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Mountain Pass Mine (Mountain Pass deposit; Mountain Pass Mine and mill; Bastnaesite deposit; Bastnäsite deposit; Mountain Pass carbonatite), Mountain Pass, Mountain Pass District, Clark Mts (Clark Mountain Range), San Bernardino Co., California, USAi
Regional Level Types
Mountain Pass Mine (Mountain Pass deposit; Mountain Pass Mine and mill; Bastnaesite deposit; Bastnäsite deposit; Mountain Pass carbonatite)Mine
Mountain PassPass
Mountain Pass DistrictMining District
Clark Mts (Clark Mountain Range)Mountain Range
San Bernardino Co.County
CaliforniaState
USACountry

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Key
Lock Map
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 35° 28' 43'' North , 115° 31' 56'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 35.47861,-115.53222
GeoHash:G#: 9qmcg48jb
USGS MRDS Record:10212814
Locality type:Mine
Köppen climate type:BWh : Hot deserts climate
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Sandy Valley2,051 (2011)38.7km
Goodsprings229 (2011)40.3km


A baryte-Ce-REE-Au-Ag-Pb deposit/mine located in secs. 12 & 13, T16N, R13E, SBM, 1.5 km (0.9 mile) NE of Mountain Pass (town), immediately N of Interstate highway 15, and about 15 miles W of the Nevada state line, on private (patented) land. It was discovered in 1949. The property is comprised of 6 claims. First production occurred in 1951. The USGS MRDS database stated accuracy for this locality is 10 meters.

Owned & operated by the Molybdenum Corporation of America (MCA)
(100%) (1950-1974); Owned & operated by Molycorp, Inc. (100%) (same company - new name) (1974-1977); owned by the Union Oil of California
(100%) (1977); Operated by Molycorp, Inc. (100%) (1977-2005); Owned & operated by Molycorp Minerals LLC (100%), Englewood, Colorado (1983).

NOTE: The mine ceased active mining in 2002 due to environmental concerns, however the owners, Molycorp Inc., have indicated they plan to return to full production in 2011. Start-up mining activities began in August 2012. In June 2015, however, Molycorp filed for bankruptcy.

Mineral occurrence model information: Model code: 24; USGS model code 10; Deposit model name: Carbonatite. Mineralization involves vein baryte deposits with rare-earth minerals in metamorphic and igneous rocks of Precambrian age. One of the worlds largest lanthanide deposits. There are strong environmental concerns as this mine is situated next to the Mojave National Preserve.

The carbonatite complex (1.4 BP intrusion) is intruded in Precambrian biotite-garnet-sillimanite-hornblende gneisses, biotite granitic gneisses, augen granitic gneisses (Neoproterozoic gneisses) and schists. The carbonatite complex is composed of eight 100 to 2000 meter-long plugs of alkaline intrusive rocks (from shonkinites and syenites to carbonatites) and about 200 dikes of carbonatite in NW-trending rows.

The ore body strikes N10W and dips 40W at a thickness of 75 meters, a depth-to-top of 458 meters (?? - depth-to-bottom ??), a width of 1,590 meters, a length of 750 meters and an area of 1500 HA. Ore body No. 1 is tabular; No. 2 is a fissure vein and No. 3 is a shear zone. The primary mode of origin was magmatic differentiation and the secondary mode was hydrothermal activity. Primary ore control was igneous and the secondary control was fracturing. Wallrock alteration is slight (silicification and carbonitization). Alteration also includes fenitization and hematization. The vein occurs at the contact of a dike and host rock and has an aplite dike hanging wall abnd a gneiss footwall. The dikes trend N30W.

Analytical data results: An ore shoot 100 feet long and 12 to 15 feet thick was said to carry $9.00 (period values) Au per ton.

Analysis of the bastnäsite-(Ce) by Hoffman et al. (1971) have confirmed the presence of plutonium-244 isotope. However, Sakamoto (1974) has suggested, that the source of this exotic isotope may be extraterrestrial.

Workings include surface and underground openings comprised of an open pit with an area of 260 HA and an overall depth of 169.16 meters. Milling method employed was flotation. Water is obtained from wells 10 km E of the mine. Power is supplied by Southern California Edison Company. The access road is paved and labor is available at the site.

An estimated production rate in the 1980's was 1,285 metric tons/day, including 1,155 metric tons/day ore and 130 metric tons/day of dilution material. The production numbers are amount of REE's in the concentrate. This is not the same as the total recovered since there is some loss in processing the concentrate. True production is somewhat less, but loss in processing is not reported.

Reserves and resources: Type: in-situ (estimate year: 1989): Demonstrated: 28,123,000 metric tons of ore; indicated: 28,123,000 metric tons of ore. Total resources: 28,123,000 metric tons of ore. REE (Y group): 8.9 weight percent REE (1989).

Collecting is not allowed.

Regions containing this locality

North America PlateTectonic Plate

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Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

47 valid minerals. 1 (TL) - type locality of valid minerals.

Rock Types Recorded

Note: this is a very new system on mindat.org and data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

Rock list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

Select Rock List Type

Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

Detailed Mineral List:

Aegirine
Formula: NaFe3+Si2O6
Reference: USGS Bulletin 2160
Aegirine-augite
Formula: (NaaCabFe2+cMgd)(Fe3+eAlfFe2+gMgh)Si2O6
Reference: USGS Bulletin 2160
Allanite-(Ce)
Formula: {CaCe}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Reference: Olson, Jerry Chipman, Shawe, D.R., Pray, L.C., Sharpe, W.N., and Hewlett, D.F. (1954), Geology of the rare-earth deposits of the Mountain Pass district, San Bernardino County California, USGS 261 pp.: 33, 36; Glass, Jewell Jeannette, H.T. Evans, Jr., M.K. Carron & Harry Rose, Jr. (1956), Cerite from Mountain Pass, San Bernardino County, California: American Mineralogist: 41: 665; Glass, Jewell Jeannette, H.T. Evans, Jr., M.K. Carron & F.A. Hildebrand (1958), Cerite from Mountain Pass, San Bernardino County, California: American Mineralogist: 43: 460-480; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 222; Haxel, G. (2005) Ultrapotassic rocks, carbonatite and rare earth element deposit, Mountain Pass, southern California. In: Geology and Mineral Resources of the Mojava National Preserve, southern California. USGS Bulletin 2160.
'Ancylite'
Reference: USGS Bulletin 2160
Ankerite
Formula: Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Colour: White to cream
Description: Includes ferroan material.
Reference: Olson, Jerry Chipman, Shawe, D.R., Pray, L.C., Sharpe, W.N., and Hewlett, D.F. (1954), Geology of the rare-earth deposits of the Mountain Pass district, San Bernardino County California, USGS 261 pp.: 33; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 221.
'Apatite'
Description: A minor constituent here.
Reference: USGS Open File report 2010-5220
Aragonite
Formula: CaCO3
Arfvedsonite
Formula: [Na][Na2][Fe2+4Fe3+]Si8O22(OH)2
Reference: USGS Bulletin 2160
Augite
Formula: (CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Reference: USGS Bulletin 2160
Azurite
Formula: Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Reference: Berger, V.I., Singer, D.A., and Orris, G.J. (2009): USGS Open-File Report 09-1139
Baryte
Formula: BaSO4
Localities:
Description: Occurs as largely massive material forming a large portion of the mineralization here (20% to 25% of the carbonate bodies).
Reference: Olson, Jerry Chipman, Shawe, D.R., Pray, L.C., Sharpe, W.N., and Hewlett, D.F. (1954), Geology of the rare-earth deposits of the Mountain Pass district, San Bernardino County California, USGS 261 pp.: 34; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 98; Jaffe, H.W., et al (1953), Sahamalite, a new rare earth carbonate mineral, American Mineralogist: 38: 721-754; Weber, F.H., Jr. (1966b), Mineral resources of California: Barite. California Division of Mines and Geology Bulletin: 191: 94-98; Davis, Fenelon Francis and J.R. Evans (1973) Mining activity in California, July 1972 through June 1973. California Division Mines and Geology California Geology: 26: 291-305; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 294; Haxel, G. (2005) Ultrapotassic rocks, carbonatite and rare earth element deposit, Mountain Pass, southern California. In: Geology and Mineral Resources of the Mojava National Preserve, southern California. USGS Bulletin 2160.; USGS Open File report 2010-5220
'Bastnäsite'
Reference: Olsen et al, 1954
Bastnäsite-(Ce)
Formula: Ce(CO3)F
'Biotite'
Reference: USGS Open File report 2010-5220
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: USGS Bulletin 2160
Celestine
Formula: SrSO4
Reference: USGS Bulletin 2160
Celestine var: Barian Celestine
Formula: (Sr,Ba)SO4
Cerianite-(Ce)
Formula: (Ce4+,Th)O2
Reference: Gunnar Färber
Cerite-(Ce)
Formula: (Ce,Ca)9(Mg,Fe)(SiO4)3(HSiO4)4(OH)3
Reference: Glass, Jewell Jeannette, H.T. Evans, Jr., M.K. Carron & Harry Rose, Jr. (1956), Cerite from Mountain Pass, San Bernardino County, California: American Mineralogist: 41: 665; Gay, Peter (1957), The crystallography of cerite: American Mineralogist: 42: 429-432; Glass, Jewell Jeannette, H.T. Evans, Jr., M.K. Carron & F.A. Hildebrand (1958), Cerite from Mountain Pass, San Bernardino County, California: American Mineralogist: 43: 460-480; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 222, 479; Haxel, G. (2005) Ultrapotassic rocks, carbonatite and rare earth element deposit, Mountain Pass, southern California. In: Geology and Mineral Resources of the Mojava National Preserve, southern California. USGS Bulletin 2160.
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Reference: Olson, Jerry Chipman, Shawe, D.R., Pray, L.C., Sharpe, W.N., and Hewlett, D.F. (1954), Geology of the rare-earth deposits of the Mountain Pass district, San Bernardino County California, USGS 261 pp.: 36; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 183.
'Chlorite Group'
Reference: Theodore, Ted G. (2007) Geology and Mineral Resources of the East Mojave National Scenic Area, San Bernardino County, California; USGS Bulletin 2160.
Diopside
Formula: CaMgSi2O6
Reference: Gunnar Färber
Dolomite
Formula: CaMg(CO3)2
Reference: USGS Bulletin 2160
Epidote
Formula: {Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Reference: USGS Bulletin 2160
'Fayalite-Forsterite Series'
Reference: USGS Bulletin 2160
'Feldspar Group'
Reference: USGS Bulletin 2160
'Feldspar Group var: Perthite'
Reference: USGS Bulletin 2160
Fluocerite-(Ce)
Formula: (Ce,La)F3
Reference: USGS Bulletin 2160
Fluorite
Formula: CaF2
Reference: USGS Open File report 2010-5220
Fluorophlogopite
Formula: KMg3(AlSi3O10)(F,OH)2
Reference: Gunnar Färber
Galena
Formula: PbS
Reference: USGS Open File report 2010-5220
Goethite
Formula: α-Fe3+O(OH)
Reference: USGS Open File report 2010-5220
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Reference: USGS Open File report 2010-5220
'Hornblende'
Reference: USGS Bulletin 2160
'K Feldspar'
Reference: USGS Open File report 2010-5220
'Magnesio-fluoro-riebeckite'
Formula: ◻{Na2}{Mg3Fe3+2}(Si8O22)F2
Reference: Gunnar Färber
Magnetite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Reference: USGS Open File report 2010-5220
Malachite
Formula: Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Reference: Berger, V.I., Singer, D.A., and Orris, G.J. (2009): USGS Open-File Report 09-1139
Microcline
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Reference: USGS Bulletin 2160
'Monazite'
Description: Occurs as crystals and grains.
Reference: Olson, Jerry Chipman (1952), Preliminary report to accompany the geologic map of the Mountain Pass district, San Bernardino County, California: USGS open file report; Wright, L.A., et al (1953), Mines and mineral resources of San Bernardino County, California: California Journal of Mines and Geology, California Division of Mines (Report 49): 49(1-2): 125; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 271; Haxel, G. (2005) Ultrapotassic rocks, carbonatite and rare earth element deposit, Mountain Pass, southern California. In: Geology and Mineral Resources of the Mojava National Preserve, southern California. USGS Bulletin 2160.
Monazite-(Ce)
Formula: Ce(PO4)
Reference: Walker, G.W., Lovering, T.G., and Stephens, H.G. (1956), Radioactive Deposits in California: Special Report 49 of the California Division of Mines & Geology: 22; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 222, 318.
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Berger, V.I., Singer, D.A., and Orris, G.J. (2009): USGS Open-File Report 09-1139
Muscovite var: Sericite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: USGS Bulletin 2160
Orthoclase
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Reference: USGS Bulletin 2160
Parisite-(Ce)
Formula: CaCe2(CO3)3F2
Description: Occurs in small amounts. 1 am intergrowths with bastnäsite - relatively uncommon.
Reference: Olson, Jerry Chipman, Shawe, D.R., Pray, L.C., Sharpe, W.N., and Hewlett, D.F. (1954), Geology of the rare-earth deposits of the Mountain Pass district, San Bernardino County California, USGS 261 pp.: ; Wright, L.A., et al (1953), Mines and mineral resources of San Bernardino County, California: California Journal of Mines and Geology, California Division of Mines (Report 49): 49(1-2): 125; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 183, 212, 221, 222; Haxel, G. (2005) Ultrapotassic rocks, carbonatite and rare earth element deposit, Mountain Pass, southern California. In: Geology and Mineral Resources of the Mojava National Preserve, southern California. USGS Bulletin 2160.
Phlogopite
Formula: KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Description: Exhibits colour mottling suggestive of compositional variations.
Reference: Olson, Jerry Chipman, Shawe, D.R., Pray, L.C., Sharpe, W.N., and Hewlett, D.F. (1954), Geology of the rare-earth deposits of the Mountain Pass district, San Bernardino County California, USGS 261 pp.: 37; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 429; Haxel, G. (2005) Ultrapotassic rocks, carbonatite and rare earth element deposit, Mountain Pass, southern California. In: Geology and Mineral Resources of the Mojava National Preserve, southern California. USGS Bulletin 2160.
Potassic-magnesio-fluoro-arfvedsonite
Formula: [(K,Na)][Na2][Mg4Fe3+][Si8O22][(F,OH)2]
Reference: Gunnar Färber
'Pseudoleucite'
Reference: USGS Bulletin 2160
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: USGS Open File report 2010-5220
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: USGS Open File report 2010-5220
Riebeckite
Formula: ◻[Na2][Fe2+3Fe3+2]Si8O22(OH)2
Reference: USGS Bulletin 2160
'Riebeckite Root Name'
Formula: ◻[Na2][Z2+3Fe3+2]Si8O22(OH,F,Cl)2
Description: Occurs as veins up to 12 mm thick.
Reference: USGS Open File report 2010-5220
'Riebeckite Root Name var: Crocidolite'
Formula: ◻[Na2][Z2+3Fe3+2]Si8O22(OH,F,Cl)2
Description: Occurs as veins up to 12 mm thick.
Reference: USGS Open File report 2010-5220
Rutile
Formula: TiO2
Reference: USGS Bulletin 2160
Sahamalite-(Ce) (TL)
Formula: (Mg,Fe)(Ce,La,Nd)2(CO3)4
Type Locality:
Habit: Tabular
Colour: Colourless
Description: Occurs as minute tabular crystals in baryte-dolomite rock.
Reference: Jaffe, H.W., et al (1953), Sahamalite, a new rare earth carbonate mineral, American Mineralogist: 38: 741.; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 222; Haxel, G. (2005) Ultrapotassic rocks, carbonatite and rare earth element deposit, Mountain Pass, southern California. In: Geology and Mineral Resources of the Mojava National Preserve, southern California. USGS Bulletin 2160.
Siderite
Formula: FeCO3
Description: Abundant in some veins.
Reference: USGS Open File report 2010-5220
Strontianite
Formula: SrCO3
Description: Occurs as cement in a breccia of baryte-carbonate rock.
Reference: Olson, Jerry Chipman, Shawe, D.R., Pray, L.C., and Sharp, W.N. (1954), Rare-earth mineral deposits of the Mountain Pass district, San Bernardino County, California: USGS PP 261: 33; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 217.
'Synchysite Group'
Reference: USGS Bulletin 2160
Talc
Formula: Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
Reference: Berger, V.I., Singer, D.A., and Orris, G.J. (2009): USGS Open-File Report 09-1139
Tenorite
Formula: CuO
Reference: Olson, Jerry Chipman, Shawe, D.R., Pray, L.C., Sharpe, W.N., and Hewlett, D.F. (1954), Geology of the rare-earth deposits of the Mountain Pass district, San Bernardino County California, USGS 261 pp.: 36; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 183.
Tetrahedrite
Formula: Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Reference: Berger, V.I., Singer, D.A., and Orris, G.J. (2009): USGS Open-File Report 09-1139
Thorite
Formula: Th(SiO4)
Colour: Dark red to yellowish brown
Description: Lustrous grains to 3 mm and as 0.5 mm crystals.
Reference: USGS Open File report 2010-5220
Titanite
Formula: CaTi(SiO4)O
Reference: USGS Bulletin 2160
Wulfenite
Formula: Pb(MoO4)
Description: Occurs as a minor constituent.
Reference: USGS Open File report 2010-5220
Zircon
Formula: Zr(SiO4)
Reference: USGS Bulletin 2160

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Galena2.CD.10PbS
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Tetrahedrite2.GB.05Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Group 3 - Halides
Fluocerite-(Ce)3.AC.15(Ce,La)F3
Fluorite3.AB.25CaF2
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Cerianite-(Ce)4.DL.05(Ce4+,Th)O2
Goethite4.00.α-Fe3+O(OH)
Hematite4.CB.05Fe2O3
Magnetite4.BB.05Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Rutile4.DB.05TiO2
Tenorite4.AB.10CuO
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Ankerite5.AB.10Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Aragonite5.AB.15CaCO3
Azurite5.BA.05Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Bastnäsite-(Ce)5.BD.20aCe(CO3)F
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Dolomite5.AB.10CaMg(CO3)2
Malachite5.BA.10Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Parisite-(Ce)5.BD.20bCaCe2(CO3)3F2
Sahamalite-(Ce) (TL)5.AD.05(Mg,Fe)(Ce,La,Nd)2(CO3)4
Siderite5.AB.05FeCO3
Strontianite5.AB.15SrCO3
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Baryte7.AD.35BaSO4
Celestine7.AD.35SrSO4
var: Barian Celestine7.AD.35(Sr,Ba)SO4
Wulfenite7.GA.05Pb(MoO4)
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Monazite-(Ce)8.AD.50Ce(PO4)
Group 9 - Silicates
Aegirine9.DA.25NaFe3+Si2O6
Aegirine-augite9.DA.20(NaaCabFe2+cMgd)(Fe3+eAlfFe2+gMgh)Si2O6
Allanite-(Ce)9.BG.05b{CaCe}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Arfvedsonite9.DE.25[Na][Na2][Fe2+4Fe3+]Si8O22(OH)2
Augite9.DA.15(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Cerite-(Ce)9.AG.20(Ce,Ca)9(Mg,Fe)(SiO4)3(HSiO4)4(OH)3
Diopside9.DA.15CaMgSi2O6
Epidote9.BG.05a{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Fluorophlogopite9.EC.20KMg3(AlSi3O10)(F,OH)2
Microcline9.FA.30K(AlSi3O8)
Muscovite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
var: Sericite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Orthoclase9.FA.30K(AlSi3O8)
Phlogopite9.EC.20KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Potassic-magnesio-fluoro-arfvedsonite9.DE.25[(K,Na)][Na2][Mg4Fe3+][Si8O22][(F,OH)2]
Riebeckite9.DE.25◻[Na2][Fe2+3Fe3+2]Si8O22(OH)2
Talc9.EC.05Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
Thorite9.AD.30Th(SiO4)
Titanite9.AG.15CaTi(SiO4)O
Zircon9.AD.30Zr(SiO4)
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Ancylite'-
'Apatite'-
'Bastnäsite'-
'Biotite'-
'Chlorite Group'-
'Fayalite-Forsterite Series'-
'Feldspar Group'-
'var: Perthite'-
'Hornblende'-
'K Feldspar'-
'Magnesio-fluoro-riebeckite'-◻{Na2}{Mg3Fe3+2}(Si8O22)F2
'Monazite'-
'Pseudoleucite'-
'Riebeckite Root Name'-◻[Na2][Z2+3Fe3+2]Si8O22(OH,F,Cl)2
'var: Crocidolite'-◻[Na2][Z2+3Fe3+2]Si8O22(OH,F,Cl)2
'Synchysite Group'-

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 3 - SULFOSALTS
3 <ø < 4
Tetrahedrite3.3.6.1Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
AX
Tenorite4.2.3.1CuO
A2X3
Hematite4.3.1.2Fe2O3
AX2
Cerianite-(Ce)4.4.12.1(Ce4+,Th)O2
Rutile4.4.1.1TiO2
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
XO(OH)
Goethite6.1.1.2α-Fe3+O(OH)
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB2X4
Magnetite7.2.2.3Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Group 9 - NORMAL HALIDES
AX2
Fluorite9.2.1.1CaF2
AX3
Fluocerite-(Ce)9.3.4.1(Ce,La)F3
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Siderite14.1.1.3FeCO3
Strontianite14.1.3.3SrCO3
AB(XO3)2
Ankerite14.2.1.2Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Dolomite14.2.1.1CaMg(CO3)2
Miscellaneous
Sahamalite-(Ce) (TL)14.4.2.1(Mg,Fe)(Ce,La,Nd)2(CO3)4
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Bastnäsite-(Ce)16a.1.1.1Ce(CO3)F
Parisite-(Ce)16a.1.5.1CaCe2(CO3)3F2
Azurite16a.2.1.1Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Malachite16a.3.1.1Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Baryte28.3.1.1BaSO4
Celestine28.3.1.2SrSO4
Group 38 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, AND VANADATES
AXO4
Monazite-(Ce)38.4.3.1Ce(PO4)
Group 48 - ANHYDROUS MOLYBDATES AND TUNGSTATES
AXO4
Wulfenite48.1.3.1Pb(MoO4)
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in >[6] coordination
Thorite51.5.2.3Th(SiO4)
Zircon51.5.2.1Zr(SiO4)
Group 52 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] and/or >[6] coordination
Cerite-(Ce)52.4.6.1(Ce,Ca)9(Mg,Fe)(SiO4)3(HSiO4)4(OH)3
Titanite52.4.3.1CaTi(SiO4)O
Group 58 - SOROSILICATES Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups
Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups with cations in [6] and higher coordination; single and double groups (n = 1, 2)
Allanite-(Ce)58.2.1a.1{CaCe}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Epidote58.2.1a.7{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Group 65 - INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=2
Aegirine65.1.3c.2NaFe3+Si2O6
Aegirine-augite65.1.3b.2(NaaCabFe2+cMgd)(Fe3+eAlfFe2+gMgh)Si2O6
Augite65.1.3a.3(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Diopside65.1.3a.1CaMgSi2O6
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Phlogopite71.2.2b.1KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Talc71.2.1.3Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
Microcline76.1.1.5K(AlSi3O8)
Orthoclase76.1.1.1K(AlSi3O8)
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
'Ancylite'-
'Apatite'-
Aragonite-CaCO3
Arfvedsonite-[Na][Na2][Fe2+4Fe3+]Si8O22(OH)2
'Bastnäsite'-
'Biotite'-
Celestine
var: Barian Celestine
-(Sr,Ba)SO4
'Chlorite Group'-
'Fayalite-Forsterite Series'-
'Feldspar Group'-
'var: Perthite'-
Fluorophlogopite-KMg3(AlSi3O10)(F,OH)2
'Hornblende'-
'K Feldspar'-
'Magnesio-fluoro-riebeckite'-◻{Na2}{Mg3Fe3+2}(Si8O22)F2
'Monazite'-
Muscovite
var: Sericite
-KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Potassic-magnesio-fluoro-arfvedsonite-[(K,Na)][Na2][Mg4Fe3+][Si8O22][(F,OH)2]
'Pseudoleucite'-
Riebeckite-◻[Na2][Fe2+3Fe3+2]Si8O22(OH)2
'Riebeckite Root Name'-◻[Na2][Z2+3Fe3+2]Si8O22(OH,F,Cl)2
'var: Crocidolite'-◻[Na2][Z2+3Fe3+2]Si8O22(OH,F,Cl)2
'Synchysite Group'-

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H Potassic-magnesio-fluoro-arfvedsonite[(K,Na)][Na2][Mg4Fe3+][Si8O22][(F,OH)2]
H Cerite-(Ce)(Ce,Ca)9(Mg,Fe)(SiO4)3(HSiO4)4(OH)3
H Allanite-(Ce){CaCe}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H Riebeckite Root Name (var: Crocidolite)◻[Na2][Z32+Fe23+]Si8O22(OH,F,Cl)2
H Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
H PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H Riebeckite◻[Na2][Fe32+Fe23+]Si8O22(OH)2
H Arfvedsonite[Na][Na2][Fe42+Fe3+]Si8O22(OH)2
H Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
H MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
H Riebeckite Root Name◻[Na2][Z32+Fe23+]Si8O22(OH,F,Cl)2
CCarbon
C Sahamalite-(Ce)(Mg,Fe)(Ce,La,Nd)2(CO3)4
C Bastnäsite-(Ce)Ce(CO3)F
C CalciteCaCO3
C DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
C SideriteFeCO3
C AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
C AragoniteCaCO3
C Parisite-(Ce)CaCe2(CO3)3F2
C StrontianiteSrCO3
C AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
C MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
OOxygen
O Sahamalite-(Ce)(Mg,Fe)(Ce,La,Nd)2(CO3)4
O Bastnäsite-(Ce)Ce(CO3)F
O Potassic-magnesio-fluoro-arfvedsonite[(K,Na)][Na2][Mg4Fe3+][Si8O22][(F,OH)2]
O CalciteCaCO3
O DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
O SideriteFeCO3
O AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
O BaryteBaSO4
O CelestineSrSO4
O AegirineNaFe3+Si2O6
O Cerite-(Ce)(Ce,Ca)9(Mg,Fe)(SiO4)3(HSiO4)4(OH)3
O Aegirine-augite(NaaCabFec2+Mgd)(Fee3+AlfFeg2+Mgh)Si2O6
O Allanite-(Ce){CaCe}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O AragoniteCaCO3
O Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
O Riebeckite Root Name (var: Crocidolite)◻[Na2][Z32+Fe23+]Si8O22(OH,F,Cl)2
O Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
O HematiteFe2O3
O MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
O MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
O Monazite-(Ce)Ce(PO4)
O OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
O Parisite-(Ce)CaCe2(CO3)3F2
O PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O QuartzSiO2
O Riebeckite◻[Na2][Fe32+Fe23+]Si8O22(OH)2
O ThoriteTh(SiO4)
O ZirconZr(SiO4)
O Arfvedsonite[Na][Na2][Fe42+Fe3+]Si8O22(OH)2
O StrontianiteSrCO3
O WulfenitePb(MoO4)
O Celestine (var: Barian Celestine)(Sr,Ba)SO4
O TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
O RutileTiO2
O Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O TenoriteCuO
O AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
O MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
O Riebeckite Root Name◻[Na2][Z32+Fe23+]Si8O22(OH,F,Cl)2
O Cerianite-(Ce)(Ce4+,Th)O2
O FluorophlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(F,OH)2
O DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
O Magnesio-fluoro-riebeckite◻{Na2}{Mg3Fe23+}(Si8O22)F2
FFluorine
F Bastnäsite-(Ce)Ce(CO3)F
F Potassic-magnesio-fluoro-arfvedsonite[(K,Na)][Na2][Mg4Fe3+][Si8O22][(F,OH)2]
F Riebeckite Root Name (var: Crocidolite)◻[Na2][Z32+Fe23+]Si8O22(OH,F,Cl)2
F Fluocerite-(Ce)(Ce,La)F3
F FluoriteCaF2
F Parisite-(Ce)CaCe2(CO3)3F2
F Riebeckite Root Name◻[Na2][Z32+Fe23+]Si8O22(OH,F,Cl)2
F FluorophlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(F,OH)2
F Magnesio-fluoro-riebeckite◻{Na2}{Mg3Fe23+}(Si8O22)F2
NaSodium
Na Potassic-magnesio-fluoro-arfvedsonite[(K,Na)][Na2][Mg4Fe3+][Si8O22][(F,OH)2]
Na AegirineNaFe3+Si2O6
Na Aegirine-augite(NaaCabFec2+Mgd)(Fee3+AlfFeg2+Mgh)Si2O6
Na Riebeckite Root Name (var: Crocidolite)◻[Na2][Z32+Fe23+]Si8O22(OH,F,Cl)2
Na Riebeckite◻[Na2][Fe32+Fe23+]Si8O22(OH)2
Na Arfvedsonite[Na][Na2][Fe42+Fe3+]Si8O22(OH)2
Na Riebeckite Root Name◻[Na2][Z32+Fe23+]Si8O22(OH,F,Cl)2
Na Magnesio-fluoro-riebeckite◻{Na2}{Mg3Fe23+}(Si8O22)F2
MgMagnesium
Mg Sahamalite-(Ce)(Mg,Fe)(Ce,La,Nd)2(CO3)4
Mg Potassic-magnesio-fluoro-arfvedsonite[(K,Na)][Na2][Mg4Fe3+][Si8O22][(F,OH)2]
Mg DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Mg AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Mg Cerite-(Ce)(Ce,Ca)9(Mg,Fe)(SiO4)3(HSiO4)4(OH)3
Mg Aegirine-augite(NaaCabFec2+Mgd)(Fee3+AlfFeg2+Mgh)Si2O6
Mg Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Mg PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Mg TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
Mg FluorophlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(F,OH)2
Mg DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Mg Magnesio-fluoro-riebeckite◻{Na2}{Mg3Fe23+}(Si8O22)F2
AlAluminium
Al Aegirine-augite(NaaCabFec2+Mgd)(Fee3+AlfFeg2+Mgh)Si2O6
Al Allanite-(Ce){CaCe}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Al Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Al MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
Al OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
Al PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al FluorophlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(F,OH)2
SiSilicon
Si Potassic-magnesio-fluoro-arfvedsonite[(K,Na)][Na2][Mg4Fe3+][Si8O22][(F,OH)2]
Si AegirineNaFe3+Si2O6
Si Cerite-(Ce)(Ce,Ca)9(Mg,Fe)(SiO4)3(HSiO4)4(OH)3
Si Aegirine-augite(NaaCabFec2+Mgd)(Fee3+AlfFeg2+Mgh)Si2O6
Si Allanite-(Ce){CaCe}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Si Riebeckite Root Name (var: Crocidolite)◻[Na2][Z32+Fe23+]Si8O22(OH,F,Cl)2
Si Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
Si OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
Si PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si QuartzSiO2
Si Riebeckite◻[Na2][Fe32+Fe23+]Si8O22(OH)2
Si ThoriteTh(SiO4)
Si ZirconZr(SiO4)
Si Arfvedsonite[Na][Na2][Fe42+Fe3+]Si8O22(OH)2
Si TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Si Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
Si Riebeckite Root Name◻[Na2][Z32+Fe23+]Si8O22(OH,F,Cl)2
Si FluorophlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(F,OH)2
Si DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Si Magnesio-fluoro-riebeckite◻{Na2}{Mg3Fe23+}(Si8O22)F2
PPhosphorus
P Monazite-(Ce)Ce(PO4)
SSulfur
S BaryteBaSO4
S CelestineSrSO4
S GalenaPbS
S PyriteFeS2
S Celestine (var: Barian Celestine)(Sr,Ba)SO4
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
ClChlorine
Cl Riebeckite Root Name (var: Crocidolite)◻[Na2][Z32+Fe23+]Si8O22(OH,F,Cl)2
Cl Riebeckite Root Name◻[Na2][Z32+Fe23+]Si8O22(OH,F,Cl)2
KPotassium
K Potassic-magnesio-fluoro-arfvedsonite[(K,Na)][Na2][Mg4Fe3+][Si8O22][(F,OH)2]
K MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
K OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
K PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K FluorophlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(F,OH)2
CaCalcium
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Ca AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Ca Cerite-(Ce)(Ce,Ca)9(Mg,Fe)(SiO4)3(HSiO4)4(OH)3
Ca Aegirine-augite(NaaCabFec2+Mgd)(Fee3+AlfFeg2+Mgh)Si2O6
Ca Allanite-(Ce){CaCe}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Ca AragoniteCaCO3
Ca Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Ca Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Ca FluoriteCaF2
Ca Parisite-(Ce)CaCe2(CO3)3F2
Ca TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Ca DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
TiTitanium
Ti TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Ti RutileTiO2
FeIron
Fe Sahamalite-(Ce)(Mg,Fe)(Ce,La,Nd)2(CO3)4
Fe Potassic-magnesio-fluoro-arfvedsonite[(K,Na)][Na2][Mg4Fe3+][Si8O22][(F,OH)2]
Fe SideriteFeCO3
Fe AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Fe AegirineNaFe3+Si2O6
Fe Cerite-(Ce)(Ce,Ca)9(Mg,Fe)(SiO4)3(HSiO4)4(OH)3
Fe Aegirine-augite(NaaCabFec2+Mgd)(Fee3+AlfFeg2+Mgh)Si2O6
Fe Allanite-(Ce){CaCe}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Fe Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Fe Riebeckite Root Name (var: Crocidolite)◻[Na2][Z32+Fe23+]Si8O22(OH,F,Cl)2
Fe Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Fe Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
Fe HematiteFe2O3
Fe MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe Riebeckite◻[Na2][Fe32+Fe23+]Si8O22(OH)2
Fe Arfvedsonite[Na][Na2][Fe42+Fe3+]Si8O22(OH)2
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Fe Riebeckite Root Name◻[Na2][Z32+Fe23+]Si8O22(OH,F,Cl)2
Fe Magnesio-fluoro-riebeckite◻{Na2}{Mg3Fe23+}(Si8O22)F2
CuCopper
Cu TenoriteCuO
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Cu AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Cu MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
Cu TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
ZnZinc
Zn TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
SrStrontium
Sr CelestineSrSO4
Sr StrontianiteSrCO3
Sr Celestine (var: Barian Celestine)(Sr,Ba)SO4
ZrZirconium
Zr ZirconZr(SiO4)
MoMolybdenum
Mo WulfenitePb(MoO4)
SbAntimony
Sb TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
BaBarium
Ba BaryteBaSO4
Ba Celestine (var: Barian Celestine)(Sr,Ba)SO4
LaLanthanum
La Sahamalite-(Ce)(Mg,Fe)(Ce,La,Nd)2(CO3)4
CeCerium
Ce Sahamalite-(Ce)(Mg,Fe)(Ce,La,Nd)2(CO3)4
Ce Bastnäsite-(Ce)Ce(CO3)F
Ce Cerite-(Ce)(Ce,Ca)9(Mg,Fe)(SiO4)3(HSiO4)4(OH)3
Ce Allanite-(Ce){CaCe}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Ce Fluocerite-(Ce)(Ce,La)F3
Ce Monazite-(Ce)Ce(PO4)
Ce Parisite-(Ce)CaCe2(CO3)3F2
Ce Cerianite-(Ce)(Ce4+,Th)O2
NdNeodymium
Nd Sahamalite-(Ce)(Mg,Fe)(Ce,La,Nd)2(CO3)4
PbLead
Pb GalenaPbS
Pb WulfenitePb(MoO4)
ThThorium
Th ThoriteTh(SiO4)
Th Cerianite-(Ce)(Ce4+,Th)O2

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Quaternary - Miocene
0 - 23.03 Ma



ID: 3185380
Cenozoic sedimentary rocks

Age: Cenozoic (0 - 23.03 Ma)

Lithology: Sedimentary rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Proterozoic
541 - 2500 Ma



ID: 2943637
Precambrian rocks, undivided, unit 2 (Mojave Desert and Transverse Ranges)

Age: Proterozoic (541 - 2500 Ma)

Stratigraphic Name: Baldwin Gneiss; Essex Series; Fenner Gneiss; Johannesburg Gneiss; Kilbeck Gneiss; Mendenhall Gneiss; Waterman Gneiss

Description: Conglomerate, shale, sandstone, limestone, dolomite, marble, gneiss, hornfels, and quartzite; may be Paleozoic in part

Comments: Southern California. Primarily orthogneiss and paragneiss; includes granitoid rocks, migmatite, amphibolite, and quartzite. Includes some Mesozoic and Cenozoic rocks Original map source: Saucedo, G.J., Bedford, D.R., Raines, G.L., Miller, R.J., and Wentworth, C.M., 2000, GIS Data for the Geologic Map of California, California Department of Conservation, Division of Mines and Geology, CD-ROM 2000-07, scale 1:750,000.

Lithology: Major:{orthogneiss}, Minor:{granitic}, Incidental:{amphibolite, quartzite, hornfels, marble, granofels, granite, syenite, intrusive carbonatite}

Reference: Horton, J.D., C.A. San Juan, and D.B. Stoeser. The State Geologic Map Compilation (SGMC) geodatabase of the conterminous United States. doi: 10.3133/ds1052. U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 1052. [133]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Anonymous (1950), Rare earth deposits found in California: California Division of Mines, Mineral Information Service: 3(1): 1.
Anonymous (1950), New products: Mineral Notes & News No. 158: 1-18.
Chesterman, C.W. (1950b), Uranium, thorium and rare-earth elements: California Division Mines Bulletin 156: 361-363.
Olson, Jerry Chipman & William N. Sharp (1951), Geologic setting of the Mountain Pass bastnaesite deposits, San Bernardino County, California: abstract): Geological Society of America Bulletin: 62: 1467.
Pray, Lloyd Charles & William N. Sharp (1951), Bastnaesite discovered near Mountain Pass, California: (abstract): Geological Society of America Bulletin: 62: 1519.
Olson, Jerry Chipman (1952), Preliminary report to accompany the geologic map of the Mountain Pass district, San Bernardino County, California: USGS open file report.
Sharp, W. N. and L. C. Pray (1952), Geologic Map of Bastnaesite Deposits of the Birthday Claims, San Bernardino County, California, U.S. Geological Survey Map MF-4, 1952, Scale 1:600.
Zadra, J.B., et al (1952), Concentration of bastnaesite and other cerium ores: US Bureau of Mines Report of Investigation 4919.
Donnay, Gabrielle & J.D.H. Donnay (1953), The crystallography of bastnaesite, parasite, roetgenite and synchosite: American Mineralogist: 38: 932-965.
Jaffe, H.W., et al (1953), Sahamalite, a new rare earth carbonate mineral, American Mineralogist: 38: 721-754.
Wright, L.A., et al (1953), Mines and mineral resources of San Bernardino County, California: California Journal of Mines and Geology, California Division of Mines (Report 49): 49(1-2): tabulated list No. 189, p. 125.
Hewett. D. F. (1954), History of the Discovery at Mountain Pass, California, In Olson, J. C., and others, Rare-Earth Mineral Deposits of the Mountain Pass District, San Bernardino County, California, USGS Professional Paper 261.
Olson, Jerry Chipman & Lloyd Charles Pray (1954), The Mountain Pass rare earth deposit: California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 170, chap. VIII: 23-30.
Olson, Jerry Chipman, Shawe, D.R., Pray, L.C., Sharpe, W.N., and Hewlett, D.F. (1954), Geology of the rare-earth deposits of the Mountain Pass district, San Bernardino County California, USGS Professional Paper 261, 75 pp.: 33, 34, 36, 37, 38.
Jaffe, Howard William (1955) Precambrian monazite and zircon from the Mountain Pass rare-earth district, San Bernardino County, California. Geological Society of America Bulletin: 66: 1247-1256.
Glass, Jewell Jeannette, H.T. Evans, Jr., M.K. Carron & Harry Rose, Jr. (1956), Cerite from Mountain Pass, San Bernardino County, California: American Mineralogist: 41: 665.
Hewett, Donnel Foster (1956) Geology and mineral resources of the Ivanpah quadrangle, California and Nevada, USGS Professional Paper 275, 172 pp.
Jaffe, Howard William (1956) Application of the rule of Gladstone and Dale to minerals. American Mineralogist: 41: 764.
Walker, G.W., Lovering, T.G., and Stephens, H.G. (1956), Radioactive Deposits in California: Special Report 49 of the California Division of Mines & Geology: 22, 24.
Gay, Peter (1957), The crystallography of cerite: American Mineralogist: 42: 429-432.
Brobst, D.A. (1958), Barite Resources of the United States, USGS Bulletin 1072-B: 108 (Table 10).
Glass, Jewell Jeannette, H.T. Evans, Jr., M.K. Carron & F.A. Hildebrand (1958), Cerite from Mountain Pass, San Bernardino County, California: American Mineralogist: 43: 460-480.
Ceramic News (1965), New Rare Earth Processing Plant.
Kreusi, P.R. and Duker, G. (1965) Production of rare-earth chloride from bastnaesite. Journal of Metals: 17: 847-849.
Adams, J.W. (1966), Rare earths, California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 191: 350-355.
Evans, James R. (1966a) California Mountain Pass mine now producing europium oxide. California Division Mines and Geology Mineral Information Service: 18: 23-32.
Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 60, 79, 98, 99, 123, 125, 271, 284, 326, 389.
Weber, F.H., Jr. (1966b), Mineral resources of California: Barite. California Division of Mines and Geology Bulletin: 191: 94-98.
Pings, W.B. (1969) The rare earths today. Colorado School of Mines Mineral Industries Bulletin: 12(2) 1-19.
Hoffman, D.C., Lawrence, F.O., Mewherter, J.L., Rourke, F.M. (1971): Detection of Plutonium-244 in Nature. Nature: 234: 132-134.
Davis, Fenelon Francis and J.R. Evans (1973) Mining activity in California, July 1972 through June 1973. California Division Mines and Geology California Geology: 26: 291-305.
Woodmansee, W.C. (1973) The mineral industry of California: Reprint from 1971. U.S. Bureau of Mines Minerals Yearbook, 50 pp.: 40.
Anonymous (1974), Relationship of Mineralization to Major Structural Features in the Mountain Pass Area, San Bernardino County, California, California Geology, July 1974.
Evans, James R. (1974) Relationship of mineralization to major structural features in the Mountain Pass area, San Bernardino County, California. California Division Mines and Geology, California Geology: 27: 149-157.
Sakamoto, K. (1974): Possible cosmic dust origin of terrestrial plutonium-244. Nature: 248(5444): 130-132.
Lindsey, D. S. (1978), Mountain Pass Mine, Mountain Pass District, San Bernardino County, California, U.S. Bureau of Mines, File Report, September 1978.
Warhol. W. N. (1980), Rare Earths and the Mountain Pass, California Operations. SME-AIME, Pre-Print No. 80-380, October, 1980, 7 p.
Warhol, W. N. (1980), Molycorp's Mountain Pass Operations, In: Fife, D. L., And A. R. Brown, Editors, Geology And Mineral Wealth Of The California Desert. South Coast Geological Society.
Woyski, Margaret S. (1980), Petrology of the Mountain Pass carbonatite complex - A review, in Geology and mineral wealth of the California Desert, Fife, D.L. and Brown A.R., Editors, South Coast Geological Society.
Morrice, E. and M. M. Wong (1982). Flotation of Rare Earths from Bastnaesite Ore. U.S. Bureau of Mines Report of Investigation RI 8689, 13 pp.
Wilson. T. A. (1982), Rare Earths From Lighter Flints To X-Rays. SME-AIME Annual. Meeting Pre-Print No. 82-52, Feb. 1982, 3 p.
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