities of the northern areas of Pakistan and other selected sites. (in "Pakistan: Minerals, Mountains & Majesty", Lapis International, East Hampton, Connecticut); Dudley Blauwet, Bill Smith and Carol Smith (2004) Table of mineral localities of the northern areas of Pakistan and other selected sites. (in "Pakistan: Minerals, Mountains & Majesty", Lapis International, East Hampton, Connecticut)
Albite var: Oligoclase
Formula: (Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Reference: Dudley Blauwet, Bill Smith and Carol Smith (2004) Table of mineral localities of the northern areas of Pakistan and other selected sites. (in "Pakistan: Minerals, Mountains & Majesty", Lapis International, East Hampton, Connecticut); Dudley Blauwet, Bill Smith and Carol Smith (2004) Table of mineral localities of the northern areas of Pakistan and other selected sites. (in "Pakistan: Minerals, Mountains & Majesty", Lapis International, East Hampton, Connecticut)
'Albite-Anorthite Series'
Reference: Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp24-35
'Allanite Group'
Formula: {A12+REE3+}{M3+2M32+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Reference: Dudley Blauwet, Bill Smith and Carol Smith (2004) Table of mineral localities of the northern areas of Pakistan and other selected sites. (in "Pakistan: Minerals, Mountains & Majesty", Lapis International, East Hampton, Connecticut); Dudley Blauwet, Bill Smith and Carol Smith (2004) Table of mineral localities of the northern areas of Pakistan and other selected sites. (in "Pakistan: Minerals, Mountains & Majesty", Lapis International, East Hampton, Connecticut)
'Apatite'
Reference: - Vera M. F. Hammer, Shafiee Muhammad, 2004, Pakistan Minerals, Mountains & Majesty, Lapis Int. pag 25-26
Beryl
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Reference: Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp24-35
Beryl var: Aquamarine
Formula: Be3Al2Si6O18
Reference: Dudley Blauwet, Bill Smith and Carol Smith (2004) Table of mineral localities of the northern areas of Pakistan and other selected sites. (in "Pakistan: Minerals, Mountains & Majesty", Lapis International, East Hampton, Connecticut); Dudley Blauwet, Bill Smith and Carol Smith (2004) Table of mineral localities of the northern areas of Pakistan and other selected sites. (in "Pakistan: Minerals, Mountains & Majesty", Lapis International, East Hampton, Connecticut)
Beryl var: Emerald
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Reference: Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp24-35
'Biotite'
Reference: Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp24-35
Fluorite
Formula: CaF2
Reference: Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp24-35
'K Feldspar'
Reference: Dudley Blauwet, Bill Smith and Carol Smith (2004) Table of mineral localities of the northern areas of Pakistan and other selected sites. (in "Pakistan: Minerals, Mountains & Majesty", Lapis International, East Hampton, Connecticut); Dudley Blauwet, Bill Smith and Carol Smith (2004) Table of mineral localities of the northern areas of Pakistan and other selected sites. (in "Pakistan: Minerals, Mountains & Majesty", Lapis International, East Hampton, Connecticut)
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Dudley Blauwet, Bill Smith and Carol Smith (2004) Table of mineral localities of the northern areas of Pakistan and other selected sites. (in "Pakistan: Minerals, Mountains & Majesty", Lapis International, East Hampton, Connecticut); Dudley Blauwet, Bill Smith and Carol Smith (2004) Table of mineral localities of the northern areas of Pakistan and other selected sites. (in "Pakistan: Minerals, Mountains & Majesty", Lapis International, East Hampton, Connecticut)
Muscovite var: Sericite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp24-35
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp24-35
Schorl
Formula: Na(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Reference: Dudley Blauwet, Bill Smith and Carol Smith (2004) Table of mineral localities of the northern areas of Pakistan and other selected sites. (in "Pakistan: Minerals, Mountains & Majesty", Lapis International, East Hampton, Connecticut); Dudley Blauwet, Bill Smith and Carol Smith (2004) Table of mineral localities of the northern areas of Pakistan and other selected sites. (in "Pakistan: Minerals, Mountains & Majesty", Lapis International, East Hampton, Connecticut)
Titanite
Formula: CaTi(SiO4)O
Reference: Dudley Blauwet, Bill Smith and Carol Smith (2004) Table of mineral localities of the northern areas of Pakistan and other selected sites. (in "Pakistan: Minerals, Mountains & Majesty", Lapis International, East Hampton, Connecticut); Dudley Blauwet, Bill Smith and Carol Smith (2004) Table of mineral localities of the northern areas of Pakistan and other selected sites. (in "Pakistan: Minerals, Mountains & Majesty", Lapis International, East Hampton, Connecticut)
'Tourmaline'
Formula: A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Reference: Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp24-35
Zoisite
Formula: Ca2Al3[Si2O7][SiO4]O(OH)
Reference: Dudley Blauwet, Bill Smith and Carol Smith (2004) Table of mineral localities of the northern areas of Pakistan and other selected sites. (in "Pakistan: Minerals, Mountains & Majesty", Lapis International, East Hampton, Connecticut); Dudley Blauwet, Bill Smith and Carol Smith (2004) Table of mineral localities of the northern areas of Pakistan and other selected sites. (in "Pakistan: Minerals, Mountains & Majesty", Lapis International, East Hampton, Connecticut)

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 3 - Halides
Fluorite3.AB.25CaF2
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Group 9 - Silicates
Albite9.FA.35Na(AlSi3O8)
var: Oligoclase9.FA.35(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Beryl9.CJ.05Be3Al2(Si6O18)
var: Aquamarine9.CJ.05Be3Al2Si6O18
var: Emerald9.CJ.05Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Muscovite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
var: Sericite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Schorl9.CK.05Na(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Titanite9.AG.15CaTi(SiO4)O
Zoisite9.BG.10Ca2Al3[Si2O7][SiO4]O(OH)
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Albite-Anorthite Series'-
'Allanite Group'-{A12+REE3+}{M3+2M32+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
'Apatite'-
'Biotite'-
'K Feldspar'-
'Tourmaline'-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 9 - NORMAL HALIDES
AX2
Fluorite9.2.1.1CaF2
Group 52 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] and/or >[6] coordination
Titanite52.4.3.1CaTi(SiO4)O
Group 58 - SOROSILICATES Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups
Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups with cations in [6] and higher coordination; single and double groups (n = 1, 2)
Zoisite58.2.1b.1Ca2Al3[Si2O7][SiO4]O(OH)
Group 61 - CYCLOSILICATES Six-Membered Rings
Six-Membered Rings with [Si6O18] rings; possible (OH) and Al substitution
Beryl61.1.1.1Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Six-Membered Rings with borate groups
Schorl61.3.1.10Na(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
Albite76.1.3.1Na(AlSi3O8)
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
var: Oligoclase-(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
'Albite-Anorthite Series'-
'Allanite Group'-{A12+REE3+}{M3+2M32+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
'Apatite'-
Beryl
var: Aquamarine
-Be3Al2Si6O18
var: Emerald-Be3Al2(Si6O18)
'Biotite'-
'K Feldspar'-
Muscovite
var: Sericite
-KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
'Tourmaline'-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H Allanite Group{A12+REE3+}{M23+M32+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
H ZoisiteCa2Al3[Si2O7][SiO4]O(OH)
BeBeryllium
Be Beryl (var: Emerald)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Be Beryl (var: Aquamarine)Be3Al2Si6O18
Be BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
BBoron
B TourmalineA(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
B SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
OOxygen
O Beryl (var: Emerald)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
O QuartzSiO2
O Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O TourmalineA(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
O AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
O Allanite Group{A12+REE3+}{M23+M32+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O Beryl (var: Aquamarine)Be3Al2Si6O18
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O Albite (var: Oligoclase)(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
O SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
O TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
O ZoisiteCa2Al3[Si2O7][SiO4]O(OH)
O BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
FFluorine
F FluoriteCaF2
NaSodium
Na AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Na Albite (var: Oligoclase)(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Na SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
AlAluminium
Al Beryl (var: Emerald)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Al Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Al Beryl (var: Aquamarine)Be3Al2Si6O18
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al Albite (var: Oligoclase)(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Al SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Al ZoisiteCa2Al3[Si2O7][SiO4]O(OH)
Al BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
SiSilicon
Si Beryl (var: Emerald)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Si QuartzSiO2
Si Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Si Allanite Group{A12+REE3+}{M23+M32+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si Beryl (var: Aquamarine)Be3Al2Si6O18
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si Albite (var: Oligoclase)(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Si SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Si TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Si ZoisiteCa2Al3[Si2O7][SiO4]O(OH)
Si BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
KPotassium
K Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
CaCalcium
Ca FluoriteCaF2
Ca Albite (var: Oligoclase)(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Ca TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Ca ZoisiteCa2Al3[Si2O7][SiO4]O(OH)
TiTitanium
Ti TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
FeIron
Fe SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Early Paleozoic - Neoproterozoic
443.8 - 1000 Ma



ID: 3189341
Precambrian-Phanerozoic crystalline metamorphic rocks

Age: Neoproterozoic to Ordovician (443.8 - 1000 Ma)

Lithology: Crystalline metamorphic rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
- Kazmi, A.H., and Snee, L.W., ed., 1989. Emeralds of Pakistan: Geology, Gemology and Genesis. Van Nostrand Reinhold, London, 269 p.
- Brendan M. Laurstand, John H. Dilles, Lawrance W. Snee (1996) Emerald mineralization and metasomatism of amphibolite Khaltaro granitic pegmatite - hydrothermal vein system. The Canadian Mineralogist, Vol. 34, pp.1253-1286
- Vera M. F. Hammer, Shafiee Muhammad, 2004, Pakistan Minerals, Mountains & Majesty, Lapis Int. pag 25-26


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