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Iron Hill Mine (Richmond Hill; Richmond Hill Manganese; Utica Lode), Spearfish, Carbonate District, Lawrence Co., South Dakota, USA

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 44° 24' North , 103° 51' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 44.40000,-103.85000
GeoHash:G#: 9xyhsff8z
Locality type:Mine
Köppen climate type:Dfb : Warm-summer humid continental climate


Ref.: Rocks & Min.:60:112. A lead mine. Ore is irregular replacement bodies along jasperized vertical fractures that transect Mississippian Pahasapa Limestone.

Ref: "The Mines Around and Beyond", Joel K. Waterland, 1991, pp. 235 - 247.

Original location date not known, but incorporated in 1881. By 1883, the shaft was 225 feet deep but the mine closed due to excessive ground water.

The mine reopened in 1884. Difficulties with the local smelter (Hattenbach) forced the company to sack ore and ship it to Omaha, Nebraska. BY 1886, new investors and management (including Seth Bullock) expanded the operation with its own mill, purchase of the Hattenbach Smelter, Rubicon Gulch water rights and additional property. The shaft reached 300 feet. However, charcoal was in short supply and the company had to buy coke for $10 per ton. High arsenic concentrations sickened the mercury at the stamp mill and recovery dropped below 33%.

By 1886, the company was running out of ore amenable to amalgamation. The smelter closed after only ten months operation. The company extended the shaft to 400 feet and purchased a diamond drill for exploration. Exploration continued through 1889.

In 1890, the company purchased the Calumet gold mine in the Ruby Basin District and treated a mix of Iron Hill and Calumet ores. By 1891, all ore was shipped to Omaha, Nebraska due to excessive costs in South Dakota. By 1898, the entire property had been leased to W. M. Remer.

Sporadic exploration occurred until 1918, when an investment group began an adit in Silver Spring Gulch. By 1920, it broke into the flooded 300 foot level workings, dewatering all but the 400 foot level of the entire mine. However, the project was abandoned.

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


15 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Aragonite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: SDSMT Bull 18 Roberts and Rapp "Mineralogy of the Black Hills"
Atacamite
Formula: Cu2(OH)3Cl
Reference: SDSMT Bull 18 Roberts and Rapp "Mineralogy of the Black Hills"
Cerussite
Formula: PbCO3
Description: Occurs in irregular replacement bodies along jasperized vertical fractures that transect Mississioppian Pahasapa Limestone.
Reference: Rocks & Min.:60:112.
Chlorargyrite
Formula: AgCl
Description: Occurs in irregular replacement bodies along jasperized vertical fractures that transect Mississioppian Pahasapa Limestone.
Reference: Rocks & Min.:60:112.
Galena
Formula: PbS
Reference: SDSMT Bull 18 Roberts and Rapp "Mineralogy of the Black Hills"
Gold
Formula: Au
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Leadhillite
Formula: Pb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
Description: Occurs in irregular replacement bodies along jasperized vertical fractures that transect Mississioppian Pahasapa Limestone.
Reference: Rocks & Min.:60:112.
Matlockite
Formula: PbFCl
Reference: SDSMT Bull 18 Roberts and Rapp "Mineralogy of the Black Hills"
Mimetite
Formula: Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
Description: Occurs in irregular replacement bodies along jasperized vertical fractures that transect Mississioppian Pahasapa Limestone.
Reference: Rocks & Min.:60:112.
Plattnerite
Formula: PbO2
Description: Occurs in irregular replacement bodies along jasperized vertical fractures that transect Mississioppian Pahasapa Limestone.
Reference: Rocks & Min.:60:112.
Pyrargyrite
Formula: Ag3SbS3
Reference: SDSMT Bull 18 Roberts and Rapp "Mineralogy of the Black Hills"
Pyromorphite
Formula: Pb5(PO4)3Cl
Description: Occurs in irregular replacement bodies along jasperized vertical fractures that transect Mississioppian Pahasapa Limestone.
Reference: Rocks & Min.:60:112.
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Description: Occurs in irregular replacement bodies along jasperized vertical fractures that transect Mississioppian Pahasapa Limestone.
Reference: Rocks & Min.:60:112.
Vanadinite
Formula: Pb5(VO4)3Cl
Description: Occurs in irregular replacement bodies along jasperized vertical fractures that transect Mississioppian Pahasapa Limestone.
Reference: Rocks & Min.:60:112.
Vanadinite var: Arsenatian Vanadinite
Formula: Pb5[(V,As)O4]3Cl
Description: Occurs in irregular replacement bodies along jasperized vertical fractures that transect Mississioppian Pahasapa Limestone.
Reference: Rocks & Min.:60:112.
Wulfenite
Formula: Pb(MoO4)
Description: Occurs in irregular replacement bodies along jasperized vertical fractures that transect Mississioppian Pahasapa Limestone.
Reference: Rocks & Min.:60:112.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Gold1.AA.05Au
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Galena2.CD.10PbS
Pyrargyrite2.GA.05Ag3SbS3
Group 3 - Halides
Atacamite3.DA.10aCu2(OH)3Cl
Chlorargyrite3.AA.15AgCl
Matlockite3.DC.25PbFCl
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Plattnerite4.DB.05PbO2
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
'Aragonite'5.AB.15CaCO3
Cerussite5.AB.15PbCO3
Leadhillite5.BF.40Pb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Wulfenite7.GA.05Pb(MoO4)
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Mimetite8.BN.05Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
Pyromorphite8.BN.05Pb5(PO4)3Cl
Vanadinite8.BN.05Pb5(VO4)3Cl
var: Arsenatian Vanadinite8.BN.05Pb5[(V,As)O4]3Cl

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Gold1.1.1.1Au
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Group 3 - SULFOSALTS
ø = 3
Pyrargyrite3.4.1.2Ag3SbS3
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
AX2
Plattnerite4.4.1.6PbO2
Group 9 - NORMAL HALIDES
AX
Chlorargyrite9.1.4.1AgCl
AX2
Matlockite9.2.11.1PbFCl
Group 10 - OXYHALIDES AND HYDROXYHALIDES
A2(O,OH)3Xq
Atacamite10.1.1.1Cu2(OH)3Cl
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Cerussite14.1.3.4PbCO3
Group 17 - COMPOUND CARBONATES
Miscellaneous
Leadhillite17.1.2.1Pb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
Group 41 - ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
A5(XO4)3Zq
Mimetite41.8.4.2Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
Pyromorphite41.8.4.1Pb5(PO4)3Cl
Vanadinite41.8.4.3Pb5(VO4)3Cl
Group 48 - ANHYDROUS MOLYBDATES AND TUNGSTATES
AXO4
Wulfenite48.1.3.1Pb(MoO4)
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
Aragonite-CaCO3
Vanadinite
var: Arsenatian Vanadinite
-Pb5[(V,As)O4]3Cl

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H AtacamiteCu2(OH)3Cl
H LeadhillitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
CCarbon
C AragoniteCaCO3
C CerussitePbCO3
C LeadhillitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
OOxygen
O AragoniteCaCO3
O Vanadinite (var: Arsenatian Vanadinite)Pb5[(V,As)O4]3Cl
O AtacamiteCu2(OH)3Cl
O CerussitePbCO3
O LeadhillitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
O MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
O PlattneritePbO2
O PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
O QuartzSiO2
O VanadinitePb5(VO4)3Cl
O WulfenitePb(MoO4)
FFluorine
F MatlockitePbFCl
SiSilicon
Si QuartzSiO2
PPhosphorus
P PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
SSulfur
S GalenaPbS
S LeadhillitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
S PyrargyriteAg3SbS3
ClChlorine
Cl Vanadinite (var: Arsenatian Vanadinite)Pb5[(V,As)O4]3Cl
Cl AtacamiteCu2(OH)3Cl
Cl ChlorargyriteAgCl
Cl MatlockitePbFCl
Cl MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
Cl PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
Cl VanadinitePb5(VO4)3Cl
CaCalcium
Ca AragoniteCaCO3
VVanadium
V Vanadinite (var: Arsenatian Vanadinite)Pb5[(V,As)O4]3Cl
V VanadinitePb5(VO4)3Cl
CuCopper
Cu AtacamiteCu2(OH)3Cl
AsArsenic
As Vanadinite (var: Arsenatian Vanadinite)Pb5[(V,As)O4]3Cl
As MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
MoMolybdenum
Mo WulfenitePb(MoO4)
AgSilver
Ag ChlorargyriteAgCl
Ag PyrargyriteAg3SbS3
SbAntimony
Sb PyrargyriteAg3SbS3
AuGold
Au GoldAu
PbLead
Pb Vanadinite (var: Arsenatian Vanadinite)Pb5[(V,As)O4]3Cl
Pb CerussitePbCO3
Pb GalenaPbS
Pb LeadhillitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
Pb MatlockitePbFCl
Pb MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
Pb PlattneritePbO2
Pb PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
Pb VanadinitePb5(VO4)3Cl
Pb WulfenitePb(MoO4)

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Eocene - Paleocene
33.9 - 66 Ma



ID: 2472992
Quartz trachytic intrusive rocks

Age: Paleogene (33.9 - 66 Ma)

Description: Tan to gray and porphyritic or phaneritic. Locally sanidine-bearing. Forms laccolithic bodies and sills.

Reference: Redden, J.A., E. DeWitt. Maps Showing Geology, Structure, and Geophysics of the Central Black Hills, South Dakota. U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Map 2777. [73]

Permian - Devonian
251.902 - 419.2 Ma



ID: 3190647
Paleozoic sedimentary rocks

Age: Phanerozoic (251.902 - 419.2 Ma)

Lithology: Sedimentary rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Tournaisian - Cambrian
346.7 - 541 Ma



ID: 2748443
Pahasapa Limestone, Englewood Formation, Whitewood Limestone, Winnipeg Formation, and Deadwood Formation

Age: Paleozoic (346.7 - 541 Ma)

Stratigraphic Name: Pahasapa Limestone; Englewood Formation; Whitewood Limestone; Winnipeg Formation; Deadwood Formation

Description: Note: see individual descriptions

Comments: Original map source: Martin, J.E., Sawyer, J.F., Fahrenbach, M.D., Tomhave, D.W., and Schulz, L.D., 2004, Geologic Map of South Dakota: South Dakota Geological Survey, GM 10, scale 1:500,000.

Reference: Horton, J.D., C.A. San Juan, and D.B. Stoeser. The State Geologic Map Compilation (SGMC) geodatabase of the conterminous United States. doi: 10.3133/ds1052. U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 1052. [133]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License


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