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Parwan lava caves, Bacchus Marsh, Moorabool Shire, Victoria, Australiai
Regional Level Types
Parwan lava cavesGroup of Caves
Bacchus Marsh- not defined -
Moorabool ShireShire
VictoriaState
AustraliaCountry

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Key
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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
37° 42' 47'' South , 144° 28' 40'' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal):
Locality type:
Group of Caves
Köppen climate type:
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Parwan312 (2015)1.1km
Bacchus Marsh13,575 (2016)5.7km
Brookfield3,168 (2015)7.4km
Melton South8,916 (2015)8.6km
Melton West10,381 (2015)8.9km


The Parwan Lava Cave system is situated on private property approx. 5 km southeast of Bacchus Marsh in western Victoria. The cave is a lava tunnel and has been known for about a century. The cave is made up of three elongated interconecting chambers, which run approx. E-W for about 150 m. The central chamber is the largest, with a maximum width of 20 m. The floor is about 8-9 m below the surface with a maximum ceiling height of about 3 m (2 m high average). The entrance is a 0.6 m diameter hole in a small depression near the crest of a low ridge. Phosphate mineralization occurs in only a few isolated patches and is the only indication that bats had been living in the cave. Small pockets of mineralization had occurred between some of the boulders on the floor of the central chamber, and were usually no bigger than 20 cm across and 10 cm thick. The main phosphate mineralisation occurred in the floor of the western chamber and was approx. 3 x 1.5 m. in area and up to 250 mm deep.

The Parwan Cave is the type locality for Parwanite (2007)

Regions containing this locality

Australian Plate (Australia Plate)Tectonic Plate
Lachlan Orogen, AustraliaOrogen
Selwyn Province, Victoria, AustraliaGeologic Province
Bendigo Zone, Victoria, AustraliaZone (Tectonic)
Bendigo Zone, Lachlan Orogen, AustraliaZone (Tectonic)

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


9 valid minerals. 1 (TL) - type locality of valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Allophane
Formula: (Al2O3)(SiO2)1.3-2 · 2.5-3H2O
Description: Reported as pale earthy stalactites up to 8 cm long
Reference: Phosphate Minerals of Victoria, The Mineralogical Society of Victoria, Special Publication No. 3 1993
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Description: Calcite at the Parwan Lava Cave occurs as white botryoidal coating to stalactitic growths on the ceiling and walls of the cave. The calcite stalactites occur up to 50mm long.
Fluorapatite
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3F
Description: Fluorapatite occurs as vitreous, orange globules up to 1 mm across, often forming botryoidal crusts associated with mongomeryite and gordonite. The globules show faint concentric growth banding. Also crusts of tiny white needles of Fluorapatite occur lining cavities and coating the orange globular variety, giving them a furry appearence.
Reference: Birch, W.D. & Henry, D.J., 1993, Phosphate Minerals of Victoria, The Mineralogical Society of Victoria
Fluorapatite var: Carbonate-rich Fluorapatite
Formula: Ca5(PO4,CO3)3(F,O)
Description: Fluorapatite occurs as vitreous, orange globules up to 1 mm across, often forming botryoidal crusts associated with mongomeryite and gordonite. The globules show faint concentric growth banding. Also crusts of tiny white needles of Fluorapatite occur lining cavities and coating the orange globular variety, giving them a furry appearence.
Reference: Birch, W.D. & Henry, D.J., 1993, Phosphate Minerals of Victoria, The Mineralogical Society of Victoria
Gordonite
Formula: MgAl2(PO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2O
Colour: colourless
Description: Gordonite forms crusts and aggregates of colorless platy crystals up to 0.3 mm across, often on soft pale brown clay fragments. Parwan is the first record of this mineral forming in a cave environment.
Reference: Birch, W.D. & Henry, D.J., 1993, Phosphate Minerals of Victoria, The Mineralogical Society of Victoria, Special Publication No. 3
Montgomeryite
Formula: Ca4MgAl4(PO4)6(OH)4 · 12H2O
Colour: off-white
Description: In the Parwan Cave montgomeryite occurs in the clay-Taranakite matrix as off-white, straw-like crusts, with a pearly lustre up to 3 mm thick. Montgomeryite also forms spongy aggregates of elongated, platy, cream colored crystals up to 0.5 mm long, and loose clusters of white to cream spheres, between 0.1 and 0.3 mm across, consisting of platy crystals. Another variety of montgomeryite occurs as thin, light-yellow crusts, composed of slightly botryoidal rosettes of tiny plates.
Reference: Birch, W.D. & Henry, D.J., 1993, Phosphate Minerals of Victoria, The Mineralogical Society of Victoria, Special Publication No. 3
Montmorillonite
Formula: (Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Colour: brown
Description: Montmorillonite forms rich brown waxy masses in the cave floor.
Reference: Birch, W.D. & Henry, D.J., 1993, Phosphate Minerals of Victoria, The Mineralogical Society of Victoria, Special Publication No. 3
Parwanite (TL)
Formula: (Na,K)(Mg,Ca)4Al8(PO4)8(CO3)(OH)7 · 30H2O
Type Locality:
Habit: Globular grains.
Colour: White
Description: Parwanite occurs as clusters up to 0.2 mm across of pseudo hexagonal platy crystals lining fissures and cavities in the clay/taranakite matrix. It has also crystalized on the brown clay fragments enclosed in the matrix. The crystals are white to cream and have a pearly lustre.
Reference: Birch, W.D. & Henry, D.J., 1993, Phosphate Minerals of Victoria, The Mineralogical Society of Victoria, Special Publication No. 3 Willian D. Birch, Stuart J. Mills, Karolina Schwendtner, Allan Pring, John A. Webb, Ralph Segnit and John A. Watts (2007): "Parwanite: a new hydrated Na-Mg-Al-phosphate from a lava cave at Parwan, Victoria, Australia". Australian Journal of Mineralogy, 13, 23-30.
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: No reference listed
Taranakite
Formula: (K,NH4)Al3(PO4)3(OH) · 9H2O
Colour: white to cream
Description: The massive white to cream chalky material at Parwan, when examined by X-ray diffraction soon after removal from the cave, consisted of a mixture of poorly crystalline taranakite and a clay mineral, possibly kaolinite. However after several years the material is now largely X-ray amorphous and it appears the taranakite is unstable when it dries out. The taranakite is the most common mineral at Parwan after the clay, and is associated with most of the other minerals.
Reference: Birch, W.D. & Henry, D.J., 1993, Phosphate Minerals of Victoria, The Mineralogical Society of Victoria, Special Publication No. 3

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Fluorapatite8.BN.05Ca5(PO4)3F
var: Carbonate-rich Fluorapatite8.BN.05Ca5(PO4,CO3)3(F,O)
Gordonite8.DC.30MgAl2(PO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2O
Montgomeryite8.DH.25Ca4MgAl4(PO4)6(OH)4 · 12H2O
Parwanite (TL)8.DO.40(Na,K)(Mg,Ca)4Al8(PO4)8(CO3)(OH)7 · 30H2O
Taranakite8.CH.25(K,NH4)Al3(PO4)3(OH) · 9H2O
Group 9 - Silicates
Allophane9.ED.20(Al2O3)(SiO2)1.3-2 · 2.5-3H2O
Montmorillonite9.EC.40(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Group 39 - HYDRATED ACID PHOSPHATES,ARSENATES AND VANADATES
Miscellaneous
Taranakite39.3.6.1(K,NH4)Al3(PO4)3(OH) · 9H2O
Group 41 - ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
A5(XO4)3Zq
Fluorapatite41.8.1.1Ca5(PO4)3F
var: Carbonate-rich Fluorapatite41.8.1.4Ca5(PO4,CO3)3(F,O)
Group 42 - HYDRATED PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)3(XO4)2Zq·xH2O
Gordonite42.11.14.4MgAl2(PO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2O
Montgomeryite42.11.8.1Ca4MgAl4(PO4)6(OH)4 · 12H2O
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 1:1 layers
Allophane71.1.5.1(Al2O3)(SiO2)1.3-2 · 2.5-3H2O
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 clays
Montmorillonite71.3.1a.2(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
Parwanite (TL)-(Na,K)(Mg,Ca)4Al8(PO4)8(CO3)(OH)7 · 30H2O

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H Parwanite(Na,K)(Mg,Ca)4Al8(PO4)8(CO3)(OH)7 · 30H2O
H GordoniteMgAl2(PO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2O
H Taranakite(K,NH4)Al3(PO4)3(OH) · 9H2O
H MontgomeryiteCa4MgAl4(PO4)6(OH)4 · 12H2O
H Allophane(Al2O3)(SiO2)1.3-2 · 2.5-3H2O
H Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
CCarbon
C Parwanite(Na,K)(Mg,Ca)4Al8(PO4)8(CO3)(OH)7 · 30H2O
C Fluorapatite (var: Carbonate-rich Fluorapatite)Ca5(PO4,CO3)3(F,O)
C CalciteCaCO3
OOxygen
O Parwanite(Na,K)(Mg,Ca)4Al8(PO4)8(CO3)(OH)7 · 30H2O
O GordoniteMgAl2(PO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2O
O Fluorapatite (var: Carbonate-rich Fluorapatite)Ca5(PO4,CO3)3(F,O)
O Taranakite(K,NH4)Al3(PO4)3(OH) · 9H2O
O MontgomeryiteCa4MgAl4(PO4)6(OH)4 · 12H2O
O QuartzSiO2
O Allophane(Al2O3)(SiO2)1.3-2 · 2.5-3H2O
O CalciteCaCO3
O Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
O FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
FFluorine
F Fluorapatite (var: Carbonate-rich Fluorapatite)Ca5(PO4,CO3)3(F,O)
F FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
NaSodium
Na Parwanite(Na,K)(Mg,Ca)4Al8(PO4)8(CO3)(OH)7 · 30H2O
Na Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
MgMagnesium
Mg Parwanite(Na,K)(Mg,Ca)4Al8(PO4)8(CO3)(OH)7 · 30H2O
Mg GordoniteMgAl2(PO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2O
Mg MontgomeryiteCa4MgAl4(PO4)6(OH)4 · 12H2O
Mg Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
AlAluminium
Al Parwanite(Na,K)(Mg,Ca)4Al8(PO4)8(CO3)(OH)7 · 30H2O
Al GordoniteMgAl2(PO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2O
Al Taranakite(K,NH4)Al3(PO4)3(OH) · 9H2O
Al MontgomeryiteCa4MgAl4(PO4)6(OH)4 · 12H2O
Al Allophane(Al2O3)(SiO2)1.3-2 · 2.5-3H2O
Al Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
SiSilicon
Si QuartzSiO2
Si Allophane(Al2O3)(SiO2)1.3-2 · 2.5-3H2O
Si Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
PPhosphorus
P Parwanite(Na,K)(Mg,Ca)4Al8(PO4)8(CO3)(OH)7 · 30H2O
P GordoniteMgAl2(PO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2O
P Fluorapatite (var: Carbonate-rich Fluorapatite)Ca5(PO4,CO3)3(F,O)
P Taranakite(K,NH4)Al3(PO4)3(OH) · 9H2O
P MontgomeryiteCa4MgAl4(PO4)6(OH)4 · 12H2O
P FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
KPotassium
K Parwanite(Na,K)(Mg,Ca)4Al8(PO4)8(CO3)(OH)7 · 30H2O
K Taranakite(K,NH4)Al3(PO4)3(OH) · 9H2O
CaCalcium
Ca Parwanite(Na,K)(Mg,Ca)4Al8(PO4)8(CO3)(OH)7 · 30H2O
Ca Fluorapatite (var: Carbonate-rich Fluorapatite)Ca5(PO4,CO3)3(F,O)
Ca MontgomeryiteCa4MgAl4(PO4)6(OH)4 · 12H2O
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Ca FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Holocene - Miocene
0 - 23.03 Ma



ID: 932697
Newer Volcanic Group

Age: Cenozoic (0 - 23.03 Ma)

Stratigraphic Name: Newer Volcanic Group

Description: Cinder cones - scoria, minor ash and agglutinates; Lava flows - tholeiitic to minor alkaline and basanitic lavas.

Comments: igneous mafic volcanic; synthesis of multiple published descriptions

Lithology: Igneous mafic volcanic

Reference: Raymond, O.L., Liu, S., Gallagher, R., Zhang, W., Highet, L.M. Surface Geology of Australia 1:1 million scale dataset 2012 edition. Commonwealth of Australia (Geoscience Australia). [5]

Quaternary
0 - 2.588 Ma



ID: 3186595
Cenozoic volcanic rocks

Age: Pleistocene (0 - 2.588 Ma)

Comments: East Australia Cainozoic Volcanic Belt

Lithology: Mafic volcanic rocks; basalt

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Birch, W.D. & Henry, D.J., 1993, Phosphate Minerals of Victoria, The Mineralogical Society of Victoria, Special Publication No. 3
Birch, W.D., Mills, S.J., Schwendtner, K., Pring, A., Webb, J.A., Segnit R., and Watts, J.A. (2007): Parwanite: a new hydrated Na-Mg-Al-phosphate from a lava cave at Parwan, Victoria, Australia. Australian Journal of Mineralogy, 13, pp23-30.


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