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Greenbushes Mine (Greenbushes pegmatite), Greenbushes Tinfield, Bridgetown-Greenbushes Shire, Western Australia, Australiai
Regional Level Types
Greenbushes Mine (Greenbushes pegmatite)Mine
Greenbushes Tinfield- not defined -
Bridgetown-Greenbushes ShireShire
Western AustraliaState
AustraliaCountry

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 33° 51' 17'' South , 116° 3' 38'' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): -33.85494,116.06064
GeoHash:G#: q9fx3hbu8
Locality type:Mine
Köppen climate type:Csb : Warm-summer Mediterranean climate
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Greenbushes344 (2012)0.6km
Balingup442 (2016)10.6km
Bridgetown2,971 (2012)13.8km
Mullalyup278 (2016)17.9km
Kirup324 (2018)20.5km


An open pit tin-tantalum-lithium mine located in SW Western Australia. Older specimens may be titled Lemonade Springs, which was an old open pit just south of the Cornwall Pit.

The mine has been one of the most intensely studied in Western Australia. The deposit contains half the world's known reserves of tantalum, and is the largest lithium resource in the world. Tin production ceased at Greenbushes in 2007. Fossicking is not allowed at the mine.

The deposit was discovered by government geologist. E. T. Hardman in 1881. The Bunbury Tin Mining Company was formed to mine the alluvial cassiterite. Production levels waxed and waned over the years based on tin prices. In the early years mining involved screening, sluicing and dredging by small groups of miners. After 1908, lower profits and yields saw a gradual consolidation of leases. From this time till 1944, tin mining was sporadic, and conducted with hydraulic sluices with small scale deep mining. After the Second World War, the Tin and Strategic Mineral Company Pty Ltd started large scale mining using modern methods. Due to low prices the company ceased in 1956, and mining was taken over by Greenbushes Tin NL in 1965. Initially this was by dredges, then from 1972 by open pit mining for tin and tantalum. Commercial spodumene production for lithium started in 1983, but the company ran into financial difficulties and was purchased by Gwalia Consolidated Ltd in 1990, who expanded the mining operation.

The mineis based in a zoned granitic pegmatite. The main Greenbushes pegmatite is 2 500 metres long and 61 to 244 metres wide, trending north north-west. It is classed as a large LCT complex pegmatite (spodumene sub-class), is severely deformed, recrystallised, deeply weathered and fine grained to a point where it is difficult to map out the zonation. Two main zones are present:
- Albite / Ta-Sn zone
- Spodumene zone (hanging walls of the main pegmatite)

The mine produces many interesting minerals but few large attractive crystals for most species. Well formed, coarse schorl and holmquistite crystals are known, but only micro cyrstals of the tantalum bearing minerals. It is the type and only locality for ferro-holmquistite.

Regions containing this locality

Australian PlatePlate
West Australian Element, Western Australia, AustraliaCraton
Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia, AustraliaCraton

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


60 valid minerals. 1 (TL) - type locality of valid minerals. 1 erroneous literature entry.

Rock Types Recorded

Note: this is a very new system on mindat.org and data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

Select Rock List Type

Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

Detailed Mineral List:

Albite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Albite var: Cleavelandite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Amblygonite
Formula: LiAl(PO4)F
Anorthite
Formula: Ca(Al2Si2O8)
'Apatite'
Arsenopyrite
Formula: FeAsS
Augite
Formula: (CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Beryl
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
'Biotite'
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Cassiterite
Formula: SnO2
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Columbite-(Fe)
Formula: Fe2+Nb2O6
Columbite-(Mn)
Formula: Mn2+Nb2O6
Copper
Formula: Cu
Corundum
Formula: Al2O3
'Doelterite'
Dravite
Formula: Na(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Elbaite
Formula: Na(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Enstatite
Formula: MgSiO3
Epidote
Formula: {Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Euxenite-(Y) ?
Formula: (Y,Ca,Ce,U,Th)(Nb,Ta,Ti)2O6
'Feldspar Group'
'Feldspar Group var: Perthite'
Ferro-holmquistite (TL)
Formula: ☐{Li2}{Fe2+3Al2}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Type Locality:
Fluorapatite
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3F
Fluorapatite var: Mn-bearing Fluorapatite
Formula: (Ca,Mn2+)5(PO4)3(F,Cl,OH) or Ca5([P,Mn5+]O4)3(F,Cl,OH)
Fluorite
Formula: CaF2
Gahnite
Formula: ZnAl2O4
'Garnet Group'
Formula: X3Z2(SiO4)3
Gibbsite
Formula: Al(OH)3
Glaucophane ?
Formula: ⃞[Na2][Mg3Al2]Si8O22(OH)2
Gold
Formula: Au
Holmquistite
Formula: ☐{Li2}{Mg3Al2}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Holtite
Formula: (Ta0.60.4)Al6BSi3O18(O,OH)2.25
'Hornblende'
Ilmenite
Formula: Fe2+TiO3
Ixiolite
Formula: (Ta,Nb,Sn,Fe,Mn)4O8
Kaolinite
Formula: Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Kyanite
Formula: Al2(SiO4)O
'Labradorite'
Formula: (Ca,Na)[Al(Al,Si)Si2O8]
'Lepidolite'
Leucoxene
'Limonite'
Formula: (Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Lithiophilite
Formula: LiMn2+PO4
Lithiophosphate
Formula: Li3PO4
Magnetite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Microcline
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
'Microlite Group'
Formula: A2-mTa2X6-wZ-n
Molybdenite
Formula: MoS2
'Monazite'
Montebrasite
Formula: LiAl(PO4)(OH)
'Mossite'
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Pollucite
Formula: (Cs,Na)2(Al2Si4O12) · 2H2O
'Psilomelane'
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
'Pyrochlore'
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Rutile
Formula: TiO2
Rutile var: Niobian Rutile
Formula: (Ti,Nb)O2
Rutile var: Strüverite
Formula: (Ti,Ta,Fe)O2
Rynersonite
Formula: CaTa2O6
'Scapolite'
Schorl
Formula: Na(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Siderite
Formula: FeCO3
Sillimanite
Formula: Al2(SiO4)O
Simpsonite
Formula: Al4(Ta,Nb)3O13(OH,F)
Spinel
Formula: MgAl2O4
Spodumene
Formula: LiAlSi2O6
Spodumene var: Kunzite
Formula: LiAlSi2O6
Staurolite
Formula: Fe2+2Al9Si4O23(OH)
Stibiotantalite
Formula: Sb(Ta,Nb)O4
'Tantalite'
Formula: (Mn,Fe)(Ta,Nb)2O6
Tantalite-(Mn)
Formula: Mn2+Ta2O6
'Tapiolite'
Formula: (Fe,Mn)(Ta,Nb)2O6
Titanite
Formula: CaTi(SiO4)O
Topaz
Formula: Al2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
'Tourmaline'
Formula: A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Triphylite
Formula: LiFe2+PO4
Turquoise
Formula: Cu(Al,Fe3+)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
Uraninite
Formula: UO2
Wodginite
Formula: Mn2+Sn4+Ta2O8
'Xenotime'
Zircon
Formula: Zr(SiO4)

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Copper1.AA.05Cu
Gold1.AA.05Au
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Arsenopyrite2.EB.20FeAsS
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Molybdenite2.EA.30MoS2
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Group 3 - Halides
Fluorite3.AB.25CaF2
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Cassiterite4.DB.05SnO2
Columbite-(Fe)4.DB.35Fe2+Nb2O6
Columbite-(Mn)4.DB.35Mn2+Nb2O6
Corundum4.CB.05Al2O3
Euxenite-(Y) ?4.DG.05(Y,Ca,Ce,U,Th)(Nb,Ta,Ti)2O6
Gahnite4.BB.05ZnAl2O4
Gibbsite4.FE.10Al(OH)3
Ilmenite4.CB.05Fe2+TiO3
Ixiolite4.DB.25(Ta,Nb,Sn,Fe,Mn)4O8
Magnetite4.BB.05Fe2+Fe3+2O4
'Microlite Group'4.00.A2-mTa2X6-wZ-n
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Rutile4.DB.05TiO2
var: Niobian Rutile4.DB.05(Ti,Nb)O2
var: Strüverite4.DB.05(Ti,Ta,Fe)O2
Rynersonite4.DF.05CaTa2O6
Simpsonite4.DC.10Al4(Ta,Nb)3O13(OH,F)
Spinel4.BB.05MgAl2O4
Stibiotantalite4.DE.30Sb(Ta,Nb)O4
Tantalite-(Mn)4.DB.35Mn2+Ta2O6
Uraninite4.DL.05UO2
Wodginite4.DB.40Mn2+Sn4+Ta2O8
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Siderite5.AB.05FeCO3
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Amblygonite8.BB.05LiAl(PO4)F
Fluorapatite8.BN.05Ca5(PO4)3F
var: Mn-bearing Fluorapatite8.BN.05(Ca,Mn2+)5(PO4)3(F,Cl,OH) or Ca5([P,Mn5+]O4)3(F,Cl,OH)
Lithiophilite8.AB.10LiMn2+PO4
Lithiophosphate8.AA.20Li3PO4
Montebrasite8.BB.05LiAl(PO4)(OH)
Triphylite8.AB.10LiFe2+PO4
Turquoise8.DD.15Cu(Al,Fe3+)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
Group 9 - Silicates
Albite9.FA.35Na(AlSi3O8)
var: Cleavelandite9.FA.35Na(AlSi3O8)
Anorthite9.FA.35Ca(Al2Si2O8)
Augite9.DA.15(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Beryl9.CJ.05Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Dravite9.CK.05Na(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Elbaite9.CK.05Na(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Enstatite9.DA.05MgSiO3
Epidote9.BG.05a{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Ferro-holmquistite (TL)9.DD.05☐{Li2}{Fe2+3Al2}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Glaucophane ?9.DE.25⃞[Na2][Mg3Al2]Si8O22(OH)2
Holmquistite9.DD.05☐{Li2}{Mg3Al2}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Holtite9.AJ.10(Ta0.60.4)Al6BSi3O18(O,OH)2.25
Kaolinite9.ED.05Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Kyanite9.AF.15Al2(SiO4)O
'Labradorite'9.FA.35(Ca,Na)[Al(Al,Si)Si2O8]
Microcline9.FA.30K(AlSi3O8)
Muscovite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Pollucite9.GB.05(Cs,Na)2(Al2Si4O12) · 2H2O
Schorl9.CK.05Na(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Sillimanite9.AF.05Al2(SiO4)O
Spodumene9.DA.30LiAlSi2O6
var: Kunzite9.DA.30LiAlSi2O6
Staurolite9.AF.30Fe2+2Al9Si4O23(OH)
Titanite9.AG.15CaTi(SiO4)O
Topaz9.AF.35Al2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
Zircon9.AD.30Zr(SiO4)
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Apatite'-
'Biotite'-
'Doelterite'-
'Feldspar Group'-
'var: Perthite'-
'Garnet Group'-X3Z2(SiO4)3
'Hornblende'-
'Lepidolite'-
Leucoxene-
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
'Monazite'-
'Mossite' ?-
'Psilomelane'-
'Pyrochlore'-
'Scapolite'-
'Tantalite'-(Mn,Fe)(Ta,Nb)2O6
'Tapiolite'-(Fe,Mn)(Ta,Nb)2O6
'Tourmaline'-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
'Xenotime'-

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Copper1.1.1.3Cu
Gold1.1.1.1Au
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Arsenopyrite2.12.4.1FeAsS
Molybdenite2.12.10.1MoS2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X3
Corundum4.3.1.1Al2O3
Ilmenite4.3.5.1Fe2+TiO3
AX2
Cassiterite4.4.1.5SnO2
Rutile4.4.1.1TiO2
var: Strüverite4.4.1.3(Ti,Ta,Fe)O2
Group 5 - OXIDES CONTAINING URANIUM OR THORIUM
AXO2·xH2O
Uraninite5.1.1.1UO2
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
X(OH)3
Gibbsite6.3.1.1Al(OH)3
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB2X4
Gahnite7.2.1.4ZnAl2O4
Magnetite7.2.2.3Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Spinel7.2.1.1MgAl2O4
Group 8 - MULTIPLE OXIDES CONTAINING NIOBIUM,TANTALUM OR TITANIUM
ABO4
Ixiolite8.1.10.1(Ta,Nb,Sn,Fe,Mn)4O8
Stibiotantalite8.1.6.2Sb(Ta,Nb)O4
Wodginite8.1.8.1Mn2+Sn4+Ta2O8
A2B2O6(O,OH,F)
'Microlite Group'8.2.2.1A2-mTa2X6-wZ-n
AB2O6
Columbite-(Fe)8.3.2.2Fe2+Nb2O6
Columbite-(Mn)8.3.2.4Mn2+Nb2O6
Euxenite-(Y) ?8.3.8.2(Y,Ca,Ce,U,Th)(Nb,Ta,Ti)2O6
Rynersonite8.3.7.2CaTa2O6
Tantalite-(Mn)8.3.2.3Mn2+Ta2O6
Miscellaneous
Simpsonite8.7.5.1Al4(Ta,Nb)3O13(OH,F)
Group 9 - NORMAL HALIDES
AX2
Fluorite9.2.1.1CaF2
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Siderite14.1.1.3FeCO3
Group 38 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, AND VANADATES
ABXO4
Lithiophilite38.1.1.2LiMn2+PO4
Triphylite38.1.1.1LiFe2+PO4
AXO4
Lithiophosphate38.4.10.1Li3PO4
Group 41 - ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)2(XO4)Zq
Amblygonite41.5.8.1LiAl(PO4)F
Montebrasite41.5.8.2LiAl(PO4)(OH)
A5(XO4)3Zq
Fluorapatite41.8.1.1Ca5(PO4)3F
Group 42 - HYDRATED PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)7(XO4)4Zq·xH2O
Turquoise42.9.3.1Cu(Al,Fe3+)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in >[6] coordination
Zircon51.5.2.1Zr(SiO4)
Group 52 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [4] and >[4] coordination
Kyanite52.2.2c.1Al2(SiO4)O
Sillimanite52.2.2a.1Al2(SiO4)O
Staurolite52.2.3.1Fe2+2Al9Si4O23(OH)
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] coordination only
Topaz52.3.1.1Al2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] and/or >[6] coordination
Titanite52.4.3.1CaTi(SiO4)O
Group 54 - NESOSILICATES Borosilicates and Some Beryllosilicates
Borosilicates and Some Beryllosilicates with (BO3)
Holtite54.1.3.1(Ta0.60.4)Al6BSi3O18(O,OH)2.25
Group 58 - SOROSILICATES Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups
Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups with cations in [6] and higher coordination; single and double groups (n = 1, 2)
Epidote58.2.1a.7{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Group 61 - CYCLOSILICATES Six-Membered Rings
Six-Membered Rings with [Si6O18] rings; possible (OH) and Al substitution
Beryl61.1.1.1Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Six-Membered Rings with borate groups
Dravite61.3.1.9Na(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Elbaite61.3.1.8Na(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Schorl61.3.1.10Na(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Group 65 - INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=2
Augite65.1.3a.3(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Enstatite65.1.2.1MgSiO3
Spodumene65.1.4.1LiAlSi2O6
Group 66 - INOSILICATES Double-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=2)
Amphiboles - Mg-Fe-Mn-Li subgroup
Glaucophane ?66.1.3c.1⃞[Na2][Mg3Al2]Si8O22(OH)2
Holmquistite66.1.2.9☐{Li2}{Mg3Al2}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
Albite76.1.3.1Na(AlSi3O8)
Microcline76.1.1.5K(AlSi3O8)
Group 77 - TECTOSILICATES Zeolites
Zeolite group - True zeolites
Pollucite77.1.1.2(Cs,Na)2(Al2Si4O12) · 2H2O
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
Albite
var: Cleavelandite
-Na(AlSi3O8)
Anorthite-Ca(Al2Si2O8)
'Apatite'-
'Biotite'-
'Doelterite'-
'Feldspar Group'-
'var: Perthite'-
Ferro-holmquistite (TL)-☐{Li2}{Fe2+3Al2}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Fluorapatite
var: Mn-bearing Fluorapatite
-(Ca,Mn2+)5(PO4)3(F,Cl,OH) or Ca5([P,Mn5+]O4)3(F,Cl,OH)
'Garnet Group'-X3Z2(SiO4)3
'Hornblende'-
Kaolinite-Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
'Labradorite'-(Ca,Na)[Al(Al,Si)Si2O8]
'Lepidolite'-
Leucoxene-
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
'Monazite'-
'Mossite' ?-
'Psilomelane'-
'Pyrochlore'-
Rutile
var: Niobian Rutile
-(Ti,Nb)O2
'Scapolite'-
Spodumene
var: Kunzite
-LiAlSi2O6
'Tantalite'-(Mn,Fe)(Ta,Nb)2O6
'Tapiolite'-(Fe,Mn)(Ta,Nb)2O6
'Tourmaline'-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
'Xenotime'-

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H Ferro-holmquistite☐{Li2}{Fe32+Al2}(Si8O22)(OH)2
H KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
H Holmquistite☐{Li2}{Mg3Al2}(Si8O22)(OH)2
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H Pollucite(Cs,Na)2(Al2Si4O12) · 2H2O
H MontebrasiteLiAl(PO4)(OH)
H SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
H Fluorapatite (var: Mn-bearing Fluorapatite)(Ca,Mn2+)5(PO4)3(F,Cl,OH) or Ca5([P,Mn5+]O4)3(F,Cl,OH)
H ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
H DraviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
H SimpsoniteAl4(Ta,Nb)3O13(OH,F)
H TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
H StauroliteFe22+Al9Si4O23(OH)
H GibbsiteAl(OH)3
H Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
H TurquoiseCu(Al,Fe3+)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
H Glaucophane⃞[Na2][Mg3Al2]Si8O22(OH)2
LiLithium
Li Ferro-holmquistite☐{Li2}{Fe32+Al2}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Li SpodumeneLiAlSi2O6
Li AmblygoniteLiAl(PO4)F
Li Holmquistite☐{Li2}{Mg3Al2}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Li TriphyliteLiFe2+PO4
Li LithiophiliteLiMn2+PO4
Li MontebrasiteLiAl(PO4)(OH)
Li ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Li Spodumene (var: Kunzite)LiAlSi2O6
Li LithiophosphateLi3PO4
BeBeryllium
Be BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
BBoron
B TourmalineA(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
B SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
B ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
B DraviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
B Holtite(Ta0.60.4)Al6BSi3O18(O,OH)2.25
CCarbon
C CalciteCaCO3
C SideriteFeCO3
OOxygen
O Ferro-holmquistite☐{Li2}{Fe32+Al2}(Si8O22)(OH)2
O WodginiteMn2+Sn4+Ta2O8
O UraniniteUO2
O Rutile (var: Niobian Rutile)(Ti,Nb)O2
O Columbite-(Fe)Fe2+Nb2O6
O QuartzSiO2
O AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
O SpodumeneLiAlSi2O6
O Tantalite(Mn,Fe)(Ta,Nb)2O6
O CassiteriteSnO2
O MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
O KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
O AmblygoniteLiAl(PO4)F
O Holmquistite☐{Li2}{Mg3Al2}(Si8O22)(OH)2
O TriphyliteLiFe2+PO4
O TourmalineA(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
O Garnet GroupX3Z2(SiO4)3
O ZirconZr(SiO4)
O Ixiolite(Ta,Nb,Sn,Fe,Mn)4O8
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O CalciteCaCO3
O Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
O IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
O Rutile (var: Strüverite)(Ti,Ta,Fe)O2
O Pollucite(Cs,Na)2(Al2Si4O12) · 2H2O
O LithiophiliteLiMn2+PO4
O MontebrasiteLiAl(PO4)(OH)
O SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
O GahniteZnAl2O4
O Fluorapatite (var: Mn-bearing Fluorapatite)(Ca,Mn2+)5(PO4)3(F,Cl,OH) or Ca5([P,Mn5+]O4)3(F,Cl,OH)
O ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
O Tapiolite(Fe,Mn)(Ta,Nb)2O6
O RynersoniteCaTa2O6
O DraviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
O SimpsoniteAl4(Ta,Nb)3O13(OH,F)
O Tantalite-(Mn)Mn2+Ta2O6
O Columbite-(Mn)Mn2+Nb2O6
O TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
O RutileTiO2
O SpinelMgAl2O4
O Holtite(Ta0.60.4)Al6BSi3O18(O,OH)2.25
O StibiotantaliteSb(Ta,Nb)O4
O Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
O CorundumAl2O3
O EnstatiteMgSiO3
O KyaniteAl2(SiO4)O
O Labradorite(Ca,Na)[Al(Al,Si)Si2O8]
O SillimaniteAl2(SiO4)O
O StauroliteFe22+Al9Si4O23(OH)
O GibbsiteAl(OH)3
O SideriteFeCO3
O Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
O TurquoiseCu(Al,Fe3+)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
O Spodumene (var: Kunzite)LiAlSi2O6
O FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
O AnorthiteCa(Al2Si2O8)
O TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
O MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
O Albite (var: Cleavelandite)Na(AlSi3O8)
O LithiophosphateLi3PO4
O Euxenite-(Y)(Y,Ca,Ce,U,Th)(Nb,Ta,Ti)2O6
O Glaucophane⃞[Na2][Mg3Al2]Si8O22(OH)2
FFluorine
F AmblygoniteLiAl(PO4)F
F Fluorapatite (var: Mn-bearing Fluorapatite)(Ca,Mn2+)5(PO4)3(F,Cl,OH) or Ca5([P,Mn5+]O4)3(F,Cl,OH)
F TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
F FluoriteCaF2
F FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
NaSodium
Na AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Na Pollucite(Cs,Na)2(Al2Si4O12) · 2H2O
Na SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Na ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Na DraviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Na Labradorite(Ca,Na)[Al(Al,Si)Si2O8]
Na Albite (var: Cleavelandite)Na(AlSi3O8)
Na Glaucophane⃞[Na2][Mg3Al2]Si8O22(OH)2
MgMagnesium
Mg Holmquistite☐{Li2}{Mg3Al2}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Mg DraviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Mg SpinelMgAl2O4
Mg Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Mg EnstatiteMgSiO3
Mg Glaucophane⃞[Na2][Mg3Al2]Si8O22(OH)2
AlAluminium
Al Ferro-holmquistite☐{Li2}{Fe32+Al2}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Al AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Al SpodumeneLiAlSi2O6
Al MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
Al KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Al AmblygoniteLiAl(PO4)F
Al Holmquistite☐{Li2}{Mg3Al2}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Al BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
Al Pollucite(Cs,Na)2(Al2Si4O12) · 2H2O
Al MontebrasiteLiAl(PO4)(OH)
Al SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Al GahniteZnAl2O4
Al ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Al DraviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Al SimpsoniteAl4(Ta,Nb)3O13(OH,F)
Al TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
Al SpinelMgAl2O4
Al Holtite(Ta0.60.4)Al6BSi3O18(O,OH)2.25
Al CorundumAl2O3
Al KyaniteAl2(SiO4)O
Al Labradorite(Ca,Na)[Al(Al,Si)Si2O8]
Al SillimaniteAl2(SiO4)O
Al StauroliteFe22+Al9Si4O23(OH)
Al GibbsiteAl(OH)3
Al TurquoiseCu(Al,Fe3+)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
Al Spodumene (var: Kunzite)LiAlSi2O6
Al AnorthiteCa(Al2Si2O8)
Al Albite (var: Cleavelandite)Na(AlSi3O8)
Al Glaucophane⃞[Na2][Mg3Al2]Si8O22(OH)2
SiSilicon
Si Ferro-holmquistite☐{Li2}{Fe32+Al2}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Si QuartzSiO2
Si AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Si SpodumeneLiAlSi2O6
Si MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
Si KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Si Holmquistite☐{Li2}{Mg3Al2}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Si Garnet GroupX3Z2(SiO4)3
Si ZirconZr(SiO4)
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
Si Pollucite(Cs,Na)2(Al2Si4O12) · 2H2O
Si SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Si ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Si DraviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Si TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
Si Holtite(Ta0.60.4)Al6BSi3O18(O,OH)2.25
Si Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Si EnstatiteMgSiO3
Si KyaniteAl2(SiO4)O
Si Labradorite(Ca,Na)[Al(Al,Si)Si2O8]
Si SillimaniteAl2(SiO4)O
Si StauroliteFe22+Al9Si4O23(OH)
Si Spodumene (var: Kunzite)LiAlSi2O6
Si AnorthiteCa(Al2Si2O8)
Si TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Si Albite (var: Cleavelandite)Na(AlSi3O8)
Si Glaucophane⃞[Na2][Mg3Al2]Si8O22(OH)2
PPhosphorus
P AmblygoniteLiAl(PO4)F
P TriphyliteLiFe2+PO4
P LithiophiliteLiMn2+PO4
P MontebrasiteLiAl(PO4)(OH)
P Fluorapatite (var: Mn-bearing Fluorapatite)(Ca,Mn2+)5(PO4)3(F,Cl,OH) or Ca5([P,Mn5+]O4)3(F,Cl,OH)
P TurquoiseCu(Al,Fe3+)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
P FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
P LithiophosphateLi3PO4
SSulfur
S ArsenopyriteFeAsS
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S MolybdeniteMoS2
S PyriteFeS2
ClChlorine
Cl Fluorapatite (var: Mn-bearing Fluorapatite)(Ca,Mn2+)5(PO4)3(F,Cl,OH) or Ca5([P,Mn5+]O4)3(F,Cl,OH)
KPotassium
K MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
CaCalcium
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Ca Fluorapatite (var: Mn-bearing Fluorapatite)(Ca,Mn2+)5(PO4)3(F,Cl,OH) or Ca5([P,Mn5+]O4)3(F,Cl,OH)
Ca RynersoniteCaTa2O6
Ca Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Ca FluoriteCaF2
Ca Labradorite(Ca,Na)[Al(Al,Si)Si2O8]
Ca FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
Ca AnorthiteCa(Al2Si2O8)
Ca TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Ca Euxenite-(Y)(Y,Ca,Ce,U,Th)(Nb,Ta,Ti)2O6
TiTitanium
Ti Rutile (var: Niobian Rutile)(Ti,Nb)O2
Ti IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
Ti Rutile (var: Strüverite)(Ti,Ta,Fe)O2
Ti RutileTiO2
Ti TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Ti Euxenite-(Y)(Y,Ca,Ce,U,Th)(Nb,Ta,Ti)2O6
MnManganese
Mn WodginiteMn2+Sn4+Ta2O8
Mn Tantalite(Mn,Fe)(Ta,Nb)2O6
Mn Ixiolite(Ta,Nb,Sn,Fe,Mn)4O8
Mn LithiophiliteLiMn2+PO4
Mn Fluorapatite (var: Mn-bearing Fluorapatite)(Ca,Mn2+)5(PO4)3(F,Cl,OH) or Ca5([P,Mn5+]O4)3(F,Cl,OH)
Mn Tapiolite(Fe,Mn)(Ta,Nb)2O6
Mn Tantalite-(Mn)Mn2+Ta2O6
Mn Columbite-(Mn)Mn2+Nb2O6
FeIron
Fe Ferro-holmquistite☐{Li2}{Fe32+Al2}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Fe Columbite-(Fe)Fe2+Nb2O6
Fe Tantalite(Mn,Fe)(Ta,Nb)2O6
Fe TriphyliteLiFe2+PO4
Fe ArsenopyriteFeAsS
Fe Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Fe IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
Fe Rutile (var: Strüverite)(Ti,Ta,Fe)O2
Fe SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Fe Tapiolite(Fe,Mn)(Ta,Nb)2O6
Fe Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe StauroliteFe22+Al9Si4O23(OH)
Fe SideriteFeCO3
Fe Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Fe TurquoiseCu(Al,Fe3+)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
CuCopper
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Cu CopperCu
Cu TurquoiseCu(Al,Fe3+)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
ZnZinc
Zn GahniteZnAl2O4
AsArsenic
As ArsenopyriteFeAsS
YYttrium
Y Euxenite-(Y)(Y,Ca,Ce,U,Th)(Nb,Ta,Ti)2O6
ZrZirconium
Zr ZirconZr(SiO4)
NbNiobium
Nb Rutile (var: Niobian Rutile)(Ti,Nb)O2
Nb Columbite-(Fe)Fe2+Nb2O6
Nb Tantalite(Mn,Fe)(Ta,Nb)2O6
Nb Ixiolite(Ta,Nb,Sn,Fe,Mn)4O8
Nb Tapiolite(Fe,Mn)(Ta,Nb)2O6
Nb Columbite-(Mn)Mn2+Nb2O6
Nb Euxenite-(Y)(Y,Ca,Ce,U,Th)(Nb,Ta,Ti)2O6
MoMolybdenum
Mo MolybdeniteMoS2
SnTin
Sn WodginiteMn2+Sn4+Ta2O8
Sn CassiteriteSnO2
SbAntimony
Sb StibiotantaliteSb(Ta,Nb)O4
CsCaesium
Cs Pollucite(Cs,Na)2(Al2Si4O12) · 2H2O
CeCerium
Ce Euxenite-(Y)(Y,Ca,Ce,U,Th)(Nb,Ta,Ti)2O6
TaTantalum
Ta WodginiteMn2+Sn4+Ta2O8
Ta Tantalite(Mn,Fe)(Ta,Nb)2O6
Ta Ixiolite(Ta,Nb,Sn,Fe,Mn)4O8
Ta Microlite GroupA2-mTa2X6-wZ-n
Ta Rutile (var: Strüverite)(Ti,Ta,Fe)O2
Ta Tapiolite(Fe,Mn)(Ta,Nb)2O6
Ta RynersoniteCaTa2O6
Ta SimpsoniteAl4(Ta,Nb)3O13(OH,F)
Ta Tantalite-(Mn)Mn2+Ta2O6
Ta Holtite(Ta0.60.4)Al6BSi3O18(O,OH)2.25
Ta StibiotantaliteSb(Ta,Nb)O4
Ta Euxenite-(Y)(Y,Ca,Ce,U,Th)(Nb,Ta,Ti)2O6
AuGold
Au GoldAu
ThThorium
Th Euxenite-(Y)(Y,Ca,Ce,U,Th)(Nb,Ta,Ti)2O6
UUranium
U UraniniteUO2
U Euxenite-(Y)(Y,Ca,Ce,U,Th)(Nb,Ta,Ti)2O6

Geochronology

Mineralization age: Neoarchean : 2527 ± 2 Ma

Important note: This table is based only on rock and mineral ages recorded below and is not necessarily a complete representation of the geochronology, but does give an indication of possible mineralization events relevant to this locality. As more age information is added this table may expand in the future. A break in the table simply indicates a lack of data entered here, not necessarily a break in the geologic sequence. Grey background entries are from different, related, localities.

Geologic TimeRocks, Minerals and Events
Precambrian
 Archean
  Neoarchean
ⓘ Zircon2527 ± 2 Ma

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Cenozoic
0 - 66 Ma



ID: 842503
ferruginous duricrust 38498

Age: Cenozoic (0 - 66 Ma)

Description: Ferruginous duricrust, laterite; pisolitic, nodular, vuggy; may include massive to pisolitic ferruginous subsoil, mottled clays, magnesite, reworked products of ferruginous and siliceous duricrusts, calcrete, gossan; residual ferruginous saprolite

Comments: regolith; synthesis of multiple published descriptions

Lithology: Regolith

Reference: Raymond, O.L., Liu, S., Gallagher, R., Zhang, W., Highet, L.M. Surface Geology of Australia 1:1 million scale dataset 2012 edition. Commonwealth of Australia (Geoscience Australia). [5]

Neoarchean - Mesoarchean
2500 - 3200 Ma



ID: 3189638
Archean crystalline metamorphic rocks

Age: Archean (2500 - 3200 Ma)

Comments: Yilgarn Craton

Lithology: Amphibolite/granulite grade orthogneiss

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Mining Annual Review (1985): 369.
Bettenay, L.F., Partington, G.A., Groves, D.I., and Paterson, C. (1988): Nature and Emplacement of the Giant Rare-metal Pegmatite at Greenbushes, Western Australia. Proceedings Seventh Quadrennial IAGOD Symposium (1988): 401-408.
Partington, G.A. (1990) Environment and Structural Controls on the Intrusion of the Giant Rare Metal Greenbushes Pegmatite, Western Australia. Economic Geology (1990):85: 437-456.
Partington, G.A., McNaughton, N.J., and Williams, I.S. (1995): A Review of the Geology, Mineralization, and Geochronology of the Greenbushes Pegmatite, Western Australia. Economic Geology (1995):90: 616-635.
Jacobson, M., Calderwood, M., Grguric, B.(2007): Pegmatites of Western Australia(2007)


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