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Schmalgraf Mine, Kelmis (La Calamine), Plombières-Vieille Montagne-Moresnet (Plombières-Altenberg-Moresnet) mining district, Verviers, Liège Province, Belgium

This page kindly sponsored by François Wouters
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 50° 41' 50'' North , 5° 59' 12'' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 50.69736,5.98682
Köppen climate type:Cfb : Temperate oceanic climate
Other/historical region names associated with this locality:Comborn, Driesschacht, Klousterschacht

The lead-zinc deposit of Schmalgraf, the deepest Belgian metallic mine (290m deep), was discovered in 1858 at the "Klousterschacht". It is situated at about 2,500m SW of the Altenberg mine (La Calamine), below the dump pits of ancient working.

The exploration started in 1867, after the digging of a horizontal drainage adit (Oskar-Stollen) of 500m long between the ore deposit (at a depth of 42m) and the valley of the river "Hohnbach".

From the -42m level, the ores were transported through the Oskar-Stollen directly to the wash plant of the Vieille-Montagne zinc factory of the Altenberg mine. This transport was done by means of a narrow-gauge train on the banks of the river Hohnbach.
The mine was closed in 1932 due to mining problems in depth and a depressed overall economic situation.

The mine had two main shafts, a transport- and a pump shaft to the -132m level.
Additionally, there were 3 shafts side by side (260m west from the first) for transport, pumping, and cables and 2 ventilation shafts. The first of these ventilation shafts went down to the -132m level and the second one went all the way down to the -290m level with a built-in ventilator at level -42m.
Most important was the one horizontal adit at -42m (Oskar Stollen) for the evacuation of the ore.

The mine had several levels: -42m, -92m, -132m, -155m, -210m, -255m and -290m.

Above ground, 30 people were occupied, 120 miners worked underground.

Total production between 1867 and 1 May 1932:
22,641 tonnes of calamine, 333,654 tonnes of schalenblende, 21,188 tonnes of galena and 29,295 tonnes of pyrite.

Mineral List

10 valid minerals.

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on

298.9 - 358.9 Ma

ID: 3152767
Carboniferous limestone

Age: Carboniferous (298.9 - 358.9 Ma)

Lithology: Major:{limestone}, Minor{dolomite/dolostone,coal,claystone}

Reference: Asch, K. The 1:5M International Geological Map of Europe and Adjacent Areas: Development and Implementation of a GIS-enabled Concept. Geologisches Jahrbuch, SA 3. [147]

315 - 330.9 Ma

ID: 2619233

Age: Carboniferous (315 - 330.9 Ma)

Lithology: Mudstone, sandstone, conglomerate, coal seams

Reference: Toloczyki, M., P. Trurnit, A. Voges, H. Wittekindt, A. Zitzmann. Geological Map of Germany 1:M. Bundesanstalt für Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe. [94]

358.9 - 419.2 Ma

ID: 3186341
Paleozoic sedimentary rocks

Age: Devonian (358.9 - 419.2 Ma)

Lithology: Sedimentary rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Data and map coding provided by, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

This page contains all mineral locality references listed on This does not claim to be a complete list. If you know of more minerals from this site, please register so you can add to our database. This locality information is for reference purposes only. You should never attempt to visit any sites listed in without first ensuring that you have the permission of the land and/or mineral rights holders for access and that you are aware of all safety precautions necessary.


Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Herbst, F. (1910) Der technische Betrieb des Erzbergbaus – Der Bergbau auf der linken Seite des Niederrheins II.
Holzapfel, E. (1910) Die Geologie des Nordabfalls der Eifel mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der Gegend von Aachen – Der Bergbau auf der linken Seite des Niederrheins I.
Klockmann, F. (1910) Die Erzlagerstätten der Gegend von Aachen - Der Bergbau auf der linken Seite des Niederrheins II.
Verbags, Franz (1974) Aus der jüngsten Geschichte des Altenberger Grubenfeldes (Fortsetzung) Die Grube "Schmalgraf". Im Göhltal. - Neu-Moresnet: Vereinigung für Kultur, Heimatkunde und Geschichte im Göhltal, 1967(1)-2005, 15, 4-14.
de Ruiter, Dr. G. (1980) Die ehemaligen Zinkgruben des Altenberger Grubenfeldes der Gesellschaft der Vieille Montagne. Im Göhltal, Zeitschrift der Vereinigung für Kultur, Heimatkunde und Geschichte im Göhltal, 27, 1-15.
Dejonghe, L. and Ladeuze, F. (1994) Schmalgraf: un gisement plombo-zincifère dans le calcaire carbonifère de l'est de la Belgique. Bulletin de la Société belge de Géologie, t. 103 (1-2), 135-147.

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