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Emperius Mine (Bachelor Mine; Amethyst Mine; New York Mine; Creede Mines), Creede District, Mineral Co., Colorado, USAi
Regional Level Types
Emperius Mine (Bachelor Mine; Amethyst Mine; New York Mine; Creede Mines)Mine
Creede DistrictMining District
Mineral Co.County
ColoradoState
USACountry

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Key
Lock Map
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
37° 52' 14'' North , 106° 55' 46'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal):
Locality type:
Köppen climate type:
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Creede405 (2011)2.4km
South Fork362 (2017)33.8km
Alpine174 (2011)36.1km
Gerrard278 (2011)36.5km
Lake City367 (2017)38.2km
Other/historical names associated with this locality:
Emperious Mining Company; Del Monte Mining Company; Chance Mining Company; Commodore Mining Company


A former Zn-Ag-Pb-Cu-Au-Cd-Sb-As occurrence/mine located in the SE¼NW¼SE¼ sec. 24, T42N, R1W, NMM. Discovered in 1884. Year of first initial production was 1892. Subsequent production occurred starting in 1942 and ended in 1976. Owned and operated by the Emperius Mining Company (1960). Owned by Minerals Engineering Co. (MECO), Grand Junction, Colorado (1980). Operated by Pioneer Nuclear, Inc. (1982-). Mineral rights include patented (private) claims, private lease and located claims.

Individual mines were located and developed in the early 1890's and were consolidated into the Emperius Mining Company in 1942, acquired by Minerals Engineering Co. (MECO) in 1973. Exploration since then has been carried out by MECO's operators, Chevron Resources and Harrison-Western.

The USGS Emperius Mine record is a consolidation of data from the Happy Thought, Last Chance, New York, Del Monte, Amethyst, Commodore and Bachelor Mines.

Mineralization is a polymetallic deposit hosted in Oligocene rhyolite of the Campbell Mountain Member of the Bachelor Mountain rhyolite and the Willow Creek Member of the Bachelor Mountain rhyolite. The ore body strikes N15 to 30W, dips 55 to 70SW and is 250 meters wide, 1.4 meters thick, 4,800 meters long and covers an area of 20 HA. The depth-to-top is 100 meters. Ore Body No. 1 is a fissure vein and tabular. Ore body No. 2 is a breccia fill and tabular. Ore Body No. 3 is a shear zone and tabular. The primary mode of origin was hydrothermal activity and the secondary mode was oxidation. Primary ore control was faulting and the secondary control was igneous activity. Wall rock alteration is moderate (argillic, silicification, chloritization, Fe-Mn oxides plus Cu carbonates and propylitic). Factors in the ore control were the Amethyst Fault, the Ancestral Amethyst Fault, subparallel and antithetic fractures in the hanging wall. Local rocks include Oligocene sedimentary rocks.

Local geologic structures include the San Juan Volcanic Field; La Garita, Creede, and Bachelor Calderas, the Creede Graben and the Amethyst Fault Zone.

The principal lodes are in the Amethyst Fault (usually as fault contact between the Campbell Mountain rhyolite in the hanging wall and the Willow Creek rhyolite in the footwall), ancestral Amethyst (Dean) FAult, and in major hanging wall fractures and veins (Ohio and Winchester), subparallel to, and joining the Amethyst Fault at depth but striking farther West and dipping vertical to steeply NE and dying out upward into strongly altered rock. Deep mineralization is unoxidized base-metal vein type in chlorite gangue with little wallrock alteration. The central area is silicified with partly oxidized Ag-bearing ores in Fe-Mn, oxide-stained quartz-amethyst-baryte gangue in veins and disseminations. The upper oxidized ore is mostly disseminated in fractured, strongly argillized rock.

Tectonic Structure: Central Cordillera (Southern Rocky Mountains)

Workings include underground openings with an area of 88.225 HA. The overall depth is 569.98 meters, overall length is 3,218.6 meters and the overall width is 274.32 meters. This includes all workings on the central, most of the southern, and part of the northern Amethyst vein. The mining method was shrinkage methods (overhand shrinkage). The milling method was flotation.

Production since 1942 was a consolidation of the Commodore, Amethyst and connected workings. No production was reported for 1945, 1971, 1973, 1977 through 1980. In addition to Cd produced in 1970, unspecified amounts of Cd were reported for 1965 and 1967. The amounts of principal metals for 1942-1950 were calculated from reported ore grades.

Chevron Resources (a division of Standard Oil of California) signed an option with MECO in 1978 for a 5-year lease for exploration in the Emperius Mine.

During 1978, Chevron conducted an extensive underground sampling, geologic and mapping program that encountered encouraging Ag mineralization in older workings and generally confirmed previous sampling work. In 1979, Chevron continued the drilling program started in 1978. During 1980 Chevron expanded its exploration effort to include approximately 3,450 feet of underground drifting and bulk sampling, that was conducted by an independent contractor. By the end of January, 1981, Chevron had completed approximately 130 surface and underground drill holes totaling over 41,000 feet. Several mine levels had been sampled in detail and geophysical and geochemical surveys were conducted over much of the southern portion of the optioned claims. The results indicate the presence of widespread, low-grade, disseminated Ag mineralization adjacent to the Amethyst fault.

Reserves and resources data: Type: in-situ (estimate year = 1975): Demonstrated: 218,599 metric tons of ore; Measured: 218,599 metric tons of ore; Total resources: 218,599 metric tons of ore.

Commodity:
Silver Ag 44.9 grams/metric ton
Lead Pb 5.14 weight%
Zinc Zn 6.6 weight%
Copper Cu 0.3799 weight%
Gold Au 0.51 grams/metric ton
Cadmium Cd 0.04 weight%

Type: in-situ (estimate year = 1975): Demonstrated: 322,000 metric tons of ore; Measured: 322,000 metric tons of ore; Total resources: 322,000 metric tons of ore.

Commodity:
Silver Ag 230 grams/metric ton
Lead Pb 1.32 weight%
Gold Au 0.24 grams/metric ton

Regions containing this locality

North America PlateTectonic Plate
Rocky Mountains, North AmericaMountain Range

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Commodity List

This is a list of exploitable or exploited mineral commodities recorded at this locality.


Mineral List


21 valid minerals.

Rock Types Recorded

Note: this is a very new system on mindat.org and data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

Select Rock List Type

Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

Detailed Mineral List:

Anglesite
Formula: PbSO4
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Baryte
Formula: BaSO4
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Chalcocite
Formula: Cu2S
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Chlorargyrite
Formula: AgCl
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
'Chlorite Group'
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Cuprite
Formula: Cu2O
Reference: Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
Cuprite var: Chalcotrichite
Formula: Cu2O
Reference: Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
Galena
Formula: PbS
Reference: Rolf Luetcke
Gold
Formula: Au
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Goslarite
Formula: ZnSO4 · 7H2O
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Greenockite
Formula: CdS
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Halotrichite
Formula: FeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Description: Originally described as pickeringite
Reference: Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Jarosite
Formula: KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
'Limonite'
Formula: (Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Pyromorphite
Formula: Pb5(PO4)3Cl
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Quartz var: Amethyst
Formula: SiO2
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Rhodochrosite
Formula: MnCO3
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Silver
Formula: Ag
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Smithsonite
Formula: ZnCO3
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Reference: Collection of RJ Martin
Tennantite
Formula: Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]As4S13
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Tetrahedrite
Formula: Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
'Wad'
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Gold1.AA.05Au
Silver1.AA.05Ag
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Chalcocite2.BA.05Cu2S
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Galena2.CD.10PbS
Greenockite2.CB.45CdS
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
Tennantite2.GB.05Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]As4S13
Tetrahedrite2.GB.05Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Group 3 - Halides
Chlorargyrite3.AA.15AgCl
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Cuprite4.AA.10Cu2O
var: Chalcotrichite4.AA.10Cu2O
Hematite4.CB.05Fe2O3
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
var: Amethyst4.DA.05SiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Rhodochrosite5.AB.05MnCO3
Smithsonite5.AB.05ZnCO3
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Anglesite7.AD.35PbSO4
Baryte7.AD.35BaSO4
Goslarite7.CB.40ZnSO4 · 7H2O
Halotrichite7.CB.85FeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Jarosite7.BC.10KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Pyromorphite8.BN.05Pb5(PO4)3Cl
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Chlorite Group'-
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
'Wad'-

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Gold1.1.1.1Au
Silver1.1.1.2Ag
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:1
Chalcocite2.4.7.1Cu2S
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Greenockite2.8.7.2CdS
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
Group 3 - SULFOSALTS
3 <ø < 4
Tennantite3.3.6.2Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]As4S13
Tetrahedrite3.3.6.1Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X
Cuprite4.1.1.1Cu2O
A2X3
Hematite4.3.1.2Fe2O3
Group 9 - NORMAL HALIDES
AX
Chlorargyrite9.1.4.1AgCl
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Rhodochrosite14.1.1.4MnCO3
Smithsonite14.1.1.6ZnCO3
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Anglesite28.3.1.3PbSO4
Baryte28.3.1.1BaSO4
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4·xH2O
Goslarite29.6.11.2ZnSO4 · 7H2O
AB2(XO4)4·H2O
Halotrichite29.7.3.2FeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Group 30 - ANHYDROUS SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)2(XO4)Zq
Jarosite30.2.5.1KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Group 41 - ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
A5(XO4)3Zq
Pyromorphite41.8.4.1Pb5(PO4)3Cl
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
'Chlorite Group'-
Cuprite
var: Chalcotrichite
-Cu2O
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Quartz
var: Amethyst
-SiO2
'Wad'-

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H GoslariteZnSO4 · 7H2O
H Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
H JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
H HalotrichiteFeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
CCarbon
C SmithsoniteZnCO3
C RhodochrositeMnCO3
OOxygen
O AnglesitePbSO4
O PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
O SmithsoniteZnCO3
O HematiteFe2O3
O GoslariteZnSO4 · 7H2O
O RhodochrositeMnCO3
O Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
O QuartzSiO2
O Quartz (var: Amethyst)SiO2
O BaryteBaSO4
O JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
O CupriteCu2O
O Cuprite (var: Chalcotrichite)Cu2O
O HalotrichiteFeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
AlAluminium
Al HalotrichiteFeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
SiSilicon
Si QuartzSiO2
Si Quartz (var: Amethyst)SiO2
PPhosphorus
P PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
SSulfur
S AnglesitePbSO4
S ChalcociteCu2S
S TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
S TennantiteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]As4S13
S GreenockiteCdS
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S GoslariteZnSO4 · 7H2O
S BaryteBaSO4
S JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
S HalotrichiteFeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
S GalenaPbS
S SphaleriteZnS
ClChlorine
Cl PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
Cl ChlorargyriteAgCl
KPotassium
K JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
MnManganese
Mn RhodochrositeMnCO3
FeIron
Fe TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe HematiteFe2O3
Fe Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Fe JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Fe HalotrichiteFeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
CuCopper
Cu ChalcociteCu2S
Cu TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Cu TennantiteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]As4S13
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Cu CupriteCu2O
Cu Cuprite (var: Chalcotrichite)Cu2O
ZnZinc
Zn TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Zn SmithsoniteZnCO3
Zn GoslariteZnSO4 · 7H2O
Zn SphaleriteZnS
AsArsenic
As TennantiteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]As4S13
AgSilver
Ag ChlorargyriteAgCl
Ag SilverAg
CdCadmium
Cd GreenockiteCdS
SbAntimony
Sb TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
BaBarium
Ba BaryteBaSO4
AuGold
Au GoldAu
PbLead
Pb AnglesitePbSO4
Pb PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
Pb GalenaPbS

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Miocene - Eocene
5.333 - 56 Ma



ID: 3190650
Cenozoic volcanic rocks

Age: Cenozoic (5.333 - 56 Ma)

Stratigraphic Name: San Juan Mountains

Comments: Southern Rocky Mountains

Lithology: Intermediate-felsic volcanic rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Oligocene
23.03 - 33.9 Ma



ID: 2990964
Ash-flow tuff of main volcanic sequence

Age: Oligocene (23.03 - 33.9 Ma)

Description: Includes many named units

Comments: Original map source: Green, G.N., 1992, The Digital Geologic Map of Colorado in ARC/INFO Format: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 92-0507, 9 p., scale 1:500,000.

Lithology: Major:{volcanic}

Reference: Horton, J.D., C.A. San Juan, and D.B. Stoeser. The State Geologic Map Compilation (SGMC) geodatabase of the conterminous United States. doi: 10.3133/ds1052. U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 1052. [133]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Kirby (1892), The Ore Deposits of Creede and Their Possibilities, Engineering and Mining Journal: 53(12): 325-326.
MacMechen (1892) The Ore Deposits of Creede, Colorado, Engineering and Mining Journal: 53: 301-303.
Emmons, W.H. and Larsen, E.S. (1923), Geology and Ore Deposits of the Creede District, Colorado, USGS Bulletin 718, 198 pp.
Lunt (1924), Ore Deposits at Creede Colorado, Engineering and Mining Journal: 117(24): 973.
Henderson, C.W. (1926), Mining in Colorado, a history of discovery, development, and production. USGS Professional Paper 138. (https://doi.org/10.3133/pp138 )
Larson, Esper S. (1930), Recent Mining Developments in the Creede District, Colorado, USGS Bulletin 811-B: 89-112.
Cross, Whitman and Larson (1935), A Brief Review of the Geology of the San Juan Region of Southwestern Colorado, USGS Bulletin 843: 138.
Bethke, P. M., Barton, P. B., Jr., and Bodine, M. W., Jr. (1960), Time-space relationships of the ores at Creede, Colorado [abs.] : Geological Society of America Bulletin: 71, No. OF.
Roedder, Edwin (1960), Primary Fluid Inclusions in Sphalerite Cryhstals of the Ohio Vein, Creed, Colorado, Geological Society of America Bulletin: 781(2): 1958.
Steven, Thomas A. and Ratte, James C. (1960), Relation of Mineralization to Caldera Subsidence in the Creede District, San Juan Mountain-Colorado, Short Papers in the Geological Sciences, Geological Survey Research 1960, USGS Professional Paper 400-B: B14-B16.
Steven, Thomas A., and Ratte, James C. (1965), Geology and Structural Control of Ore Deposition in the Creede District, San Juan Mountains, Colorado, USGS Professional Paper 487, 90 pp.
Meeves, A. C., and Darnell, R. P. (1968), Study of the silver potential, Creede district, Mineral County, Colorado, U.S. Bureau of Mines Information Circular IC8370 , 58 pp.
Minerals Engineering [MECO] (1974), Annual Report: 21.
Minerals Engineering (1980), Form 10-K Report: P. 3.
Lindemann, J.W., and others, editors (1981), Field Trip Notes, Creede Mining District, San Juan Volcanic Province, Colorado, Denver Regional Exploration Geologists Society Guidebook.
U.S. Bureau of Mines (1995), Minerals Availability System/Mineral Industry Location System (MAS/MILS), U.S. Bureau of Mines, file ID #0080790002.
USGS (2005), Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, deposit ID #10101728 & 10166590.
Colorado Division of mines Annual Operators Report files.
USGS MRDS ID #D007967.

USGS MRDS Record:10101728
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