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Schmalgraf Mine, Kelmis (La Calamine), Plombières-Vieille Montagne-Moresnet (Plombières-Altenberg-Moresnet) mining district, Verviers, Liège, Wallonia, Belgiumi
Regional Level Types
Schmalgraf MineMine
Kelmis (La Calamine)- not defined -
Plombières-Vieille Montagne-Moresnet (Plombières-Altenberg-Moresnet) mining districtMining District
Verviers- not defined -

This page kindly sponsored by François Wouters
Lock Map
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 50° 41' 50'' North , 5° 59' 12'' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 50.69736,5.98682
GeoHash:G#: u1h22jpmw
Locality type:Mine
Köppen climate type:Cfb : Temperate oceanic climate
Nearest Settlements:
Lontzen4,862 (2011)2.3km
La Calamine10,232 (2011)2.9km
Welkenraedt9,006 (2012)4.3km
Plombières9,596 (2011)4.8km
Wolfhaag125 (2017)6.9km
Other/historical names associated with this locality:Comborn, Driesschacht, Klousterschacht

The lead-zinc deposit of Schmalgraf, the deepest Belgian metallic mine (290m deep), was discovered in 1858 at the "Klousterschacht". It is situated at about 2,500m SW of the Altenberg mine (La Calamine), below the dump pits of ancient working.

The exploration started in 1867, after the digging of a horizontal drainage adit (Oskar-Stollen) of 500m long between the ore deposit (at a depth of 42m) and the valley of the river "Hohnbach".

From the -42m level, the ores were transported through the Oskar-Stollen directly to the wash plant of the Vieille-Montagne zinc factory of the Altenberg mine. This transport was done by means of a narrow-gauge train on the banks of the river Hohnbach.
The mine was closed in 1932 due to mining problems in depth and a depressed overall economic situation.

The mine had two main shafts, a transport- and a pump shaft to the -132m level.
Additionally, there were 3 shafts side by side (260m west from the first) for transport, pumping, and cables and 2 ventilation shafts. The first of these ventilation shafts went down to the -132m level and the second one went all the way down to the -290m level with a built-in ventilator at level -42m.
Most important was the one horizontal adit at -42m (Oskar Stollen) for the evacuation of the ore.

The mine had several levels: -42m, -92m, -132m, -155m, -210m, -255m and -290m.

Above ground, 30 people were occupied, 120 miners worked underground.

Total production between 1867 and 1 May 1932:
22,641 tonnes of calamine, 333,654 tonnes of schalenblende, 21,188 tonnes of galena and 29,295 tonnes of pyrite.

Regions containing this locality

Eurasian PlateTectonic Plate

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Commodity List

This is a list of exploitable or exploited mineral commodities recorded at this locality.

Mineral List

10 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Paul De Bondt.
Formula: CaMg(CO3)2
Reference: Paul De Bondt
Formula: PbS
Reference: Schulz, W., (1886): Führer des Berg- und Hütteningenieurs durch die Umgegend von Aachen, Georgi, Aachen
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Habit: Usually as grains but sometimes typical crystals occur sticked to schalenblende.
Colour: Transparent to white
Description: Some schalenblende specimes, found on the dump, have some small gypsum crystals growing on them. The most I found where on light beige schalenblende specimens and where found quite deep in the dump where the rocks where almost dry.
Reference: Paul De Bondt collection
Formula: (Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Reference: Paul De Bondt collection
Formula: FeS2
Reference: C.&H. Schäfer collection
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Paul De Bondt collection
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Paul De Bondt
Formula: ZnCO3
Reference: Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 179; C.&H. Schäfer collection
Formula: ZnS
Reference: Schulz, W., (1886): Führer des Berg- und Hütteningenieurs durch die Umgegend von Aachen, Georgi, Aachen
Sphalerite var: Schalenblende
Reference: Paul De Bondt
Formula: PbS
Habit: Knitted galena forms pine tree-like aggregates imbedded in schalenblende
Colour: Silver grey
Reference: C.H.M.-Schäfer, Paul de Bondt and other collections
Formula: Zn2SiO4
Reference: Daltry, Vaughn & Deliens, Michel (1994) The Type Mineralogy of Belgium . Annals of the Belgium Geological Society 116:15-28

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
var: Schalenblende2.CB.05aZnS
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Gypsum7.CD.40CaSO4 · 2H2O
Group 9 - Silicates
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Gypsum29.6.3.1CaSO4 · 2H2O
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in [4] coordination
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
var: Schalenblende

List of minerals for each chemical element

H Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
H GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
C SmithsoniteZnCO3
C DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
C CalciteCaCO3
O SmithsoniteZnCO3
O DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
O QuartzSiO2
O CalciteCaCO3
O WillemiteZn2SiO4
O Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
O GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
Mg DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Si QuartzSiO2
Si WillemiteZn2SiO4
S StrickblendePbS
S GalenaPbS
S SphaleriteZnS
S MarcasiteFeS2
S PyriteFeS2
S GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
Ca DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
Fe MarcasiteFeS2
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Zn SphaleriteZnS
Zn SmithsoniteZnCO3
Zn WillemiteZn2SiO4
Pb StrickblendePbS
Pb GalenaPbS

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

298.9 - 358.9 Ma

ID: 3152767
Carboniferous limestone

Age: Carboniferous (298.9 - 358.9 Ma)

Lithology: Major:{limestone}, Minor{dolomite/dolostone,coal,claystone}

Reference: Asch, K. The 1:5M International Geological Map of Europe and Adjacent Areas: Development and Implementation of a GIS-enabled Concept. Geologisches Jahrbuch, SA 3. [147]

315 - 330.9 Ma

ID: 2619233

Age: Carboniferous (315 - 330.9 Ma)

Lithology: Mudstone, sandstone, conglomerate, coal seams

Reference: Toloczyki, M., P. Trurnit, A. Voges, H. Wittekindt, A. Zitzmann. Geological Map of Germany 1:M. Bundesanstalt für Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe. [94]

358.9 - 419.2 Ma

ID: 3186341
Paleozoic sedimentary rocks

Age: Devonian (358.9 - 419.2 Ma)

Lithology: Sedimentary rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License


Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Herbst, F. (1910) Der technische Betrieb des Erzbergbaus – Der Bergbau auf der linken Seite des Niederrheins II.
Holzapfel, E. (1910) Die Geologie des Nordabfalls der Eifel mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der Gegend von Aachen – Der Bergbau auf der linken Seite des Niederrheins I.
Klockmann, F. (1910) Die Erzlagerstätten der Gegend von Aachen - Der Bergbau auf der linken Seite des Niederrheins II.
Uebags, Franz (1974) Aus der jüngsten Geschichte des Altenberger Grubenfeldes (Fortsetzung) Die Grube "Schmalgraf". Im Göhltal. - Neu-Moresnet: Vereinigung für Kultur, Heimatkunde und Geschichte im Göhltal, 1967(1)-2005, 15, 4-14.
de Ruiter, Dr. G. (1980) Die ehemaligen Zinkgruben des Altenberger Grubenfeldes der Gesellschaft der Vieille Montagne. Im Göhltal, Zeitschrift der Vereinigung für Kultur, Heimatkunde und Geschichte im Göhltal, 27, 1-15.
Dejonghe, L. and Ladeuze, F. (1994) Schmalgraf: un gisement plombo-zincifère dans le calcaire carbonifère de l'est de la Belgique. Bulletin de la Société belge de Géologie, t. 103 (1-2), 135-147.

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