ALMOST THERE!. Help us with a final push needed to keep mindat.org running. Click here to help.
Catawiki are hosting a mindat.org benefit auction. All proceeds to mindat.org! BID NOW
Log InRegister
Home PageAbout MindatThe Mindat ManualHistory of MindatCopyright StatusWho We AreContact UsAdvertise on Mindat
Donate to MindatCorporate SponsorshipSponsor a PageSponsored PagesMindat AdvertisersAdvertise on Mindat
Learning CenterWhat is a mineral?The most common minerals on earthInformation for EducatorsMindat Articles
Minerals by PropertiesMinerals by ChemistryAdvanced Locality SearchRandom MineralRandom LocalitySearch by minIDLocalities Near MeSearch ArticlesSearch GlossaryMore Search Options
Search For:
Mineral Name:
Locality Name:
Keyword(s):
 
The Mindat ManualAdd a New PhotoRate PhotosLocality Edit ReportCoordinate Completion ReportAdd Glossary Item
Mining CompaniesStatisticsThe ElementsUsersBooks & MagazinesMineral MuseumsMineral Shows & EventsThe Mindat DirectoryDevice Settings
Photo SearchPhoto GalleriesNew Photos TodayNew Photos YesterdayMembers' Photo GalleriesPast Photo of the Day Gallery

Schmalgraf Mine, Kelmis (La Calamine), Plombières-Vieille Montagne-Moresnet (Plombières-Altenberg-Moresnet) mining district, Verviers, Liège, Wallonia, Belgiumi
Regional Level Types
Schmalgraf MineMine
Kelmis (La Calamine)- not defined -
Plombières-Vieille Montagne-Moresnet (Plombières-Altenberg-Moresnet) mining districtMining District
Verviers- not defined -
LiègeProvince
WalloniaRegion
BelgiumCountry

This page kindly sponsored by François Wouters
Key
Lock Map
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 50° 41' 50'' North , 5° 59' 12'' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 50.69736,5.98682
GeoHash:G#: u1h22jpmw
Locality type:Mine
Köppen climate type:Cfb : Temperate oceanic climate
Other/historical names associated with this locality:Comborn, Driesschacht, Klousterschacht


The lead-zinc deposit of Schmalgraf, the deepest Belgian metallic mine (290m deep), was discovered in 1858 at the "Klousterschacht". It is situated at about 2,500m SW of the Altenberg mine (La Calamine), below the dump pits of ancient working.

The exploration started in 1867, after the digging of a horizontal drainage adit (Oskar-Stollen) of 500m long between the ore deposit (at a depth of 42m) and the valley of the river "Hohnbach".


From the -42m level, the ores were transported through the Oskar-Stollen directly to the wash plant of the Vieille-Montagne zinc factory of the Altenberg mine. This transport was done by means of a narrow-gauge train on the banks of the river Hohnbach.
The mine was closed in 1932 due to mining problems in depth and a depressed overall economic situation.



The mine had two main shafts, a transport- and a pump shaft to the -132m level.
Additionally, there were 3 shafts side by side (260m west from the first) for transport, pumping, and cables and 2 ventilation shafts. The first of these ventilation shafts went down to the -132m level and the second one went all the way down to the -290m level with a built-in ventilator at level -42m.
Most important was the one horizontal adit at -42m (Oskar Stollen) for the evacuation of the ore.


The mine had several levels: -42m, -92m, -132m, -155m, -210m, -255m and -290m.

Above ground, 30 people were occupied, 120 miners worked underground.

Total production between 1867 and 1 May 1932:
22,641 tonnes of calamine, 333,654 tonnes of schalenblende, 21,188 tonnes of galena and 29,295 tonnes of pyrite.

Alternative Label Names

This is a list of additional names that have been recorded for mineral labels associated with this locality in the minID database. This may include previous versions of the locality name hierarchy from mindat.org, data entry errors, and it may also include unconfirmed sublocality names or other names that can only be matched to this level.

Schmalgraf Mine, Kelmis (La Calamine), Plombières-Vieille Montagne-Moresnet (Plombières-Altenberg-Moresnet) mining district, Verviers, Liège Province, Belgium

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Commodity List

This is a list of exploitable or exploited mineral commodities recorded at this locality.


Mineral List


10 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Paul De Bondt.
Dolomite
Formula: CaMg(CO3)2
Reference: Paul De Bondt
Galena
Formula: PbS
Reference: Schulz, W., (1886): Führer des Berg- und Hütteningenieurs durch die Umgegend von Aachen, Georgi, Aachen
Gypsum
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Habit: Usually as grains but sometimes typical crystals occur sticked to schalenblende.
Colour: Transparent to white
Description: Some schalenblende specimes, found on the dump, have some small gypsum crystals growing on them. The most I found where on light beige schalenblende specimens and where found quite deep in the dump where the rocks where almost dry.
Reference: Paul De Bondt collection
'commodity:Lead'
Formula: Pb
Reference:  
'Limonite'
Formula: (Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Reference: Paul De Bondt collection
Marcasite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: C.&H. Schäfer collection
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Paul De Bondt collection
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Paul De Bondt
Smithsonite
Formula: ZnCO3
Reference: Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 179; C.&H. Schäfer collection
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Reference: Schulz, W., (1886): Führer des Berg- und Hütteningenieurs durch die Umgegend von Aachen, Georgi, Aachen
Sphalerite var: Schalenblende
Reference: Paul De Bondt
'Strickblende'
Formula: PbS
Habit: Knitted galena forms pine tree-like aggregates imbedded in schalenblende
Colour: Silver grey
Reference: C.H.M.-Schäfer, Paul de Bondt and other collections
Willemite
Formula: Zn2SiO4
Reference: Daltry, Vaughn & Deliens, Michel (1994) The Type Mineralogy of Belgium . Annals of the Belgium Geological Society 116:15-28
'commodity:Zinc'
Formula: Zn
Reference:  

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
'Galena'2.CD.10PbS
'Marcasite'2.EB.10aFeS2
'Pyrite'2.EB.05aFeS2
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
var: Schalenblende2.CB.05aZnS
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
'Quartz'4.DA.05SiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
'Calcite'5.AB.05CaCO3
'Dolomite'5.AB.10CaMg(CO3)2
Smithsonite5.AB.05ZnCO3
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
'Gypsum'7.CD.40CaSO4 · 2H2O
Group 9 - Silicates
Willemite9.AA.05Zn2SiO4
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Strickblende-PbS

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Marcasite2.12.2.1FeS2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Smithsonite14.1.1.6ZnCO3
AB(XO3)2
Dolomite14.2.1.1CaMg(CO3)2
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4·xH2O
Gypsum29.6.3.1CaSO4 · 2H2O
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in [4] coordination
Willemite51.1.1.2Zn2SiO4
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Sphalerite
var: Schalenblende
-ZnS
'Strickblende'-PbS

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
H Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
CCarbon
C CalciteCaCO3
C DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
C SmithsoniteZnCO3
OOxygen
O CalciteCaCO3
O DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
O GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
O Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
O QuartzSiO2
O SmithsoniteZnCO3
O WillemiteZn2SiO4
MgMagnesium
Mg DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
SiSilicon
Si QuartzSiO2
Si WillemiteZn2SiO4
SSulfur
S GalenaPbS
S GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
S MarcasiteFeS2
S PyriteFeS2
S SphaleriteZnS
S StrickblendePbS
CaCalcium
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Ca GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
FeIron
Fe Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Fe MarcasiteFeS2
Fe PyriteFeS2
ZnZinc
Zn SmithsoniteZnCO3
Zn SphaleriteZnS
Zn WillemiteZn2SiO4
PbLead
Pb GalenaPbS
Pb StrickblendePbS

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Carboniferous
298.9 - 358.9 Ma



ID: 3152767
Carboniferous limestone

Age: Carboniferous (298.9 - 358.9 Ma)

Lithology: Major:{limestone}, Minor{dolomite/dolostone,coal,claystone}

Reference: Asch, K. The 1:5M International Geological Map of Europe and Adjacent Areas: Development and Implementation of a GIS-enabled Concept. Geologisches Jahrbuch, SA 3. [147]

Namurian
315 - 330.9 Ma



ID: 2619233

Age: Carboniferous (315 - 330.9 Ma)

Lithology: Mudstone, sandstone, conglomerate, coal seams

Reference: Toloczyki, M., P. Trurnit, A. Voges, H. Wittekindt, A. Zitzmann. Geological Map of Germany 1:M. Bundesanstalt für Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe. [94]

Devonian
358.9 - 419.2 Ma



ID: 3186341
Paleozoic sedimentary rocks

Age: Devonian (358.9 - 419.2 Ma)

Lithology: Sedimentary rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Herbst, F. (1910) Der technische Betrieb des Erzbergbaus – Der Bergbau auf der linken Seite des Niederrheins II.
Holzapfel, E. (1910) Die Geologie des Nordabfalls der Eifel mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der Gegend von Aachen – Der Bergbau auf der linken Seite des Niederrheins I.
Klockmann, F. (1910) Die Erzlagerstätten der Gegend von Aachen - Der Bergbau auf der linken Seite des Niederrheins II.
Uebags, Franz (1974) Aus der jüngsten Geschichte des Altenberger Grubenfeldes (Fortsetzung) Die Grube "Schmalgraf". Im Göhltal. - Neu-Moresnet: Vereinigung für Kultur, Heimatkunde und Geschichte im Göhltal, 1967(1)-2005, 15, 4-14.
de Ruiter, Dr. G. (1980) Die ehemaligen Zinkgruben des Altenberger Grubenfeldes der Gesellschaft der Vieille Montagne. Im Göhltal, Zeitschrift der Vereinigung für Kultur, Heimatkunde und Geschichte im Göhltal, 27, 1-15.
Dejonghe, L. and Ladeuze, F. (1994) Schmalgraf: un gisement plombo-zincifère dans le calcaire carbonifère de l'est de la Belgique. Bulletin de la Société belge de Géologie, t. 103 (1-2), 135-147.


This page contains all mineral locality references listed on mindat.org. This does not claim to be a complete list. If you know of more minerals from this site, please register so you can add to our database. This locality information is for reference purposes only. You should never attempt to visit any sites listed in mindat.org without first ensuring that you have the permission of the land and/or mineral rights holders for access and that you are aware of all safety precautions necessary.
Mineral and/or Locality  
Mindat.org is an outreach project of the Hudson Institute of Mineralogy, a 501(c)(3) not-for-profit organization.
Copyright © mindat.org and the Hudson Institute of Mineralogy 1993-2018, except where stated. Mindat.org relies on the contributions of thousands of members and supporters.
Privacy Policy - Terms & Conditions - Contact Us Current server date and time: December 10, 2018 20:03:38 Page generated: December 10, 2018 10:54:35
Go to top of page