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Schmalgraf Mine, Kelmis (La Calamine), Plombières-Vieille Montagne-Moresnet mining district (Plombières-Altenberg-Moresnet mining district), Liège, Wallonia, Belgiumi
Regional Level Types
Schmalgraf MineMine (Abandoned)
Kelmis (La Calamine)Municipality
Plombières-Vieille Montagne-Moresnet mining district (Plombières-Altenberg-Moresnet mining district)Mining District
LiègeProvince
WalloniaRegion
BelgiumCountry

This page kindly sponsored by François Wouters
Key
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
50° 41' 50'' North , 5° 59' 12'' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal):
Locality type:
Mine (Abandoned) - last checked 2019
Deposit first discovered:
1858
Age:
358.9 ± 0.4 to 298.9 ± 0.15 Ma
Geologic Time:
Köppen climate type:
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Lontzen4,862 (2011)2.3km
La Calamine10,232 (2011)2.9km
Welkenraedt9,006 (2012)4.3km
Plombières9,596 (2011)4.8km
Wolfhaag125 (2017)6.9km
Other/historical names associated with this locality:
Comborn, Driesschacht, Klousterschacht


The lead-zinc deposit of Schmalgraf, the deepest Belgian metallic mine (290m deep), was discovered in 1858 at the "Klousterschacht". It's situated at about 2,500m SW of the Altenberg mine (La Calamine), below the dump pits of ancient working.



The exploration started in 1867, after the digging of a horizontal drainage adit (Oskarstollen) of 500m long between the ore deposit (at a depth of 42m) and the valley of the river "Hohnbach".



From the -42m level, the ores were transported through the Oskarstollen directly to the wash plant of the Vieille Montagne zinc factory of the Altenberg mine. This transport was done by means of a narrow-gauge train on the banks of the river Hohnbach.
The mine was closed in 1932 due to mining problems in depth and a depressed overall economic situation.



The mine had two main shafts, a transport- and a pump shaft to the -132m level.
Additionally, there were 3 shafts side by side (260m west from the first) for transport, pumping, and cables and 2 ventilation shafts. The first of these ventilation shafts went down to the -132m level and the second one went all the way down to the -290m level with a built-in ventilator at level -42m.
Most important was the one horizontal adit at -42m (Oskarstollen) for the evacuation of the ore.



The mine had several levels: -42m, -92m, -132m, -155m, -210m, -255m and -290m.

Above ground, 30 people were occupied, 120 miners worked underground.

Total production between 1867 and 1 May 1932:
22,641 tonnes of calamine, 333,654 tonnes of schalenblende, 21,188 tonnes of galena and 29,295 tonnes of pyrite.

1903-1905 An underground connection to the Eschbroich mine was excavated at -132 m.

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Gallery Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Commodity List

This is a list of exploitable or exploited mineral commodities recorded at this locality.


Mineral List


11 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Paul De Bondt.
Cerussite
Formula: PbCO3
Reference: Hatert, F., Deliens, M., Fransolet, A.-M., Van Der Meersche, E. (2002) Les minéraux de Belgique. 2ème édition, Muséum des Sciences Naturelles, Bruxelles, Belgium, 304 pages (in French).
Dolomite
Formula: CaMg(CO3)2
Reference: Paul De Bondt
Galena
Formula: PbS
Reference: Schulz, W., (1886) Führer des Berg- und Hütteningenieurs durch die Umgegend von Aachen. Georgi, Aachen.; Buttgenbach, H. (1921) Description des éléments, des sulfures, chlorures, fluorures et des oxydes des métaux du sol belge. Mémoires de l'Académie royale de Belgique, in 8°, 2e série, 6, 67 pages.; Hatert, F., Deliens, M., Fransolet, A.-M., Van Der Meersche, E. (2002) Les minéraux de Belgique. 2ème édition, Muséum des Sciences Naturelles, Bruxelles, Belgium, 304 pages (in French).
Gypsum
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Habit: Usually as grains but sometimes typical crystals occur sticked to schalenblende.
Colour: Transparent to white
Description: Some schalenblende specimes, found on the dump, have some small gypsum crystals growing on them. The most I found where on light beige schalenblende specimens and where found quite deep in the dump where the rocks where almost dry.
Reference: Paul De Bondt collection
'Limonite'
Formula: (Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Reference: Paul De Bondt collection
Marcasite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: C. & H. Schäfer collection.; Hatert, F., Deliens, M., Fransolet, A.-M., Van Der Meersche, E. (2002) Les minéraux de Belgique. 2ème édition, Muséum des Sciences Naturelles, Bruxelles, Belgium, 304 pages (in French).
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Paul De Bondt collection
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Paul De Bondt
Smithsonite
Formula: ZnCO3
Reference: C. & H. Schäfer collection.; Palache, C., Berman, H., Frondel, C. (1951) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 179.; Hatert, F., Deliens, M., Fransolet, A.-M., Van Der Meersche, E. (2002) Les minéraux de Belgique. 2ème édition, Muséum des Sciences Naturelles, Bruxelles, Belgium, 304 pages (in French).
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Reference: Schulz, W. (1886) Führer des Berg- und Hütteningenieurs durch die Umgegend von Aachen, Georgi, Aachen.; Hatert, F., Deliens, M., Fransolet, A.-M., Van Der Meersche, E. (2002) Les minéraux de Belgique. 2ème édition, Muséum des Sciences Naturelles, Bruxelles, Belgium, 304 pages (in French).
Sphalerite var:
Reference: Paul De Bondt
'Strickblende'
Formula: PbS
Habit: Knitted galena forms pine tree-like aggregates imbedded in schalenblende
Colour: Silver grey
Reference: C.H.M.-Schäfer, Paul de Bondt and other collections
Willemite
Formula: Zn2SiO4
Reference: Daltry, Vaughn & Deliens, Michel (1994) The Type Mineralogy of Belgium . Annals of the Belgium Geological Society 116:15-28

Gallery:

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Galena2.CD.10PbS
Marcasite2.EB.10aFeS2
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
var: Schalenblende2.CB.05aZnS
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Cerussite5.AB.15PbCO3
Dolomite5.AB.10CaMg(CO3)2
Smithsonite5.AB.05ZnCO3
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Gypsum7.CD.40CaSO4 · 2H2O
Group 9 - Silicates
Willemite9.AA.05Zn2SiO4
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
'Strickblende'-PbS

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Marcasite2.12.2.1FeS2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Cerussite14.1.3.4PbCO3
Smithsonite14.1.1.6ZnCO3
AB(XO3)2
Dolomite14.2.1.1CaMg(CO3)2
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4·xH2O
Gypsum29.6.3.1CaSO4 · 2H2O
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in [4] coordination
Willemite51.1.1.2Zn2SiO4
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Sphalerite
var: Schalenblende
-ZnS
'Strickblende'-PbS

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
H GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
CCarbon
C SmithsoniteZnCO3
C DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
C CalciteCaCO3
C CerussitePbCO3
OOxygen
O SmithsoniteZnCO3
O DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
O QuartzSiO2
O CalciteCaCO3
O WillemiteZn2SiO4
O Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
O GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
O CerussitePbCO3
MgMagnesium
Mg DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
SiSilicon
Si QuartzSiO2
Si WillemiteZn2SiO4
SSulfur
S StrickblendePbS
S GalenaPbS
S SphaleriteZnS
S MarcasiteFeS2
S PyriteFeS2
S GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
CaCalcium
Ca DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
FeIron
Fe MarcasiteFeS2
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
ZnZinc
Zn SphaleriteZnS
Zn SmithsoniteZnCO3
Zn WillemiteZn2SiO4
PbLead
Pb StrickblendePbS
Pb GalenaPbS
Pb CerussitePbCO3

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Schulz, W. (1886) Führer des Berg- und Hütteningenieurs durch die Umgegend von Aachen, Georgi, Aachen.
Herbst, F. (1910) Der technische Betrieb des Erzbergbaus – Der Bergbau auf der linken Seite des Niederrheins II.
Holzapfel, E. (1910) Die Geologie des Nordabfalls der Eifel mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der Gegend von Aachen – Der Bergbau auf der linken Seite des Niederrheins I.
Klockmann, F. (1910) Die Erzlagerstätten der Gegend von Aachen - Der Bergbau auf der linken Seite des Niederrheins II.
Buttgenbach, H. (1921) Description des éléments, des sulfures, chlorures, fluorures et des oxydes des métaux du sol belge. Mémoires de l'Académie royale de Belgique, in 8°, 2e série, 6, 67 pages.
Uebags, Franz (1974) Aus der jüngsten Geschichte des Altenberger Grubenfeldes (Fortsetzung) Die Grube "Schmalgraf". Im Göhltal. - Neu-Moresnet: Vereinigung für Kultur, Heimatkunde und Geschichte im Göhltal, 1967(1)-2005, 15, 4-14.
de Ruiter, Dr. G. (1980) Die ehemaligen Zinkgruben des Altenberger Grubenfeldes der Gesellschaft der Vieille Montagne. Im Göhltal, Zeitschrift der Vereinigung für Kultur, Heimatkunde und Geschichte im Göhltal, 27, 1-15.
Dejonghe, L., Ladeuze, F. (1994) Schmalgraf: un gisement plombo-zincifère dans le calcaire carbonifère de l'est de la Belgique. Bulletin de la Société belge de Géologie, 103 (1-2), 135-147.
Hatert, F., Deliens, M., Fransolet, A.-M., Van Der Meersche, E. (2002) Les minéraux de Belgique. 2ème édition, Muséum des Sciences Naturelles, Bruxelles, Belgium, 304 pages (in French).

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