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Gravel Hill Mine (Cliff Iron Mine; Penhale Iron Mine), Perran Iron Lode (Great Perran Iron Lode), Perranzabuloe, Cornwall, England, UKi
Regional Level Types
Gravel Hill Mine (Cliff Iron Mine; Penhale Iron Mine)Mine
Perran Iron Lode (Great Perran Iron Lode)Lode
PerranzabuloeCivil Parish
CornwallCounty
EnglandConstituent Country
UKCountry

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Key
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
50° 22' 27'' North , 5° 8' 42'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal):
UK National Grid Reference:
SW764575
Locality type:
Köppen climate type:
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Cubert771 (2017)2.0km
Perranporth3,210 (2017)3.5km
Crantock801 (2017)3.9km
Newquay20,189 (2017)6.9km
Saint Agnes2,820 (2014)8.0km


Gravel Hill mine (earlier known as Penhale Iron Mine and Cliff Iron Mine) worked the western end of the Perran Iron Lode. Where the lode crops out in the cliff, it consists of two branches that are separated by a horse of killas. Both branches were worked from the cliff face, and the stopes still stand as large caverns. About 170 yards SE of the cliff workings is a small but deep opencast called the Big Iron Pit. Another excavation just north of the caverns is from an old quarry in an elvan dyke and not related to the mine workings.

Underground development was carried out from an adit at beach level, which follows the north branch of the lode, and from shafts near the cliff edge. The base of the oxidized zone is about at adit level. Below this, the lode is reported to narrow and to consist mainly of blue fluccan (clay) with fragments of sulphides. About midway between the cliff and the Big Iron Pit, the lode is crossed by a NS-trending lode, which is believed to represent the southern extension of the lode worked at the Phoenix Mine.

The mine is known to have been active before 1728, but output figures are only available for the later workings. Between 1874 and 1882, it produced 7,400 tons of brown iron ore grading at 47% Fe, 10,379 tons of mixed limonite and spathic ores and 30 tons of 40% zinc ore. Another 165 tons of brown iron ore recorded in 1866 under the name Perran Bay may refer to the cliff workings. When the mine was reopened around 1916 (Cantrill et al., 1919), it apparently did not produce any ores.

Regions containing this locality

Eurasian PlateTectonic Plate
EuropeContinent
British IslesGroup of Islands
Devon and Cornwall metalliferous mining district, England, UKMining District
St Agnes Mining District, Cornwall, England, UKMining District

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Commodity List

This is a list of exploitable or exploited mineral commodities recorded at this locality.


Mineral List


31 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Akaganeite
Formula: (Fe3+,Ni2+)8(OH,O)16Cl1.25 · nH2O
Reference: Ryback, G., and Tandy, P.C. (1992): Mineralogical Magazine 56, 261-275; Golley, P., and Williams, R. (1995): Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications (Truro), 104 pp.
Baryte
Formula: BaSO4
Reference: Golley, P., and Williams, R. (1995): Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications (Truro), 104 pp.
Beraunite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+5(PO4)4(OH)5 · 6H2O
Reference: Sparrow, C. (1989): Russell Society Newsletter 3, 6; Golley, P., and Williams, R. (1995): Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications (Truro), 104 pp.
Carminite
Formula: PbFe3+2(AsO4)2(OH)2
Reference: Golley, P., and Williams, R. (1995): Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications (Truro), 104 pp.
Cerussite
Formula: PbCO3
Reference: Steve Rust specimen
Corkite
Formula: PbFe3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Reference: Golley, P., and Williams, R. (1995): Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications (Truro), 104 pp.
Diadochite
Formula: Fe3+2(PO4)(SO4)(OH) · 5H2O
Reference: Sparrow, C. (1989): Russell Society Newsletter 3, 6; Golley, P., and Williams, R. (1995): Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications (Truro), 104 pp.
Dundasite
Formula: PbAl2(CO3)2(OH)4 · H2O
Reference: G.Curtis collection
Eleonorite
Formula: Fe3+6(PO4)4O(OH)4 · 6H2O
Reference: IMA nomenclature approval
Ferrostrunzite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2(PO4)2(OH)2 · 6H2O
Reference: Weiß, S. (1989): Lapis 14(6), 40-41; Golley, P., and Williams, R. (1995): Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications (Truro), 104 pp.
Fluorapatite
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3F
Reference: Golley, P., and Williams, R. (1995): Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications (Truro), 104 pp.
Fluorite
Formula: CaF2
Reference: Steve Rust specimen
Galena
Formula: PbS
Reference: Reid, C., Scrivenor, J.B., Flett, J.S., Pollard, W., and MacAlister, D.A. (1906): The Geology of the Country near Newquay. HMSO Publications (London), 131 pp.; Dines, H.G. (1956): The metalliferous mining region of south-west England. HMSO Publications (London), Vol. 1, pp. 441-442
Goethite
Formula: α-Fe3+O(OH)
Reference: Martin Stolworthy specimen
Gypsum
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Reference: Steve Rust specimen
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Reference: Cantrill, T.C., Sherlock, R.L., and Dewey, H. (1919): Special Reports on the Mineral Resources of Great Britain, Vol. 9 - Iron Ores. HMSO Publications (London), pp. 61-67
Jarosite
Formula: KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Reference: Golley, P., and Williams, R. (1995): Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications (Truro), 104 pp.
Lanarkite
Formula: Pb2(SO4)O
Reference: Sparrow, C. (1989): Russell Society Newsletter 3, 6; Golley, P., and Williams, R. (1995): Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications (Truro), 104 pp.
Lepidocrocite
Formula: γ-Fe3+O(OH)
Reference: Golley, P., and Williams, R. (1995): Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications (Truro), 104 pp.
'Limonite'
Formula: (Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Reference: Reid, C., Scrivenor, J.B., Flett, J.S., Pollard, W., and MacAlister, D.A. (1906): The Geology of the Country near Newquay. HMSO Publications (London), 131 pp.; Cantrill, T.C., Sherlock, R.L., and Dewey, H. (1919): Special Reports on the Mineral Resources of Great Britain, Vol. 9 - Iron Ores. HMSO Publications (London), pp. 61-67; Dines, H.G. (1956): The metalliferous mining region of south-west England. HMSO Publications (London), Vol. 1, pp. 441-442
Marcasite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Richard De Nul specimen
Phosgenite
Formula: Pb2CO3Cl2
Reference: Steve Rust specimen
Phosphosiderite
Formula: FePO4 · 2H2O
Reference: Sparrow, C. (1989): Russell Society Newsletter 3, 6; Golley, P., and Williams, R. (1995): Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications (Truro), 104 pp.
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Reid, C., Scrivenor, J.B., Flett, J.S., Pollard, W., and MacAlister, D.A. (1906): The Geology of the Country near Newquay. HMSO Publications (London), 131 pp.; Dines, H.G. (1956): The metalliferous mining region of south-west England. HMSO Publications (London), Vol. 1, pp. 441-442
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Cantrill, T.C., Sherlock, R.L., and Dewey, H. (1919): Special Reports on the Mineral Resources of Great Britain, Vol. 9 - Iron Ores. HMSO Publications (London), pp. 61-67; Dines, H.G. (1956): The metalliferous mining region of south-west England. HMSO Publications (London), Vol. 1, pp. 441-442.
Rockbridgeite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+4(PO4)3(OH)5
Reference: Golley, P., and Williams, R. (1995): Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications (Truro), 104 pp.
Siderite
Formula: FeCO3
Reference: Reid, C., Scrivenor, J.B., Flett, J.S., Pollard, W., and MacAlister, D.A. (1906): The Geology of the Country near Newquay. HMSO Publications (London), 131 pp.; Dines, H.G. (1956): The metalliferous mining region of south-west England. HMSO Publications (London), Vol. 1, pp. 441-442
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Reference: Reid, C., Scrivenor, J.B., Flett, J.S., Pollard, W., and MacAlister, D.A. (1906): The Geology of the Country near Newquay. HMSO Publications (London), 131 pp.; Dines, H.G. (1956): The metalliferous mining region of south-west England. HMSO Publications (London), Vol. 1, pp. 441-442
Strengite
Formula: FePO4 · 2H2O
Reference: Golley, P., and Williams, R. (1995): Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications (Truro), 104 pp.
Strunzite
Formula: Mn2+Fe3+2(PO4)2(OH)2 · 6H2O
Reference: Ryback, G., and Tandy, P.C. (1992): Mineralogical Magazine 56, 261-275; Golley, P., and Williams, R. (1995): Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications (Truro), 104 pp.
Sulphur
Formula: S8
Reference: Golley, P., and Williams, R. (1995): Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications (Truro), 104 pp.
Whitmoreite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2(PO4)2(OH)2 · 4H2O
Reference: Golley, P., and Williams, R. (1995): Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications (Truro), 104 pp.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Sulphur1.CC.05S8
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Galena2.CD.10PbS
Marcasite2.EB.10aFeS2
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
Group 3 - Halides
Fluorite3.AB.25CaF2
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Akaganeite4.DK.05(Fe3+,Ni2+)8(OH,O)16Cl1.25 · nH2O
Goethite4.00.α-Fe3+O(OH)
Hematite4.CB.05Fe2O3
Lepidocrocite4.FE.15γ-Fe3+O(OH)
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Cerussite5.AB.15PbCO3
Dundasite5.DB.10PbAl2(CO3)2(OH)4 · H2O
Phosgenite5.BE.20Pb2CO3Cl2
Siderite5.AB.05FeCO3
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Baryte7.AD.35BaSO4
Gypsum7.CD.40CaSO4 · 2H2O
Jarosite7.BC.10KFe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6
Lanarkite7.BD.40Pb2(SO4)O
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Beraunite8.DC.27Fe2+Fe3+5(PO4)4(OH)5 · 6H2O
Carminite8.BH.30PbFe3+2(AsO4)2(OH)2
Corkite8.BL.05PbFe3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Diadochite8.DB.05Fe3+2(PO4)(SO4)(OH) · 5H2O
Ferrostrunzite8.DC.25Fe2+Fe3+2(PO4)2(OH)2 · 6H2O
Fluorapatite8.BN.05Ca5(PO4)3F
Phosphosiderite8.CD.05FePO4 · 2H2O
Rockbridgeite8.BC.10Fe2+Fe3+4(PO4)3(OH)5
Strengite8.CD.10FePO4 · 2H2O
Strunzite8.DC.25Mn2+Fe3+2(PO4)2(OH)2 · 6H2O
Whitmoreite8.DC.15Fe2+Fe3+2(PO4)2(OH)2 · 4H2O
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
Eleonorite-Fe3+6(PO4)4O(OH)4 · 6H2O
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Semi-metals and non-metals
Sulphur1.3.5.1S8
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Marcasite2.12.2.1FeS2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X3
Hematite4.3.1.2Fe2O3
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
XO(OH)
Akaganeite6.1.6.1(Fe3+,Ni2+)8(OH,O)16Cl1.25 · nH2O
Goethite6.1.1.2α-Fe3+O(OH)
Lepidocrocite6.1.2.2γ-Fe3+O(OH)
Group 9 - NORMAL HALIDES
AX2
Fluorite9.2.1.1CaF2
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Cerussite14.1.3.4PbCO3
Siderite14.1.1.3FeCO3
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Phosgenite16a.3.4.1Pb2CO3Cl2
Group 16b - HYDRATED CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Dundasite16b.2.1.1PbAl2(CO3)2(OH)4 · H2O
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Baryte28.3.1.1BaSO4
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4·xH2O
Gypsum29.6.3.1CaSO4 · 2H2O
Group 30 - ANHYDROUS SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)2(XO4)Zq
Jarosite30.2.5.1KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Lanarkite30.2.1.1Pb2(SO4)O
Group 40 - HYDRATED NORMAL PHOSPHATES,ARSENATES AND VANADATES
(AB)5(XO4)2·xH2O
Phosphosiderite40.4.3.2FePO4 · 2H2O
Strengite40.4.1.2FePO4 · 2H2O
Group 41 - ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
A5(XO4)3Zq
Fluorapatite41.8.1.1Ca5(PO4)3F
(AB)5(XO4)3Zq
Rockbridgeite41.9.2.1Fe2+Fe3+4(PO4)3(OH)5
(AB)3(XO4)2Zq
Carminite41.10.6.1PbFe3+2(AsO4)2(OH)2
Group 42 - HYDRATED PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)3(XO4)2Zq·xH2O
Beraunite42.11.16.1Fe2+Fe3+5(PO4)4(OH)5 · 6H2O
Ferrostrunzite42.11.9.2Fe2+Fe3+2(PO4)2(OH)2 · 6H2O
Strunzite42.11.9.1Mn2+Fe3+2(PO4)2(OH)2 · 6H2O
Whitmoreite42.11.20.1Fe2+Fe3+2(PO4)2(OH)2 · 4H2O
Group 43 - COMPOUND PHOSPHATES, ETC.
Anhydrous Compound Phosphates, etc·, Containing Hydroxyl or Halogen
Corkite43.4.1.2PbFe3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Hydrated Compound Phosphates, etc·, Containing Hydroxyl or Halogen
Diadochite43.5.2.1Fe3+2(PO4)(SO4)(OH) · 5H2O
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
Eleonorite-Fe3+6(PO4)4O(OH)4 · 6H2O
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H Akaganeite(Fe3+,Ni2+)8(OH,O)16Cl1.25 · nH2O
H BerauniteFe2+Fe53+(PO4)4(OH)5 · 6H2O
H CarminitePbFe23+(AsO4)2(OH)2
H CorkitePbFe3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
H DiadochiteFe23+(PO4)(SO4)(OH) · 5H2O
H FerrostrunziteFe2+Fe23+(PO4)2(OH)2 · 6H2O
H JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
H Lepidocrociteγ-Fe3+O(OH)
H PhosphosideriteFePO4 · 2H2O
H RockbridgeiteFe2+Fe43+(PO4)3(OH)5
H StrengiteFePO4 · 2H2O
H StrunziteMn2+Fe23+(PO4)2(OH)2 · 6H2O
H WhitmoreiteFe2+Fe23+(PO4)2(OH)2 · 4H2O
H Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
H GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
H DundasitePbAl2(CO3)2(OH)4 · H2O
H Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
H EleonoriteFe63+(PO4)4O(OH)4 · 6H2O
CCarbon
C SideriteFeCO3
C PhosgenitePb2CO3Cl2
C CerussitePbCO3
C DundasitePbAl2(CO3)2(OH)4 · H2O
OOxygen
O Akaganeite(Fe3+,Ni2+)8(OH,O)16Cl1.25 · nH2O
O BaryteBaSO4
O BerauniteFe2+Fe53+(PO4)4(OH)5 · 6H2O
O CarminitePbFe23+(AsO4)2(OH)2
O CorkitePbFe3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
O DiadochiteFe23+(PO4)(SO4)(OH) · 5H2O
O FerrostrunziteFe2+Fe23+(PO4)2(OH)2 · 6H2O
O FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
O JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
O Lepidocrociteγ-Fe3+O(OH)
O PhosphosideriteFePO4 · 2H2O
O RockbridgeiteFe2+Fe43+(PO4)3(OH)5
O StrengiteFePO4 · 2H2O
O StrunziteMn2+Fe23+(PO4)2(OH)2 · 6H2O
O WhitmoreiteFe2+Fe23+(PO4)2(OH)2 · 4H2O
O SideriteFeCO3
O QuartzSiO2
O PhosgenitePb2CO3Cl2
O Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
O GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
O CerussitePbCO3
O DundasitePbAl2(CO3)2(OH)4 · H2O
O Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
O LanarkitePb2(SO4)O
O HematiteFe2O3
O EleonoriteFe63+(PO4)4O(OH)4 · 6H2O
FFluorine
F FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
F FluoriteCaF2
AlAluminium
Al DundasitePbAl2(CO3)2(OH)4 · H2O
SiSilicon
Si QuartzSiO2
PPhosphorus
P BerauniteFe2+Fe53+(PO4)4(OH)5 · 6H2O
P CorkitePbFe3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
P DiadochiteFe23+(PO4)(SO4)(OH) · 5H2O
P FerrostrunziteFe2+Fe23+(PO4)2(OH)2 · 6H2O
P FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
P PhosphosideriteFePO4 · 2H2O
P RockbridgeiteFe2+Fe43+(PO4)3(OH)5
P StrengiteFePO4 · 2H2O
P StrunziteMn2+Fe23+(PO4)2(OH)2 · 6H2O
P WhitmoreiteFe2+Fe23+(PO4)2(OH)2 · 4H2O
P EleonoriteFe63+(PO4)4O(OH)4 · 6H2O
SSulfur
S BaryteBaSO4
S CorkitePbFe3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
S DiadochiteFe23+(PO4)(SO4)(OH) · 5H2O
S JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
S SulphurS8
S MarcasiteFeS2
S SphaleriteZnS
S PyriteFeS2
S GalenaPbS
S GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
S LanarkitePb2(SO4)O
ClChlorine
Cl Akaganeite(Fe3+,Ni2+)8(OH,O)16Cl1.25 · nH2O
Cl PhosgenitePb2CO3Cl2
KPotassium
K JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
CaCalcium
Ca FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
Ca FluoriteCaF2
Ca GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
MnManganese
Mn StrunziteMn2+Fe23+(PO4)2(OH)2 · 6H2O
FeIron
Fe Akaganeite(Fe3+,Ni2+)8(OH,O)16Cl1.25 · nH2O
Fe BerauniteFe2+Fe53+(PO4)4(OH)5 · 6H2O
Fe CarminitePbFe23+(AsO4)2(OH)2
Fe CorkitePbFe3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Fe DiadochiteFe23+(PO4)(SO4)(OH) · 5H2O
Fe FerrostrunziteFe2+Fe23+(PO4)2(OH)2 · 6H2O
Fe JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Fe Lepidocrociteγ-Fe3+O(OH)
Fe PhosphosideriteFePO4 · 2H2O
Fe RockbridgeiteFe2+Fe43+(PO4)3(OH)5
Fe StrengiteFePO4 · 2H2O
Fe StrunziteMn2+Fe23+(PO4)2(OH)2 · 6H2O
Fe WhitmoreiteFe2+Fe23+(PO4)2(OH)2 · 4H2O
Fe MarcasiteFeS2
Fe SideriteFeCO3
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
Fe Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Fe HematiteFe2O3
Fe EleonoriteFe63+(PO4)4O(OH)4 · 6H2O
NiNickel
Ni Akaganeite(Fe3+,Ni2+)8(OH,O)16Cl1.25 · nH2O
ZnZinc
Zn SphaleriteZnS
AsArsenic
As CarminitePbFe23+(AsO4)2(OH)2
BaBarium
Ba BaryteBaSO4
PbLead
Pb CarminitePbFe23+(AsO4)2(OH)2
Pb CorkitePbFe3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Pb GalenaPbS
Pb PhosgenitePb2CO3Cl2
Pb CerussitePbCO3
Pb DundasitePbAl2(CO3)2(OH)4 · H2O
Pb LanarkitePb2(SO4)O

Geochronology

Geologic TimeRocks, Minerals and Events
Phanerozoic
 Paleozoic
  Permian
   Guadalupian
ⓘ Major polymetallic mineralization~270 MaCornwall, England, UK
   Cisuralian
ⓘ Porphyry dikes intruded (latest age)~275 MaCornwall, England, UK
ⓘ Greisenization (latest age)~280 MaCornwall, England, UK
ⓘ Porphyry dikes intruded (earliest age)~280 MaCornwall, England, UK
ⓘ Formation of metallized pegmatites~285 MaCornwall, England, UK
ⓘ Greisenization (earliest age)~285 MaCornwall, England, UK
ⓘ Emplacement of major plutons~295 MaCornwall, England, UK

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
A.K. Hamilton Jenkin: Annotations to Ordnance Survey map, scale 1:10,000, sheet 39SW.
Cantrill, T.C., Sherlock, R.L., and Dewey, H. (1919): Special Reports on the Mineral Resources of Great Britain, Vol. 9 - Iron Ores. HMSO Publications (London), pp. 61-67.
Dines, H.G. (1956): The metalliferous mining region of south-west England. HMSO Publications (London), Vol. 1, pp. 441-442 (see also corrigenda in the 1994 reprint).


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