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Juno Mine ('Peko'; Explorer 8), Tennant Creek, Barkly Region, Northern Territory, Australiai
Regional Level Types
Juno Mine ('Peko'; Explorer 8)Mine
Tennant CreekCreek
Barkly RegionRegion
Northern TerritoryTerritory
AustraliaCountry

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 19° 42' 8'' South , 134° 14' 41'' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): -19.70235,134.24493
GeoHash:G#: qurryv61m
Locality type:Mine
Köppen climate type:BWh : Hot deserts climate


A major gold-copper-bismuth mine closed during November, 1981.
Owned by Gecko. Hosted by ironstones.

The mine hosts three type locality species, being junoite, pekoite, and proudite. Location wise, the first two are uncommon, and the proudite is rare. The species belong to lead and bismuth seleniferous sulphosalts, rarely found in sulphide deposits, and in the past often poorly defined as individual species.

Specimens will often be labelled Juno Mine (Peko) however, it should be noted that Juno and Peko are separate mines, about 2 kilometres apart. The Pekoite species type locality is the Juno mine, it is assumed the name comes from the company (Peko-Wallsend) that mined both deposits. In turn, 'Peko' for the original deposit, is named after a dog.

The original sources describing the type locality material, obtained samples for the mine from outside collections, so shed little light of where the species fit into the overall geology of the mine.

When operational, Juno was the highest grade gold mine in Australia. The Juno lode is vertically zoned with magnetite (80%) and chlorite (20%) forming its core, enclosed by talc-magnetite and minor pyrite, then a thin dolomite zone, and finally chloritised country rock. Gold is concentrated in the core, surrounded by an umbrella shaped bismuth sulphosalt zone, formed by hydrothermal processes at low temperatures. Bismuthinite is concentrated in the basal part of the sulphosalt zone, with chalcopyrite more prevalent in the upper parts. The whole deposit is part of an anticline.

Proudite is named after John S. Proud (1907-1997), a director of the Peko-Wallsend Mining Company. It was initially mis-identified as wittite, due to the rarity of the species, and poorly defined chemical studies on it. Shortly after it was proved to be a new species, and named proudite. It contains 6.5-15.3% Se. The specimen studied came from the University of New England collection. Pekoite is composed of two slabs of bismuthinite and one of krupkaite as ribbons alternating along the B axis as a three fold superstructure. Junoite is up to 11.4% Se.

The deposit before the mine was created was called Explorer 8. Three drill holes had produced negative results in 1954, from what was otherwise a very promising magnetic anomaly. John Elliston purchased the lease for 50 pounds, and continued drilling uncovering the rich but small deposit in 1965. Production commenced in 1968, achieving 838 941 ounces of gold from 346 235 tonnes of ore at 73 g/t, with minor bismuth, silver, and selenium. Peko-Wallsend (Geopeko) operated the mine, along with several rich mines in the area at the time. Ted Davies was area manager, known as Terrible Ted, for terrorising younger less experienced staff.

The underground mine contained a head frame, small processing plant, a few demountable buildings and nearby caravan park for workers. The mine closed in 1981. Several exploration companies have conducted near surface drilling to examine the potential of an open cut mine. The mine site is about 2 kilometres south-west of the Peko mine, or 8 kilometres south-east of Tennant Creek. Little appears to remain at the site apart from some cleared areas and building foundations. The former workman's camp on the road into the mine, is now a public camp site.


Regions containing this locality

North Australian Element, Australia

Craton - 764 mineral species & varietal names listed

Kalkarindji Igneous Province, Northern Territory, Australia

Geologic Province - 500 mineral species & varietal names listed

Warramunga Province, Northern Territory, Australia

Geologic Province - 165 mineral species & varietal names listed

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


24 valid minerals. 3 (TL) - type locality of valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Aikinite
Formula: PbCuBiS3
Reference: Econ Geol (1997) 92:468-484
Bismuth
Formula: Bi
Reference: Mumme, W. G. (1975) Junoite, Cu2Pb3Bi8(S,Se)16, a new sulphosalt from Tennant Creek, Australia: its crystal structure and relationship with other bismuth sulphosalts. American Mineralogist 60, pages 548-55.
Bismuthinite
Formula: Bi2S3
Reference: Econ Geol (1997) 92:468-484. Skirrow, R. G. (2000) Gold-copper-bismuth deposits of the Tennant Creek district, Australia: A reappraisal of diverse high-grade systems. Hydrothermal iron oxide copper–gold and related deposits: a global perspective. AMF, 149-160. Mumme, W. G. (1975) Junoite, Cu2Pb3Bi8(S,Se)16, a new sulphosalt from Tennant Creek, Australia: its crystal structure and relationship with other bismuth sulphosalts. American Mineralogist 60, pages 548-55.
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Steve Sorrell Collection
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Reference: Large, R. R. (1975). Zonation of hydrothermal minerals at the Juno mine, Tennant Creek goldfield, central Australia. Economic Geology, 70(8), 1387-1413. Skirrow, R. G. (2000) Gold-copper-bismuth deposits of the Tennant Creek district, Australia: A reappraisal of diverse high-grade systems. Hydrothermal iron oxide copper–gold and related deposits: a global perspective. AMF, 149-160.
'Chlorite Group'
Reference: Large, R. R. (1975) Zonation of hydrothermal minerals at the Juno mine, Tennant Creek goldfield, central Australia. Economic Geology, 70(8), 1387-1413.
Dolomite
Formula: CaMg(CO3)2
Reference: Large R., Economic Geology; December 1975; v. 70; no. 8. Mumme, W. G. (1975) Junoite, Cu2Pb3Bi8(S,Se)16, a new sulphosalt from Tennant Creek, Australia: its crystal structure and relationship with other bismuth sulphosalts. American Mineralogist 60, pages 548-55.
Emplectite
Formula: CuBiS2
Reference: No reference listed
Gladite
Formula: PbCuBi5S9
Reference: No reference listed
Gold
Formula: Au
Reference: Econ Geol (1997) 92:468-484
Guanajuatite
Formula: Bi2Se3
Reference: Econ Geol (1997) 92:468-484
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Reference: Steve Sorrell Collection. Skirrow, R. G. (2000) Gold-copper-bismuth deposits of the Tennant Creek district, Australia: A reappraisal of diverse high-grade systems. Hydrothermal iron oxide copper–gold and related deposits: a global perspective. AMF, 149-160.
Heyrovskýite
Formula: Pb6Bi2S9
Description: Selenian variety.
Reference: Econ Geol (1997) 92:468-484
Junoite (TL)
Formula: Cu2Pb3Bi8(S,Se)16
Type Locality:
Reference: AM 60 (1975), 548; HB1 (1990). Econ Geol (1997) 92:468-484. Mumme, W. G. (1975) Junoite, Cu2Pb3Bi8(S,Se)16, a new sulphosalt from Tennant Creek, Australia: its crystal structure and relationship with other bismuth sulphosalts. American Mineralogist 60, pages 548-55.
Krupkaite
Formula: PbCuBi3S6
Reference: Mumme, W. G. (1975) The crystal structure of krupkaite, CuPbBi3S6, from the Juno Mine at Tennant Creek, Northern Territory, Australia. American Mineralogist 60, pages 300-308.
Magnetite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Reference: Large, R. R. (1975) Zonation of hydrothermal minerals at the Juno mine, Tennant Creek goldfield, central Australia. Economic Geology, 70(8), 1387-1413. Mumme, W. G. (1975) Junoite, Cu2Pb3Bi8(S,Se)16, a new sulphosalt from Tennant Creek, Australia: its crystal structure and relationship with other bismuth sulphosalts. American Mineralogist 60, pages 548-55.
Matildite
Formula: AgBiS2
Reference: Mumme, W. G. (1975) Junoite, Cu2Pb3Bi8(S,Se)16, a new sulphosalt from Tennant Creek, Australia: its crystal structure and relationship with other bismuth sulphosalts. American Mineralogist 60, pages 548-55.
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Skirrow, R. G. (2000) Gold-copper-bismuth deposits of the Tennant Creek district, Australia: A reappraisal of diverse high-grade systems. Hydrothermal iron oxide copper–gold and related deposits: a global perspective. AMF, 149-160.
Pekoite (TL)
Formula: PbCuBi11(S,Se)18
Type Locality:
Reference: AM 1976, 15-20. Mumme, W.G., Watts, J.A. (1976) Pekoite, CuPbBi11S18, A New Member of the Bismuthinite-Aikinite Mineral Series: Its crystal structure and relationship with naturally -and synthetically-formed members, Canadian Mineralogist, Vol 14, pages 322-333, 1976. 
Proudite (TL)
Formula: CuPb7.5Bi9.33(S,Se)22
Type Locality:
Reference: Economic Geology 70 (1975), 369. HB1 (1990). AM 1976, 839-52. Mumme, W.G. (1976) Proudite from Tennant Creek, Northern Territory, Australia: its crystal structure and relationship with weibullite and wittite. American Mineralogist, Vol. 61, pages 839-852.
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Large, R. R. (1975) Zonation of hydrothermal minerals at the Juno mine, Tennant Creek goldfield, central Australia. Economic Geology, 70(8), 1387-1413.
Pyrrhotite
Formula: Fe7S8
Reference: Skirrow, R. G. (2000). Gold-copper-bismuth deposits of the Tennant Creek district, Australia: A reappraisal of diverse high-grade systems. Hydrothermal iron oxide copper–gold and related deposits: a global perspective. AMF, 149-160.
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Skirrow, R. G. (2000) Gold-copper-bismuth deposits of the Tennant Creek district, Australia: A reappraisal of diverse high-grade systems. Hydrothermal iron oxide copper–gold and related deposits: a global perspective. AMF, 149-160.
Talc
Formula: Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
Reference: Large, R. R. (1975) Zonation of hydrothermal minerals at the Juno mine, Tennant Creek goldfield, central Australia. Economic Geology, 70(8), 1387-1413.
Wittite
Formula: Pb9Bi12(S,Se)27
Reference: Econ Geol (1997) 92:468-484

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
'Bismuth'1.CA.05Bi
'Gold'1.AA.05Au
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
'Aikinite'2.HB.05aPbCuBiS3
'Bismuthinite'2.DB.05Bi2S3
'Chalcopyrite'2.CB.10aCuFeS2
'Emplectite'2.HA.05CuBiS2
'Gladite'2.HB.05aPbCuBi5S9
'Guanajuatite'2.DB.05Bi2Se3
'Heyrovskýite'2.JB.40bPb6Bi2S9
'Junoite' (TL)2.JB.25aCu2Pb3Bi8(S,Se)16
'Krupkaite'2.HB.05aPbCuBi3S6
'Matildite'2.JA.20AgBiS2
'Pekoite' (TL)2.HB.05aPbCuBi11(S,Se)18
'Proudite' (TL)2.JB.25dCuPb7.5Bi9.33(S,Se)22
'Pyrite'2.EB.05aFeS2
'Pyrrhotite'2.CC.10Fe7S8
'Wittite'2.JB.20Pb9Bi12(S,Se)27
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
'Hematite'4.CB.05Fe2O3
'Magnetite'4.BB.05Fe2+Fe3+2O4
'Quartz'4.DA.05SiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
'Calcite'5.AB.05CaCO3
'Dolomite'5.AB.10CaMg(CO3)2
Group 9 - Silicates
'Muscovite'9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
'Talc'9.EC.05Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Chlorite Group'-

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Gold1.1.1.1Au
Semi-metals and non-metals
Bismuth1.3.1.4Bi
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Pyrrhotite2.8.10.1Fe7S8
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:3
Bismuthinite2.11.2.3Bi2S3
Guanajuatite2.11.2.4Bi2Se3
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 3 - SULFOSALTS
3 <ø < 4
Heyrovskýite3.3.3.1Pb6Bi2S9
ø = 3
Aikinite3.4.5.1PbCuBiS3
Gladite3.4.5.3PbCuBi5S9
Krupkaite3.4.5.2PbCuBi3S6
Pekoite (TL)3.4.5.6PbCuBi11(S,Se)18
2 < ø < 2.49
Proudite (TL)3.6.1.1CuPb7.5Bi9.33(S,Se)22
Wittite3.6.5.2Pb9Bi12(S,Se)27
ø = 2
Emplectite3.7.5.2CuBiS2
Junoite (TL)3.7.14.1Cu2Pb3Bi8(S,Se)16
Matildite3.7.1.1AgBiS2
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X3
Hematite4.3.1.2Fe2O3
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB2X4
Magnetite7.2.2.3Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
AB(XO3)2
Dolomite14.2.1.1CaMg(CO3)2
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Talc71.2.1.3Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Chlorite Group'-

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
CCarbon
C CalciteCaCO3
C DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
OOxygen
O CalciteCaCO3
O DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
O HematiteFe2O3
O MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O QuartzSiO2
O TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
MgMagnesium
Mg DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Mg TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
AlAluminium
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
SiSilicon
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si QuartzSiO2
Si TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
SSulfur
S AikinitePbCuBiS3
S BismuthiniteBi2S3
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S EmplectiteCuBiS2
S GladitePbCuBi5S9
S HeyrovskýitePb6Bi2S9
S JunoiteCu2Pb3Bi8(S,Se)16
S KrupkaitePbCuBi3S6
S MatilditeAgBiS2
S PekoitePbCuBi11(S,Se)18
S ProuditeCuPb7.5Bi9.33(S,Se)22
S PyriteFeS2
S PyrrhotiteFe7S8
S WittitePb9Bi12(S,Se)27
KPotassium
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
CaCalcium
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
FeIron
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe HematiteFe2O3
Fe MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe PyrrhotiteFe7S8
CuCopper
Cu AikinitePbCuBiS3
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Cu EmplectiteCuBiS2
Cu GladitePbCuBi5S9
Cu JunoiteCu2Pb3Bi8(S,Se)16
Cu KrupkaitePbCuBi3S6
Cu PekoitePbCuBi11(S,Se)18
SeSelenium
Se GuanajuatiteBi2Se3
Se JunoiteCu2Pb3Bi8(S,Se)16
Se PekoitePbCuBi11(S,Se)18
Se WittitePb9Bi12(S,Se)27
AgSilver
Ag MatilditeAgBiS2
AuGold
Au GoldAu
PbLead
Pb AikinitePbCuBiS3
Pb GladitePbCuBi5S9
Pb HeyrovskýitePb6Bi2S9
Pb JunoiteCu2Pb3Bi8(S,Se)16
Pb KrupkaitePbCuBi3S6
Pb PekoitePbCuBi11(S,Se)18
Pb ProuditeCuPb7.5Bi9.33(S,Se)22
Pb WittitePb9Bi12(S,Se)27
BiBismuth
Bi AikinitePbCuBiS3
Bi BismuthBi
Bi BismuthiniteBi2S3
Bi EmplectiteCuBiS2
Bi GladitePbCuBi5S9
Bi GuanajuatiteBi2Se3
Bi HeyrovskýitePb6Bi2S9
Bi JunoiteCu2Pb3Bi8(S,Se)16
Bi KrupkaitePbCuBi3S6
Bi MatilditeAgBiS2
Bi PekoitePbCuBi11(S,Se)18
Bi ProuditeCuPb7.5Bi9.33(S,Se)22
Bi WittitePb9Bi12(S,Se)27

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References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Large, RR (1975) Zonation of hydrothermal minerals at the Juno mine, Tennant Creek Goldfield, Central Australia. Economic Geology, 70, 1387-1413.
Mining Annual Review (1985): 55.
Large, R.R., Mumme, W.G. (1975) Junoite Wittite and Related Seleniferous Bismuth Sulphosalts from Juno Mine Northern Territory Australia, Economic Geology, 70 (2), pp369-383, 1975.
Ridge, J.D. (1976) Annotated Bibliographies of Mine Deposits in Africa Asia (excludes U.S.S.R.) and Australasia, Tennant Creek p346.
Mumme, W.G. (1976) Proudite from Tennant Creek, Northern Territory, Australia: its crystal structure and relationship with weibullite and wittite. American Mineralogist, Vol. 61, pages 839-852.
Elliston, J. (2016) Retracing the Systematic Steps in a Voyage of Scientific Discovery, Sydney Exploration Discussion Group, October 2016.
Mumme, W. G. (1975) The crystal structure of krupkaite, CuPbBi3S6, from the Juno Mine at Tennant Creek, Northern Territory, Australia. American Mineralogist 60, pages 300-308.
Mumme, W.G., Watts, J.A. (1976) Pekoite, CuPbBi11S18, A New Member of the Bismuthinite-Aikinite Mineral Series: Its crystal structure and relationship with naturally -and synthetically-formed members, Canadian Mineralogist, Vol 14, pages 322-333, 1976. 
Mumme, W. G. (1975) Junoite, Cu2Pb3Bi8(S,Se)16", a new sulphosalt from Tennant Creek, Australia: its crystal structure and relationship with other bismuth sulphosalts. American Mineralogist 60, pages 548-55.

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