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New Cornwall Mine (Cornwall Mine), Kadina, Yorke Peninsula, South Australia, Australiai
Regional Level Types
New Cornwall Mine (Cornwall Mine)Mine
Kadina- not defined -
Yorke PeninsulaPeninsula
South AustraliaState
AustraliaCountry

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Key
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
33° 58' 0'' South , 137° 44' 8'' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal):
Locality type:
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Kadina2,213 (2013)1.8km
Wallaroo Mines396 (2014)3.9km
Wallaroo2,779 (2013)9.9km
Paskeville473 (2012)16.8km
Moonta336 (2015)17.5km


Located approximately 4 km to the East of the Wallaroo Mine this mine is renowned for producing the largest atacamite crystals in the world. Many specimens are now in museums around the world.

Copper was discovered here in 1861, and the New Cornwall Mineral Association was formed with a working capital of £50,000 to work the mine. In 1863 a Cornish beam engine was imported from Cornwall at a cost of £2,775 and was used to drain the mine below the 50 metre level. A smelter using a process patented by a Mr. R.V. Rodda was constructed at the mine in 1862 however due to a dispute with Mr. Rodda it ceased operation in 1863. It operated for a time in 1864 but it was shut down again shortly after. It is not known if the smelting process was entirely successful or not. In 1866, the mine employed about 100 men. but by the time the mine closed in 1870, the mine had produced an estimated 5000 tons of ore, but had expended over £113 000. Between 1864 - 1867, the mine produced copper to the value of £20,386. In 1884 the engine buildings and machinery were sold for to the Wallaroo Mining & Smelting Co. for £3,000. The engine was dismantled and re-erected at Elders Shaft, Wallaroo Mines, where it operated until the mines went into voluntary liquidation in 1923. The stone was later used to construct the new Roman Catholic Church in Kadina and can still be seen today. Small scale mining resumed above the water level in the 1930s but no significant production has been recorded. The mine has remained abandoned to the present day.

It should be noted that this is one of the very few mines in the district where malachite occurred in significant quantities. Brown, 1908, records that a beautiful specimen of grey ore(chalcocite) and green carbonate (malachite)was sent for public exhibition. Austin, 1862 mentions that "a large block of ore, said to weigh nearly 5 tons, was sent to the international exhibition of 1862"(held in London, England). The two accounts may be referring to one and the same specimen. The fate of the specimen(s) remain unknown. Austin also noted the lodes contained muriate of copper (atacamite) and pieces of native copper. It is likely that the large atacamite crystals were recovered sometime around this period of 1862 -1867 and probably from a single pocket or series of pockets. It is difficult to say how many specimens were recovered but many went to museums across the world. It was unfortunate that many of these specimens were wrongly labled as coming from the Burra copper Mine about 100 km away, but this is now known to be incorrect.

Some reasonable specimens of atacamite have been collected from the dumps over the years, some up to 10 mm in length, but typically 1-3 mm crystals often with malachite crystals were found. These make excellent micromounts. The New Cornwall matrix is fairly distinctive. The atacamite often occuring in vughs with clear quartz crystals, or in a soft yellow brown limonitic matrix or grey siltstone material. There are some specimens around labeled from the New Cornwall mine but are often in fact from the Mount Gunson copper mine, which can have a similar looking limonitic/goethite matrix.

During the 1970s & 1980s the owner of the mine operated a small scale piggery and was very amenable to collecting there. In the mid 1990's the property was sold and the new owner preceded to fill in the pits and shafts with mine dump material and replant native vegetation on the site, unfortunately destroying items of historical interest and any chance of exploring the underground workings. In 1998 the Assemblies of God Church purchased the property and adjoining land where they have established their church building. The land is private property and permission to visit the mine must be obtained from the church.

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


11 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Anatase
Formula: TiO2
Reference: Uwe Kolitsch collection
Atacamite
Formula: Cu2(OH)3Cl
Reference: Palache, C., Berman, H., Frondel, C. (1951) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 72. Wilson, W.E. (2019) Atacamite from the New Cornwall mine, Kadina, South Australia. The Mineralogical Record 50(2), 169-199.
Azurite
Formula: Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Reference: Personal collection of Mark Willoughby
Chalcocite
Formula: Cu2S
Reference: Wilson, W.E. (2019) Atacamite from the New Cornwall mine, Kadina, South Australia. The Mineralogical Record 50(2), 169-199.
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Reference: Personal collection of Mark Willoughby. Wilson, W.E. (2019) Atacamite from the New Cornwall mine, Kadina, South Australia. The Mineralogical Record 50(2), 169-199.
Copper
Formula: Cu
Reference: Austin, J.B. (1863) The Mines of South Australia Including Also an Account of the Smelting Works in that Colony. Wilson, W.E. (2019) Atacamite from the New Cornwall mine, Kadina, South Australia. The Mineralogical Record 50(2), 169-199.
Gypsum
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Reference: Uwe Kolitsch collection (SEM-EDS-analysed)
Malachite
Formula: Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Reference: Personal collection of Mark Willoughby
Paratacamite
Formula: Cu3(Cu,Zn)(OH)6Cl2
Reference: Wilson, W.E. (2019) Atacamite from the New Cornwall mine, Kadina, South Australia. The Mineralogical Record 50(2), 169-199.
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Personal collection of Mark Willoughby
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Uwe Kolitsch collection

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Copper1.AA.05Cu
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Chalcocite2.BA.05Cu2S
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Group 3 - Halides
Atacamite3.DA.10aCu2(OH)3Cl
Paratacamite3.DA.10cCu3(Cu,Zn)(OH)6Cl2
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Anatase4.DD.05TiO2
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Azurite5.BA.05Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Malachite5.BA.10Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Gypsum7.CD.40CaSO4 · 2H2O

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Copper1.1.1.3Cu
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:1
Chalcocite2.4.7.1Cu2S
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
AX2
Anatase4.4.4.1TiO2
Group 10 - OXYHALIDES AND HYDROXYHALIDES
A2(O,OH)3Xq
Atacamite10.1.1.1Cu2(OH)3Cl
Paratacamite10.1.2.1Cu3(Cu,Zn)(OH)6Cl2
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Azurite16a.2.1.1Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Malachite16a.3.1.1Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4·xH2O
Gypsum29.6.3.1CaSO4 · 2H2O
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
H AtacamiteCu2(OH)3Cl
H MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
H AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
H ParatacamiteCu3(Cu,Zn)(OH)6Cl2
CCarbon
C MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
C AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
OOxygen
O GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
O AnataseTiO2
O AtacamiteCu2(OH)3Cl
O QuartzSiO2
O MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
O AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
O ParatacamiteCu3(Cu,Zn)(OH)6Cl2
SiSilicon
Si QuartzSiO2
SSulfur
S GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
S PyriteFeS2
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S ChalcociteCu2S
ClChlorine
Cl AtacamiteCu2(OH)3Cl
Cl ParatacamiteCu3(Cu,Zn)(OH)6Cl2
CaCalcium
Ca GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
TiTitanium
Ti AnataseTiO2
FeIron
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
CuCopper
Cu AtacamiteCu2(OH)3Cl
Cu MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
Cu AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Cu CopperCu
Cu ChalcociteCu2S
Cu ParatacamiteCu3(Cu,Zn)(OH)6Cl2
ZnZinc
Zn ParatacamiteCu3(Cu,Zn)(OH)6Cl2

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Austin, J.B. (1863) The Mines of South Australia Including Also an Account of the Smelting Works in that Colony.
Brown, H.Y.L. (1908) Record of The Mines of South Australia, 4th ed., Government Printer, Adelaide.
Dana 7:II:72.
Whyalla SI53-8/Wallaroo, Record of mines - Summary card No:72.
Department of Mines and Energy South Australia (1987) South Australia's Mining heritage, Special publication No. 7, D.J Woolman, government printer, Adelaide.
Wilson, W.E. (2019) Atacamite from the New Cornwall mine, Kadina, South Australia. The Mineralogical Record 50(2), 169-199.

Other Regions, Features and Areas containing this locality

Australia
Australian PlateTectonic Plate

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