Log InRegister
Home PageAbout MindatThe Mindat ManualHistory of MindatCopyright StatusWho We AreContact UsAdvertise on Mindat
Donate to MindatCorporate SponsorshipSponsor a PageSponsored PagesMindat AdvertisersAdvertise on Mindat
Learning CenterWhat is a mineral?The most common minerals on earthInformation for EducatorsMindat Articles
Minerals by PropertiesMinerals by ChemistryAdvanced Locality SearchRandom MineralRandom LocalitySearch by minIDLocalities Near MeSearch ArticlesSearch GlossaryMore Search Options
Search For:
Mineral Name:
Locality Name:
Keyword(s):
 
The Mindat ManualAdd a New PhotoRate PhotosLocality Edit ReportCoordinate Completion ReportAdd Glossary Item
Mining CompaniesStatisticsThe ElementsUsersBooks & MagazinesMineral MuseumsMineral Shows & EventsThe Mindat DirectoryDevice Settings
Photo SearchPhoto GalleriesNew Photos TodayNew Photos YesterdayMembers' Photo GalleriesPast Photo of the Day Gallery

Penberthy Croft Mine, St Hilary, Cornwall, England, UKi
Regional Level Types
Penberthy Croft MineMine
St HilaryCivil Parish
CornwallCounty
EnglandConstituent Country
UKCountry

This page is currently not sponsored. Click here to sponsor this page.
Key
Lock Map
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 50° 8' 28'' North , 5° 25' 26'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 50.14135,-5.42403
GeoHash:G#: gbujhxfqe
UK National Grid Reference:SW555324
Locality type:Mine
Köppen climate type:Cfb : Temperate oceanic climate
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Marazion1,294 (2017)4.0km
Germoe175 (2017)4.3km
Hayle8,210 (2017)4.7km
Uny Lelant1,056 (2017)4.8km
Leedstown267 (2017)5.4km


Penberthy Croft mine is situated approximately one mile northeast of the village of Goldsithney in the parish of St. Hilary, Cornwall, England (NGR SW 555 324). The locality is a prolific source of rare and unusual secondary minerals of which the Cu-Pb-Fe-Al arsenates are the best known. Penberthy Croft is the type locality for the following species: the copper lead arsenate bayldonite and the aluminium arsenates bettertonite and penberthycroftite.

Penberthy Croft is the first, or joint first recorded site for the tin hydroxide minerals jeanbandyite and natanite in the British Isles. Segnitite is also first recorded at this location.

The land is owned by the St. Aubyn Estate. Permission for site visits and bona fide research must be made prior to any visit through the Agent for the St. Aubyn Estates. The address is Manor Office, Marazion, Cornwall, TR17 0EF, England. Telephone: +44 (0) 1736 710507.

History:


The mine is quite ancient and records of output give approximately 3,000 tons of copper ore toward the end of the 18th century. Mixed copper and tin mining took place at depth at a later date, the lodes being stoped out to a depth of 53 fathoms below adit level.

The mine closed around 1840. There being no further activity until recent years when at a time of high tin prices the dumps were sampled to evaluate their cassiterite content. The mine became listed as an SSSI by English Nature for its mineralisation in 1993.

Geology:


The sett is situated in Devonian metasediments consisting of lower-grade-greenschist facies (killas) slates between the Land's End and Godolphin granite masses. The slates belong to the Mylor Slates Formation and are a series of dark coloured rocks with a slaty cleavage and well-developed foliation. They are generally characterised by a series of siltstones and mudstones, with occasional impersistent sandstone sequences. A series of interbedded metabasic rocks strikes east-west within the sett. The main Penberthy lode strikes east-west and dips to the south. The lode is associated with a rhyolite porphyry elvan dyke and cross course structures and is probably related to a shear zone. There are in addition five other named lodes within the sett.

Mineralisation:


The mineralisation is of a multi-stage, polymetallic and hydrothermal character. The deposit consists of several, but distinct overlapping assemblages: Minor, burial-related quartz-albite-anatase-monazite veins of a pre-tectonic, metamorphic origin; main-stage high-temperature hypothermal-mesothermal Sn-Cu-As-W veins; later lower-temperature epithermal Pb-Zn sulphide mineralisation; and a late-stage, low-temperature Fe-Mn mineralisation. Subsequent supergene oxidation and weathering of lodes resulted in the formation of complex gossans with oxide and supergene enrichment zones. Post-mining formation of other minerals both underground and on the dumps has resulted in a very large variety of mineral species in a small area. These in order of approximate abundance include arsenates, arsenate-sulphates, and phosphates. The greatest diversity in terms of species has been located in five main areas of the old dumps: Three in the western and two in the eastern section of the workings. Most minerals here are found as good quality subhedral to euhedral microcrystals with occasional miniature specimens. Brecciation, fracturing, silicification, chloritization, and carbonatization are abundant. The mineralisation formed over a very wide period of time extending from the Upper Palaeozoic through to the Cenozoic.

A major comprehensive mineralogical study was recently completed on this important locality by Betterton (2000) and was published in the UK Journal of Mines & Minerals, 20, 7-37.

Note on the mineral list:


Reference to adamite at Penberthy Croft is from Kingsbury. Given the doubts about the provenance of other Kingsbury specimens (Ryback et al. 1998, 2001), investigated this and discredited the occurrence.

Unknowns (UK PC = Unknown Penberthy Croft) from the John Betterton Collection under investigations:
UK PC2? MnxOx
UK PC3? Cu+Zn+As+Mn+Fe+Co??+La???+O
Additional work is required on these unknowns.

Regions containing this locality

Eurasian PlateTectonic Plate
EuropeContinent
British IslesGroup of Islands
Devon and Cornwall metalliferous mining district, England, UKMining District
Mount's Bay Mining District, Cornwall, England, UKMining District

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

110 valid minerals. 3 (TL) - type locality of valid minerals. 10 erroneous literature entries.

Detailed Mineral List:

Adamite
Formula: Zn2(AsO4)(OH)
Agardite-(Ce)
Formula: CeCu6(AsO4)3(OH)6 · 3H2O
Agardite-(La)
Formula: LaCu6(AsO4)3(OH)6 · 3H2O
Alloclasite
Formula: Co1-xFexAsS
Anatase
Formula: TiO2
Anglesite
Formula: PbSO4
Ankerite
Formula: Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Annabergite
Formula: Ni3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
'Apatite Group' ?
Aragonite
Formula: CaCO3
Arseniosiderite ?
Formula: Ca2Fe3+3(AsO4)3O2 · 3H2O
Arsenolite
Formula: As2O3
Arsenopyrite
Formula: FeAsS
Atacamite ?
Formula: Cu2(OH)3Cl
Aurichalcite
Formula: (Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
Azurite
Formula: Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Bayldonite (TL)
Formula: PbCu3(AsO4)2(OH)2
Type Locality:
Beaverite-(Cu) ?
Formula: Pb(Fe3+2Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6
Beraunite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+5(PO4)4(OH)5 · 6H2O
Bettertonite (TL)
Formula: [Al6(AsO4)3(OH)9(H2O)5]·11H2O
Type Locality:
Beudantite
Formula: PbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Bieberite
Formula: CoSO4 · 7H2O
Birnessite
Formula: (Na,Ca)0.5(Mn4+,Mn3+)2O4 · 1.5H2O
Bismuthinite
Formula: Bi2S3
Bismutite
Formula: (BiO)2CO3
Bornite
Formula: Cu5FeS4
Brochantite
Formula: Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
Bulachite
Formula: Al2(AsO4)(OH)3 · 3H2O
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Caledonite
Formula: Pb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
Carminite
Formula: PbFe3+2(AsO4)2(OH)2
Cassiterite
Formula: SnO2
Cattiite ?
Formula: Mg3(PO4)2 · 22H2O
Ceruleite
Formula: Cu2Al7(AsO4)4(OH)13 · 11.5H2O
Cerussite
Formula: PbCO3
Chalcoalumite
Formula: CuAl4(SO4)(OH)12 · 3H2O
Chalcophyllite
Formula: Cu18Al2(AsO4)4(SO4)3(OH)24 · 36H2O
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Chamosite
Formula: (Fe2+,Mg,Al,Fe3+)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH,O)8
'Chlorite Group'
Chrysocolla
Formula: Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Churchite-(Y) ?
Formula: Y(PO4) · 2H2O
Clinochlore
Formula: Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Connellite
Formula: Cu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2O
Copper
Formula: Cu
Corkite
Formula: PbFe3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Cornubite
Formula: Cu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
Cornwallite
Formula: Cu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
Covellite
Formula: CuS
Cuprite
Formula: Cu2O
Cuprite var: Chalcotrichite
Formula: Cu2O
Cyanotrichite
Formula: Cu4Al2(SO4)(OH)12 · 2H2O
Devilline
Formula: CaCu4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Dolomite
Formula: CaMg(CO3)2
Duftite
Formula: PbCu(AsO4)(OH)
Dundasite
Formula: PbAl2(CO3)2(OH)4 · H2O
Erythrite
Formula: Co3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
Fluorapatite
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3F
Galena
Formula: PbS
Goethite
Formula: α-Fe3+O(OH)
Gypsum
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Halite
Formula: NaCl
'Halloysite'
Formula: Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Hidalgoite
Formula: PbAl3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
'Hornblende'
Jarosite
Formula: KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Jeanbandyite
Formula: Fe3+xFe2+1-xSn(OH)6-xOx (1 ≥ x > 0.5)
Langite
Formula: Cu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
Laurionite
Formula: PbCl(OH)
Leadhillite
Formula: Pb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
Lepidocrocite ?
Formula: γ-Fe3+O(OH)
Libethenite
Formula: Cu2(PO4)(OH)
Linarite
Formula: PbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Liskeardite
Formula: [(Al,Fe)32(AsO4)18(OH)42(H2O)22] · 52H2O
Malachite
Formula: Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Mansfieldite
Formula: AlAsO4 · 2H2O
Mattheddleite
Formula: Pb5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5(Cl,OH)
Millerite
Formula: NiS
Mimetite
Formula: Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
Mixite
Formula: BiCu6(AsO4)3(OH)6 · 3H2O
'Monazite'
Monazite-(La)
Formula: La(PO4)
Mottramite
Formula: PbCu(VO4)(OH)
Natanite
Formula: Fe2+[Sn(OH)6]
Olivenite
Formula: Cu2(AsO4)(OH)
Olivenite var: Leucochalcite
Orthoclase
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Paratacamite ?
Formula: Cu3(Cu,Zn)(OH)6Cl2
Parnauite
Formula: Cu9(AsO4)2(SO4)(OH)10 · 7H2O
Penberthycroftite (TL)
Formula: [Al6(AsO4)3(OH)9(H2O)5]·8H2O
Type Locality:
Pharmacoalumite
Formula: KAl4(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6.5H2O
Pharmacosiderite
Formula: KFe3+4(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
Philipsburgite
Formula: (Cu,Zn)6(AsO4,PO4)2(OH)6 · H2O
Phosgenite
Formula: Pb2CO3Cl2
Pitticite
Formula: (Fe, SO4, AsO4, H2O) ?
Plumbogummite
Formula: PbAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
Plumbojarosite ?
Formula: Pb0.5Fe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6
Pseudomalachite
Formula: Cu5(PO4)2(OH)4
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Pyromorphite
Formula: Pb5(PO4)3Cl
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Redgillite
Formula: Cu6(SO4)(OH)10 · H2O
Rosasite ?
Formula: (Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
Scheelite
Formula: Ca(WO4)
Schulenbergite
Formula: (Cu,Zn)7(SO4)2(OH)10 · 3H2O
Scorodite
Formula: Fe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
Segnitite
Formula: PbFe3+3AsO4(AsO3OH)(OH)6
Serpierite
Formula: Ca(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Siderite
Formula: FeCO3
Silver ?
Formula: Ag
Smithsonite
Formula: ZnCO3
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Stannite
Formula: Cu2FeSnS4
Stilpnomelane
Formula: (K,Ca,Na)(Fe2+,Mg,Al)8(Si,Al)12(O,OH)36 · nH2O
Stolzite
Formula: Pb(WO4)
Sulphur
Formula: S8
Tenorite
Formula: CuO
Tyrolite
Formula: Ca2Cu9(AsO4)4(CO3)(OH)8 · 11H2O
Vanadinite
Formula: Pb5(VO4)3Cl
Varlamoffite
Formula: (Sn,Fe)(O,OH)2
Woodwardite
Formula: Cu1-xAlx(OH)2(SO4)x/2 · nH2O
Wroewolfeite
Formula: Cu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
Wulfenite
Formula: Pb(MoO4)
Wurtzite ?
Formula: (Zn,Fe)S
Zálesíite
Formula: CaCu6(AsO4)2(AsO3OH)(OH)6 · 3H2O
Zincolivenite
Formula: CuZn(AsO4)(OH)

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Copper1.AA.05Cu
Silver ?1.AA.05Ag
Sulphur1.CC.05S8
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Alloclasite2.EB.10bCo1-xFexAsS
Arsenopyrite2.EB.20FeAsS
Bismuthinite2.DB.05Bi2S3
Bornite2.BA.15Cu5FeS4
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Covellite2.CA.05aCuS
Galena2.CD.10PbS
Millerite2.CC.20NiS
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
Stannite2.CB.15aCu2FeSnS4
Wurtzite ?2.CB.45(Zn,Fe)S
Group 3 - Halides
Atacamite ?3.DA.10aCu2(OH)3Cl
Connellite3.DA.25Cu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2O
Halite3.AA.20NaCl
Laurionite3.DC.05PbCl(OH)
Paratacamite ?3.DA.10cCu3(Cu,Zn)(OH)6Cl2
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Anatase4.DD.05TiO2
Arsenolite4.CB.50As2O3
Birnessite4.FL.45(Na,Ca)0.5(Mn4+,Mn3+)2O4 · 1.5H2O
Cassiterite4.DB.05SnO2
Cuprite4.AA.10Cu2O
var: Chalcotrichite4.AA.10Cu2O
Goethite4.00.α-Fe3+O(OH)
Jeanbandyite4.FC.15Fe3+xFe2+1-xSn(OH)6-xOx (1 ≥ x > 0.5)
Lepidocrocite ?4.FE.15γ-Fe3+O(OH)
Natanite4.FC.10Fe2+[Sn(OH)6]
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Tenorite4.AB.10CuO
Varlamoffite4.DB.05(Sn,Fe)(O,OH)2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Ankerite5.AB.10Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Aragonite5.AB.15CaCO3
Aurichalcite5.BA.15(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
Azurite5.BA.05Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Bismutite5.BE.25(BiO)2CO3
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Cerussite5.AB.15PbCO3
Dolomite5.AB.10CaMg(CO3)2
Dundasite5.DB.10PbAl2(CO3)2(OH)4 · H2O
Leadhillite5.BF.40Pb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
Malachite5.BA.10Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Phosgenite5.BE.20Pb2CO3Cl2
Rosasite ?5.BA.10(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
Siderite5.AB.05FeCO3
Smithsonite5.AB.05ZnCO3
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Anglesite7.AD.35PbSO4
Beaverite-(Cu) ?7.BC.10Pb(Fe3+2Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6
Bieberite ?7.CB.35CoSO4 · 7H2O
Brochantite7.BB.25Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
Caledonite7.BC.50Pb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
Chalcoalumite7.DD.75CuAl4(SO4)(OH)12 · 3H2O
Cyanotrichite7.DE.10Cu4Al2(SO4)(OH)12 · 2H2O
Devilline7.DD.30CaCu4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Gypsum7.CD.40CaSO4 · 2H2O
Jarosite7.BC.10KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Langite7.DD.10Cu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
Linarite7.BC.65PbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Plumbojarosite ?7.BC.10Pb0.5Fe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6
Redgillite7.DD.70Cu6(SO4)(OH)10 · H2O
Scheelite7.GA.05Ca(WO4)
Schulenbergite7.DD.80(Cu,Zn)7(SO4)2(OH)10 · 3H2O
Serpierite ?7.DD.30Ca(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Stolzite7.GA.05Pb(WO4)
Woodwardite7.DD.35Cu1-xAlx(OH)2(SO4)x/2 · nH2O
Wroewolfeite7.DD.10Cu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
Wulfenite7.GA.05Pb(MoO4)
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Adamite ?8.BB.30Zn2(AsO4)(OH)
Agardite-(Ce)8.DL.15CeCu6(AsO4)3(OH)6 · 3H2O
Agardite-(La)8.DL.15LaCu6(AsO4)3(OH)6 · 3H2O
Annabergite8.CE.40Ni3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
Arseniosiderite ?8.DH.30Ca2Fe3+3(AsO4)3O2 · 3H2O
Bayldonite (TL)8.BH.45PbCu3(AsO4)2(OH)2
Beraunite ?8.DC.27Fe2+Fe3+5(PO4)4(OH)5 · 6H2O
Beudantite8.BL.05PbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Bulachite8.DE.15Al2(AsO4)(OH)3 · 3H2O
Carminite8.BH.30PbFe3+2(AsO4)2(OH)2
Cattiite ?8.CE.50Mg3(PO4)2 · 22H2O
Ceruleite ?8.DE.25Cu2Al7(AsO4)4(OH)13 · 11.5H2O
Chalcophyllite8.DF.30Cu18Al2(AsO4)4(SO4)3(OH)24 · 36H2O
Churchite-(Y) ?8.CJ.50Y(PO4) · 2H2O
Corkite8.BL.05PbFe3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Cornubite8.BD.30Cu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
Cornwallite8.BD.05Cu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
Duftite8.BH.35PbCu(AsO4)(OH)
Erythrite8.CE.40Co3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
Fluorapatite8.BN.05Ca5(PO4)3F
Hidalgoite8.BL.05PbAl3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Libethenite8.BB.30Cu2(PO4)(OH)
Liskeardite8.DF.10[(Al,Fe)32(AsO4)18(OH)42(H2O)22] · 52H2O
Mansfieldite8.CD.10AlAsO4 · 2H2O
Mimetite8.BN.05Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
Mixite8.DL.15BiCu6(AsO4)3(OH)6 · 3H2O
Monazite-(La)8.AD.50La(PO4)
Mottramite ?8.BH.40PbCu(VO4)(OH)
Olivenite8.BB.30Cu2(AsO4)(OH)
var: Leucochalcite8.BB.30Cu2(AsO4)(OH)
Parnauite8.DF.35Cu9(AsO4)2(SO4)(OH)10 · 7H2O
Pharmacoalumite8.DK.12KAl4(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6.5H2O
Pharmacosiderite8.DK.10KFe3+4(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
Philipsburgite8.DA.35(Cu,Zn)6(AsO4,PO4)2(OH)6 · H2O
Pitticite8.DB.05(Fe, SO4, AsO4, H2O) ?
Plumbogummite8.BL.10PbAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
Pseudomalachite8.BD.05Cu5(PO4)2(OH)4
Pyromorphite8.BN.05Pb5(PO4)3Cl
Scorodite8.CD.10Fe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
Segnitite8.BL.10PbFe3+3AsO4(AsO3OH)(OH)6
Tyrolite ?8.DM.10Ca2Cu9(AsO4)4(CO3)(OH)8 · 11H2O
Vanadinite ?8.BN.05Pb5(VO4)3Cl
Zincolivenite8.BB.30CuZn(AsO4)(OH)
Zálesíite ?8.DL.15CaCu6(AsO4)2(AsO3OH)(OH)6 · 3H2O
Group 9 - Silicates
Chamosite9.EC.55(Fe2+,Mg,Al,Fe3+)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH,O)8
Chrysocolla9.ED.20Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Clinochlore9.EC.55Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
'Halloysite'9.ED.10Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Mattheddleite9.AH.25Pb5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5(Cl,OH)
Orthoclase9.FA.30K(AlSi3O8)
Stilpnomelane9.EG.40(K,Ca,Na)(Fe2+,Mg,Al)8(Si,Al)12(O,OH)36 · nH2O
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Apatite Group' ?-
Bettertonite (TL)-[Al6(AsO4)3(OH)9(H2O)5]·11H2O
'Chlorite Group'-
'Hornblende' ?-
'Monazite'-
Penberthycroftite (TL)-[Al6(AsO4)3(OH)9(H2O)5]·8H2O

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Copper1.1.1.3Cu
Silver ?1.1.1.2Ag
Semi-metals and non-metals
Sulphur1.3.5.1S8
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 3:2
Bornite2.5.2.1Cu5FeS4
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Covellite2.8.12.1CuS
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Millerite2.8.16.1NiS
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
Wurtzite ?2.8.7.1(Zn,Fe)S
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
Stannite2.9.2.1Cu2FeSnS4
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:3
Bismuthinite2.11.2.3Bi2S3
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Alloclasite2.12.6.2Co1-xFexAsS
Arsenopyrite2.12.4.1FeAsS
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X
Cuprite4.1.1.1Cu2O
AX
Tenorite4.2.3.1CuO
A2X3
Arsenolite4.3.9.1As2O3
AX2
Anatase4.4.4.1TiO2
Cassiterite4.4.1.5SnO2
Varlamoffite4.4.2.1(Sn,Fe)(O,OH)2
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
XO(OH)
Goethite6.1.1.2α-Fe3+O(OH)
Lepidocrocite ?6.1.2.2γ-Fe3+O(OH)
X(OH)3
Jeanbandyite6.3.7.3Fe3+xFe2+1-xSn(OH)6-xOx (1 ≥ x > 0.5)
Natanite6.3.6.3Fe2+[Sn(OH)6]
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
(AB)2X3
Birnessite7.5.3.1(Na,Ca)0.5(Mn4+,Mn3+)2O4 · 1.5H2O
Group 9 - NORMAL HALIDES
AX
Halite9.1.1.1NaCl
Group 10 - OXYHALIDES AND HYDROXYHALIDES
A2(O,OH)3Xq
Atacamite ?10.1.1.1Cu2(OH)3Cl
Paratacamite ?10.1.2.1Cu3(Cu,Zn)(OH)6Cl2
A(O,OH)Xq
Laurionite10.2.2.1PbCl(OH)
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Cerussite14.1.3.4PbCO3
Siderite14.1.1.3FeCO3
Smithsonite14.1.1.6ZnCO3
AB(XO3)2
Ankerite14.2.1.2Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Dolomite14.2.1.1CaMg(CO3)2
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Azurite16a.2.1.1Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Bismutite16a.3.5.1(BiO)2CO3
Malachite16a.3.1.1Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Phosgenite16a.3.4.1Pb2CO3Cl2
Rosasite ?16a.3.1.2(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
Aurichalcite16a.4.2.1(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
Group 16b - HYDRATED CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Dundasite16b.2.1.1PbAl2(CO3)2(OH)4 · H2O
Group 17 - COMPOUND CARBONATES
Miscellaneous
Leadhillite17.1.2.1Pb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Anglesite28.3.1.3PbSO4
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4·xH2O
Bieberite ?29.6.10.4CoSO4 · 7H2O
Gypsum29.6.3.1CaSO4 · 2H2O
Group 30 - ANHYDROUS SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)m(XO4)pZq, where m:p>2:1
Brochantite30.1.3.1Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
(AB)2(XO4)Zq
Beaverite-(Cu) ?30.2.5.7Pb(Fe3+2Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6
Jarosite30.2.5.1KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Linarite30.2.3.1PbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Plumbojarosite ?30.2.5.6Pb0.5Fe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6
Group 31 - HYDRATED SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)m(XO4)pZq·xH2O, where m:p > 6:1
Connellite31.1.1.1Cu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2O
Schulenbergite31.1.6.1(Cu,Zn)7(SO4)2(OH)10 · 3H2O
(AB)6(XO4)Zq·xH2O
Cyanotrichite31.2.1.1Cu4Al2(SO4)(OH)12 · 2H2O
Woodwardite31.2.2.1Cu1-xAlx(OH)2(SO4)x/2 · nH2O
(AB)5(XO4)Zq·xH2O
Chalcoalumite31.3.1.1CuAl4(SO4)(OH)12 · 3H2O
(AB)4(XO4)Zq·xH2O
Langite31.4.3.1Cu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
Wroewolfeite31.4.2.1Cu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
(AB)5(XO4)2Zq·xH2O
Devilline31.6.1.1CaCu4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Serpierite ?31.6.2.1Ca(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Group 32 - COMPOUND SULFATES
Anhydrous Compound Sulfates containing Hydroxyl or Halogen
Caledonite32.3.2.1Pb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
Group 38 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, AND VANADATES
AXO4
Monazite-(La)38.4.3.2La(PO4)
Group 40 - HYDRATED NORMAL PHOSPHATES,ARSENATES AND VANADATES
A3(XO4)2·xH2O
Annabergite40.3.6.4Ni3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
Erythrite40.3.6.3Co3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
(AB)5(XO4)2·xH2O
Churchite-(Y) ?40.4.6.1Y(PO4) · 2H2O
Mansfieldite40.4.1.4AlAsO4 · 2H2O
Scorodite40.4.1.3Fe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
Group 41 - ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)5(XO4)2Zq
Cornubite41.4.2.1Cu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
Cornwallite41.4.2.2Cu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
Pseudomalachite41.4.3.1Cu5(PO4)2(OH)4
(AB)2(XO4)Zq
Bayldonite (TL)41.5.14.1PbCu3(AsO4)2(OH)2
Duftite41.5.1.4PbCu(AsO4)(OH)
Mottramite ?41.5.2.2PbCu(VO4)(OH)
A2(XO4)Zq
Adamite ?41.6.6.3Zn2(AsO4)(OH)
Libethenite41.6.6.2Cu2(PO4)(OH)
Olivenite41.6.6.1Cu2(AsO4)(OH)
Zincolivenite41.6.5.6CuZn(AsO4)(OH)
A5(XO4)3Zq
Fluorapatite41.8.1.1Ca5(PO4)3F
Mimetite41.8.4.2Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
Pyromorphite41.8.4.1Pb5(PO4)3Cl
Vanadinite ?41.8.4.3Pb5(VO4)3Cl
(AB)3(XO4)2Zq
Carminite41.10.6.1PbFe3+2(AsO4)2(OH)2
Group 42 - HYDRATED PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
A3(XO4)Zq·xH2O
Liskeardite42.1.1.1[(Al,Fe)32(AsO4)18(OH)42(H2O)22] · 52H2O
(AB)3(XO4)Zq·xH2O
Philipsburgite42.2.4.2(Cu,Zn)6(AsO4,PO4)2(OH)6 · H2O
(AB)5(XO4)2Zq·xH2O
Tyrolite ?42.4.3.1Ca2Cu9(AsO4)4(CO3)(OH)8 · 11H2O
(AB)7(XO4)3Zq·xH2O
Mixite42.5.1.1BiCu6(AsO4)3(OH)6 · 3H2O
Zálesíite ?42.5.1.7CaCu6(AsO4)2(AsO3OH)(OH)6 · 3H2O
A2(XO4)Zq·xH2O
Bulachite42.6.7.2Al2(AsO4)(OH)3 · 3H2O
(AB)2(XO4)Zq·xH2O
Plumbogummite42.7.3.5PbAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
Segnitite42.7.4.4PbFe3+3AsO4(AsO3OH)(OH)6
(AB)5(XO4)3Zq·xH2O
Arseniosiderite ?42.8.4.3Ca2Fe3+3(AsO4)3O2 · 3H2O
Pharmacoalumite42.8.1b.1KAl4(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6.5H2O
Pharmacosiderite42.8.1a.1KFe3+4(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
(AB)3(XO4)2Zq·xH2O
Beraunite ?42.11.16.1Fe2+Fe3+5(PO4)4(OH)5 · 6H2O
Miscellaneous
Ceruleite ?42.13.6.1Cu2Al7(AsO4)4(OH)13 · 11.5H2O
Group 43 - COMPOUND PHOSPHATES, ETC.
Anhydrous Compound Phosphates, etc·, Containing Hydroxyl or Halogen
Beudantite43.4.1.1PbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Corkite43.4.1.2PbFe3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Hidalgoite43.4.1.3PbAl3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Hydrated Compound Phosphates, etc·, Containing Hydroxyl or Halogen
Chalcophyllite43.5.14.1Cu18Al2(AsO4)4(SO4)3(OH)24 · 36H2O
Parnauite43.5.13.1Cu9(AsO4)2(SO4)(OH)10 · 7H2O
Pitticite43.5.3.1(Fe, SO4, AsO4, H2O) ?
Group 48 - ANHYDROUS MOLYBDATES AND TUNGSTATES
AXO4
Scheelite48.1.2.1Ca(WO4)
Stolzite48.1.3.2Pb(WO4)
Wulfenite48.1.3.1Pb(MoO4)
Group 52 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] and/or >[6] coordination
Mattheddleite52.4.9.6Pb5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5(Cl,OH)
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 1:1 layers
'Halloysite'71.1.1.4Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Sheets of 6-membered rings interlayered 1:1, 2:1, and octahedra
Chamosite71.4.1.7(Fe2+,Mg,Al,Fe3+)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH,O)8
Clinochlore71.4.1.4Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Group 74 - PHYLLOSILICATES Modulated Layers
Modulated Layers with joined islands
Stilpnomelane74.1.1.1(K,Ca,Na)(Fe2+,Mg,Al)8(Si,Al)12(O,OH)36 · nH2O
Modulated Layers with joined strips
Chrysocolla74.3.2.1Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
Orthoclase76.1.1.1K(AlSi3O8)
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
Agardite-(Ce)-CeCu6(AsO4)3(OH)6 · 3H2O
Agardite-(La)-LaCu6(AsO4)3(OH)6 · 3H2O
'Apatite Group' ?-
Aragonite-CaCO3
Bettertonite (TL)-[Al6(AsO4)3(OH)9(H2O)5]·11H2O
Cattiite ?-Mg3(PO4)2 · 22H2O
'Chlorite Group'-
Cuprite
var: Chalcotrichite
-Cu2O
'Hornblende' ?-
'Monazite'-
Olivenite
var: Leucochalcite
-Cu2(AsO4)(OH)
Penberthycroftite (TL)-[Al6(AsO4)3(OH)9(H2O)5]·8H2O
Redgillite-Cu6(SO4)(OH)10 · H2O

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H BayldonitePbCu3(AsO4)2(OH)2
H Bettertonite[Al6(AsO4)3(OH)9(H2O)5]·11H2O
H Penberthycroftite[Al6(AsO4)3(OH)9(H2O)5]·8H2O
H Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
H AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
H BeudantitePbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
H Birnessite(Na,Ca)0.5(Mn4+,Mn3+)2O4 · 1.5H2O
H CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
H CarminitePbFe23+(AsO4)2(OH)2
H ChalcoalumiteCuAl4(SO4)(OH)12 · 3H2O
H ChalcophylliteCu18Al2(AsO4)4(SO4)3(OH)24 · 36H2O
H ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
H ConnelliteCu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2O
H CorkitePbFe3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
H CornubiteCu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
H CornwalliteCu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
H CyanotrichiteCu4Al2(SO4)(OH)12 · 2H2O
H DevillineCaCu4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
H DuftitePbCu(AsO4)(OH)
H ErythriteCo3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
H Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
H LangiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
H LeadhillitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
H LibetheniteCu2(PO4)(OH)
H LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
H Liskeardite[(Al,Fe)32(AsO4)18(OH)42(H2O)22] · 52H2O
H MansfielditeAlAsO4 · 2H2O
H MattheddleitePb5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5(Cl,OH)
H MixiteBiCu6(AsO4)3(OH)6 · 3H2O
H OliveniteCu2(AsO4)(OH)
H Agardite-(La)LaCu6(AsO4)3(OH)6 · 3H2O
H ParnauiteCu9(AsO4)2(SO4)(OH)10 · 7H2O
H PharmacosideriteKFe43+(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
H Philipsburgite(Cu,Zn)6(AsO4,PO4)2(OH)6 · H2O
H PlumbogummitePbAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
H PseudomalachiteCu5(PO4)2(OH)4
H ScoroditeFe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
H SegnititePbFe33+AsO4(AsO3OH)(OH)6
H Varlamoffite(Sn,Fe)(O,OH)2
H WoodwarditeCu1-xAlx(OH)2(SO4)x/2 · nH2O
H WroewolfeiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
H BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
H MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
H HalloysiteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
H GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
H ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
H HidalgoitePbAl3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
H JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
H JeanbandyiteFe3+xFe2+1-xSn(OH)6-xOx (1 ≥ x > 0.5)
H LaurionitePbCl(OH)
H NataniteFe2+[Sn(OH)6]
H Stilpnomelane(K,Ca,Na)(Fe2+,Mg,Al)8(Si,Al)12(O,OH)36 · nH2O
H Agardite-(Ce)CeCu6(AsO4)3(OH)6 · 3H2O
H RedgilliteCu6(SO4)(OH)10 · H2O
H BulachiteAl2(AsO4)(OH)3 · 3H2O
H ZincoliveniteCuZn(AsO4)(OH)
H Pitticite(Fe, SO4, AsO4, H2O) ?
H PharmacoalumiteKAl4(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6.5H2O
H Chamosite(Fe2+,Mg,Al,Fe3+)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH,O)8
H DundasitePbAl2(CO3)2(OH)4 · H2O
H AnnabergiteNi3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
H Schulenbergite(Cu,Zn)7(SO4)2(OH)10 · 3H2O
H Lepidocrociteγ-Fe3+O(OH)
H ArseniosideriteCa2Fe33+(AsO4)3O2 · 3H2O
H AtacamiteCu2(OH)3Cl
H CattiiteMg3(PO4)2 · 22H2O
H Beaverite-(Cu)Pb(Fe23+Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6
H ParatacamiteCu3(Cu,Zn)(OH)6Cl2
H PlumbojarositePb0.5Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
H Rosasite(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
H Churchite-(Y)Y(PO4) · 2H2O
H MottramitePbCu(VO4)(OH)
H AdamiteZn2(AsO4)(OH)
H ZálesíiteCaCu6(AsO4)2(AsO3OH)(OH)6 · 3H2O
H BerauniteFe2+Fe53+(PO4)4(OH)5 · 6H2O
H BieberiteCoSO4 · 7H2O
H CeruleiteCu2Al7(AsO4)4(OH)13 · 11.5H2O
H TyroliteCa2Cu9(AsO4)4(CO3)(OH)8 · 11H2O
H SerpieriteCa(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
CCarbon
C AragoniteCaCO3
C Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
C AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
C Bismutite(BiO)2CO3
C CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
C CerussitePbCO3
C LeadhillitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
C PhosgenitePb2CO3Cl2
C MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
C AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
C DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
C CalciteCaCO3
C SideriteFeCO3
C SmithsoniteZnCO3
C DundasitePbAl2(CO3)2(OH)4 · H2O
C Rosasite(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
C TyroliteCa2Cu9(AsO4)4(CO3)(OH)8 · 11H2O
OOxygen
O BayldonitePbCu3(AsO4)2(OH)2
O Bettertonite[Al6(AsO4)3(OH)9(H2O)5]·11H2O
O Penberthycroftite[Al6(AsO4)3(OH)9(H2O)5]·8H2O
O AnglesitePbSO4
O AragoniteCaCO3
O Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
O AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
O BeudantitePbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
O Birnessite(Na,Ca)0.5(Mn4+,Mn3+)2O4 · 1.5H2O
O Bismutite(BiO)2CO3
O CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
O CarminitePbFe23+(AsO4)2(OH)2
O CassiteriteSnO2
O CerussitePbCO3
O ChalcoalumiteCuAl4(SO4)(OH)12 · 3H2O
O Cuprite (var: Chalcotrichite)Cu2O
O ChalcophylliteCu18Al2(AsO4)4(SO4)3(OH)24 · 36H2O
O ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
O ConnelliteCu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2O
O CorkitePbFe3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
O CornubiteCu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
O CornwalliteCu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
O CupriteCu2O
O CyanotrichiteCu4Al2(SO4)(OH)12 · 2H2O
O DevillineCaCu4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
O DuftitePbCu(AsO4)(OH)
O ErythriteCo3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
O Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
O LangiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
O LeadhillitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
O LibetheniteCu2(PO4)(OH)
O LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
O Liskeardite[(Al,Fe)32(AsO4)18(OH)42(H2O)22] · 52H2O
O MansfielditeAlAsO4 · 2H2O
O MattheddleitePb5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5(Cl,OH)
O MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
O MixiteBiCu6(AsO4)3(OH)6 · 3H2O
O OliveniteCu2(AsO4)(OH)
O Agardite-(La)LaCu6(AsO4)3(OH)6 · 3H2O
O ParnauiteCu9(AsO4)2(SO4)(OH)10 · 7H2O
O PharmacosideriteKFe43+(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
O Philipsburgite(Cu,Zn)6(AsO4,PO4)2(OH)6 · H2O
O PhosgenitePb2CO3Cl2
O PlumbogummitePbAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
O PseudomalachiteCu5(PO4)2(OH)4
O PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
O ScheeliteCa(WO4)
O ScoroditeFe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
O SegnititePbFe33+AsO4(AsO3OH)(OH)6
O Varlamoffite(Sn,Fe)(O,OH)2
O WoodwarditeCu1-xAlx(OH)2(SO4)x/2 · nH2O
O WroewolfeiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
O BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
O MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
O AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
O DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
O HalloysiteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
O GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
O OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
O Monazite-(La)La(PO4)
O CalciteCaCO3
O ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
O FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
O HidalgoitePbAl3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
O JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
O JeanbandyiteFe3+xFe2+1-xSn(OH)6-xOx (1 ≥ x > 0.5)
O LaurionitePbCl(OH)
O NataniteFe2+[Sn(OH)6]
O QuartzSiO2
O SideriteFeCO3
O SmithsoniteZnCO3
O Stilpnomelane(K,Ca,Na)(Fe2+,Mg,Al)8(Si,Al)12(O,OH)36 · nH2O
O Agardite-(Ce)CeCu6(AsO4)3(OH)6 · 3H2O
O RedgilliteCu6(SO4)(OH)10 · H2O
O BulachiteAl2(AsO4)(OH)3 · 3H2O
O ZincoliveniteCuZn(AsO4)(OH)
O Pitticite(Fe, SO4, AsO4, H2O) ?
O PharmacoalumiteKAl4(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6.5H2O
O Chamosite(Fe2+,Mg,Al,Fe3+)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH,O)8
O DundasitePbAl2(CO3)2(OH)4 · H2O
O StolzitePb(WO4)
O ArsenoliteAs2O3
O AnataseTiO2
O AnnabergiteNi3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
O Schulenbergite(Cu,Zn)7(SO4)2(OH)10 · 3H2O
O TenoriteCuO
O WulfenitePb(MoO4)
O Lepidocrociteγ-Fe3+O(OH)
O ArseniosideriteCa2Fe33+(AsO4)3O2 · 3H2O
O AtacamiteCu2(OH)3Cl
O CattiiteMg3(PO4)2 · 22H2O
O Beaverite-(Cu)Pb(Fe23+Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6
O ParatacamiteCu3(Cu,Zn)(OH)6Cl2
O PlumbojarositePb0.5Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
O Rosasite(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
O Churchite-(Y)Y(PO4) · 2H2O
O MottramitePbCu(VO4)(OH)
O AdamiteZn2(AsO4)(OH)
O ZálesíiteCaCu6(AsO4)2(AsO3OH)(OH)6 · 3H2O
O BerauniteFe2+Fe53+(PO4)4(OH)5 · 6H2O
O BieberiteCoSO4 · 7H2O
O CeruleiteCu2Al7(AsO4)4(OH)13 · 11.5H2O
O TyroliteCa2Cu9(AsO4)4(CO3)(OH)8 · 11H2O
O VanadinitePb5(VO4)3Cl
O SerpieriteCa(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
FFluorine
F FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
NaSodium
Na Birnessite(Na,Ca)0.5(Mn4+,Mn3+)2O4 · 1.5H2O
Na HaliteNaCl
Na Stilpnomelane(K,Ca,Na)(Fe2+,Mg,Al)8(Si,Al)12(O,OH)36 · nH2O
MgMagnesium
Mg AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Mg DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Mg ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Mg Stilpnomelane(K,Ca,Na)(Fe2+,Mg,Al)8(Si,Al)12(O,OH)36 · nH2O
Mg Chamosite(Fe2+,Mg,Al,Fe3+)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH,O)8
Mg CattiiteMg3(PO4)2 · 22H2O
AlAluminium
Al Bettertonite[Al6(AsO4)3(OH)9(H2O)5]·11H2O
Al Penberthycroftite[Al6(AsO4)3(OH)9(H2O)5]·8H2O
Al ChalcoalumiteCuAl4(SO4)(OH)12 · 3H2O
Al ChalcophylliteCu18Al2(AsO4)4(SO4)3(OH)24 · 36H2O
Al ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Al CyanotrichiteCu4Al2(SO4)(OH)12 · 2H2O
Al Liskeardite[(Al,Fe)32(AsO4)18(OH)42(H2O)22] · 52H2O
Al MansfielditeAlAsO4 · 2H2O
Al PlumbogummitePbAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
Al WoodwarditeCu1-xAlx(OH)2(SO4)x/2 · nH2O
Al HalloysiteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Al OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
Al ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Al HidalgoitePbAl3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Al Stilpnomelane(K,Ca,Na)(Fe2+,Mg,Al)8(Si,Al)12(O,OH)36 · nH2O
Al BulachiteAl2(AsO4)(OH)3 · 3H2O
Al PharmacoalumiteKAl4(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6.5H2O
Al Chamosite(Fe2+,Mg,Al,Fe3+)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH,O)8
Al DundasitePbAl2(CO3)2(OH)4 · H2O
Al CeruleiteCu2Al7(AsO4)4(OH)13 · 11.5H2O
SiSilicon
Si ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Si MattheddleitePb5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5(Cl,OH)
Si HalloysiteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Si OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
Si ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Si QuartzSiO2
Si Stilpnomelane(K,Ca,Na)(Fe2+,Mg,Al)8(Si,Al)12(O,OH)36 · nH2O
Si Chamosite(Fe2+,Mg,Al,Fe3+)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH,O)8
PPhosphorus
P CorkitePbFe3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
P LibetheniteCu2(PO4)(OH)
P Philipsburgite(Cu,Zn)6(AsO4,PO4)2(OH)6 · H2O
P PlumbogummitePbAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
P PseudomalachiteCu5(PO4)2(OH)4
P PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
P Monazite-(La)La(PO4)
P FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
P CattiiteMg3(PO4)2 · 22H2O
P Churchite-(Y)Y(PO4) · 2H2O
P BerauniteFe2+Fe53+(PO4)4(OH)5 · 6H2O
SSulfur
S BorniteCu5FeS4
S AnglesitePbSO4
S ArsenopyriteFeAsS
S BeudantitePbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
S CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
S ChalcoalumiteCuAl4(SO4)(OH)12 · 3H2O
S ChalcophylliteCu18Al2(AsO4)4(SO4)3(OH)24 · 36H2O
S ConnelliteCu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2O
S CorkitePbFe3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
S CovelliteCuS
S CyanotrichiteCu4Al2(SO4)(OH)12 · 2H2O
S DevillineCaCu4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
S GalenaPbS
S LangiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
S LeadhillitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
S LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
S MattheddleitePb5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5(Cl,OH)
S AlloclasiteCo1-xFexAsS
S ParnauiteCu9(AsO4)2(SO4)(OH)10 · 7H2O
S PyriteFeS2
S SphaleriteZnS
S StanniteCu2FeSnS4
S WoodwarditeCu1-xAlx(OH)2(SO4)x/2 · nH2O
S WroewolfeiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
S BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
S GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
S SulphurS8
S BismuthiniteBi2S3
S HidalgoitePbAl3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
S JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S RedgilliteCu6(SO4)(OH)10 · H2O
S Pitticite(Fe, SO4, AsO4, H2O) ?
S MilleriteNiS
S Schulenbergite(Cu,Zn)7(SO4)2(OH)10 · 3H2O
S Wurtzite(Zn,Fe)S
S Beaverite-(Cu)Pb(Fe23+Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6
S PlumbojarositePb0.5Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
S BieberiteCoSO4 · 7H2O
S SerpieriteCa(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
ClChlorine
Cl ConnelliteCu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2O
Cl MattheddleitePb5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5(Cl,OH)
Cl MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
Cl PhosgenitePb2CO3Cl2
Cl PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
Cl HaliteNaCl
Cl LaurionitePbCl(OH)
Cl AtacamiteCu2(OH)3Cl
Cl ParatacamiteCu3(Cu,Zn)(OH)6Cl2
Cl VanadinitePb5(VO4)3Cl
KPotassium
K PharmacosideriteKFe43+(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
K OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
K JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
K Stilpnomelane(K,Ca,Na)(Fe2+,Mg,Al)8(Si,Al)12(O,OH)36 · nH2O
K PharmacoalumiteKAl4(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6.5H2O
CaCalcium
Ca AragoniteCaCO3
Ca Birnessite(Na,Ca)0.5(Mn4+,Mn3+)2O4 · 1.5H2O
Ca DevillineCaCu4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Ca ScheeliteCa(WO4)
Ca AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Ca DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Ca GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
Ca Stilpnomelane(K,Ca,Na)(Fe2+,Mg,Al)8(Si,Al)12(O,OH)36 · nH2O
Ca ArseniosideriteCa2Fe33+(AsO4)3O2 · 3H2O
Ca ZálesíiteCaCu6(AsO4)2(AsO3OH)(OH)6 · 3H2O
Ca TyroliteCa2Cu9(AsO4)4(CO3)(OH)8 · 11H2O
Ca SerpieriteCa(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
TiTitanium
Ti AnataseTiO2
VVanadium
V MottramitePbCu(VO4)(OH)
V VanadinitePb5(VO4)3Cl
MnManganese
Mn Birnessite(Na,Ca)0.5(Mn4+,Mn3+)2O4 · 1.5H2O
FeIron
Fe BorniteCu5FeS4
Fe ArsenopyriteFeAsS
Fe BeudantitePbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Fe CarminitePbFe23+(AsO4)2(OH)2
Fe CorkitePbFe3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Fe Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
Fe Liskeardite[(Al,Fe)32(AsO4)18(OH)42(H2O)22] · 52H2O
Fe AlloclasiteCo1-xFexAsS
Fe PharmacosideriteKFe43+(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe ScoroditeFe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
Fe SegnititePbFe33+AsO4(AsO3OH)(OH)6
Fe StanniteCu2FeSnS4
Fe Varlamoffite(Sn,Fe)(O,OH)2
Fe AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Fe JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Fe JeanbandyiteFe3+xFe2+1-xSn(OH)6-xOx (1 ≥ x > 0.5)
Fe NataniteFe2+[Sn(OH)6]
Fe SideriteFeCO3
Fe Stilpnomelane(K,Ca,Na)(Fe2+,Mg,Al)8(Si,Al)12(O,OH)36 · nH2O
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe Pitticite(Fe, SO4, AsO4, H2O) ?
Fe Chamosite(Fe2+,Mg,Al,Fe3+)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH,O)8
Fe Lepidocrociteγ-Fe3+O(OH)
Fe ArseniosideriteCa2Fe33+(AsO4)3O2 · 3H2O
Fe Beaverite-(Cu)Pb(Fe23+Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6
Fe PlumbojarositePb0.5Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
Fe BerauniteFe2+Fe53+(PO4)4(OH)5 · 6H2O
CoCobalt
Co ErythriteCo3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
Co AlloclasiteCo1-xFexAsS
Co BieberiteCoSO4 · 7H2O
NiNickel
Ni MilleriteNiS
Ni AnnabergiteNi3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
CuCopper
Cu BayldonitePbCu3(AsO4)2(OH)2
Cu BorniteCu5FeS4
Cu Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
Cu AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Cu CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
Cu ChalcoalumiteCuAl4(SO4)(OH)12 · 3H2O
Cu Cuprite (var: Chalcotrichite)Cu2O
Cu ChalcophylliteCu18Al2(AsO4)4(SO4)3(OH)24 · 36H2O
Cu ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Cu ConnelliteCu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2O
Cu CornubiteCu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
Cu CornwalliteCu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
Cu CovelliteCuS
Cu CupriteCu2O
Cu CyanotrichiteCu4Al2(SO4)(OH)12 · 2H2O
Cu CopperCu
Cu DevillineCaCu4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Cu DuftitePbCu(AsO4)(OH)
Cu LangiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
Cu LibetheniteCu2(PO4)(OH)
Cu LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Cu MixiteBiCu6(AsO4)3(OH)6 · 3H2O
Cu OliveniteCu2(AsO4)(OH)
Cu Agardite-(La)LaCu6(AsO4)3(OH)6 · 3H2O
Cu ParnauiteCu9(AsO4)2(SO4)(OH)10 · 7H2O
Cu Philipsburgite(Cu,Zn)6(AsO4,PO4)2(OH)6 · H2O
Cu PseudomalachiteCu5(PO4)2(OH)4
Cu StanniteCu2FeSnS4
Cu WoodwarditeCu1-xAlx(OH)2(SO4)x/2 · nH2O
Cu WroewolfeiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
Cu BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
Cu MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Cu Agardite-(Ce)CeCu6(AsO4)3(OH)6 · 3H2O
Cu RedgilliteCu6(SO4)(OH)10 · H2O
Cu ZincoliveniteCuZn(AsO4)(OH)
Cu Schulenbergite(Cu,Zn)7(SO4)2(OH)10 · 3H2O
Cu TenoriteCuO
Cu AtacamiteCu2(OH)3Cl
Cu Beaverite-(Cu)Pb(Fe23+Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6
Cu ParatacamiteCu3(Cu,Zn)(OH)6Cl2
Cu Rosasite(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
Cu MottramitePbCu(VO4)(OH)
Cu ZálesíiteCaCu6(AsO4)2(AsO3OH)(OH)6 · 3H2O
Cu CeruleiteCu2Al7(AsO4)4(OH)13 · 11.5H2O
Cu TyroliteCa2Cu9(AsO4)4(CO3)(OH)8 · 11H2O
Cu SerpieriteCa(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
ZnZinc
Zn Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
Zn Philipsburgite(Cu,Zn)6(AsO4,PO4)2(OH)6 · H2O
Zn SphaleriteZnS
Zn SmithsoniteZnCO3
Zn ZincoliveniteCuZn(AsO4)(OH)
Zn Schulenbergite(Cu,Zn)7(SO4)2(OH)10 · 3H2O
Zn Wurtzite(Zn,Fe)S
Zn ParatacamiteCu3(Cu,Zn)(OH)6Cl2
Zn Rosasite(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
Zn AdamiteZn2(AsO4)(OH)
Zn SerpieriteCa(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
AsArsenic
As BayldonitePbCu3(AsO4)2(OH)2
As Bettertonite[Al6(AsO4)3(OH)9(H2O)5]·11H2O
As Penberthycroftite[Al6(AsO4)3(OH)9(H2O)5]·8H2O
As ArsenopyriteFeAsS
As BeudantitePbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
As CarminitePbFe23+(AsO4)2(OH)2
As ChalcophylliteCu18Al2(AsO4)4(SO4)3(OH)24 · 36H2O
As CornubiteCu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
As CornwalliteCu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
As DuftitePbCu(AsO4)(OH)
As ErythriteCo3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
As Liskeardite[(Al,Fe)32(AsO4)18(OH)42(H2O)22] · 52H2O
As MansfielditeAlAsO4 · 2H2O
As MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
As MixiteBiCu6(AsO4)3(OH)6 · 3H2O
As AlloclasiteCo1-xFexAsS
As OliveniteCu2(AsO4)(OH)
As Agardite-(La)LaCu6(AsO4)3(OH)6 · 3H2O
As ParnauiteCu9(AsO4)2(SO4)(OH)10 · 7H2O
As PharmacosideriteKFe43+(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
As Philipsburgite(Cu,Zn)6(AsO4,PO4)2(OH)6 · H2O
As ScoroditeFe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
As SegnititePbFe33+AsO4(AsO3OH)(OH)6
As HidalgoitePbAl3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
As Agardite-(Ce)CeCu6(AsO4)3(OH)6 · 3H2O
As BulachiteAl2(AsO4)(OH)3 · 3H2O
As ZincoliveniteCuZn(AsO4)(OH)
As Pitticite(Fe, SO4, AsO4, H2O) ?
As PharmacoalumiteKAl4(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6.5H2O
As ArsenoliteAs2O3
As AnnabergiteNi3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
As ArseniosideriteCa2Fe33+(AsO4)3O2 · 3H2O
As AdamiteZn2(AsO4)(OH)
As ZálesíiteCaCu6(AsO4)2(AsO3OH)(OH)6 · 3H2O
As CeruleiteCu2Al7(AsO4)4(OH)13 · 11.5H2O
As TyroliteCa2Cu9(AsO4)4(CO3)(OH)8 · 11H2O
YYttrium
Y Churchite-(Y)Y(PO4) · 2H2O
MoMolybdenum
Mo WulfenitePb(MoO4)
AgSilver
Ag SilverAg
SnTin
Sn CassiteriteSnO2
Sn StanniteCu2FeSnS4
Sn Varlamoffite(Sn,Fe)(O,OH)2
Sn JeanbandyiteFe3+xFe2+1-xSn(OH)6-xOx (1 ≥ x > 0.5)
Sn NataniteFe2+[Sn(OH)6]
LaLanthanum
La Agardite-(La)LaCu6(AsO4)3(OH)6 · 3H2O
La Monazite-(La)La(PO4)
CeCerium
Ce Agardite-(Ce)CeCu6(AsO4)3(OH)6 · 3H2O
WTungsten
W ScheeliteCa(WO4)
W StolzitePb(WO4)
PbLead
Pb BayldonitePbCu3(AsO4)2(OH)2
Pb AnglesitePbSO4
Pb BeudantitePbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Pb CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
Pb CarminitePbFe23+(AsO4)2(OH)2
Pb CerussitePbCO3
Pb CorkitePbFe3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Pb DuftitePbCu(AsO4)(OH)
Pb GalenaPbS
Pb LeadhillitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
Pb LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Pb MattheddleitePb5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5(Cl,OH)
Pb MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
Pb PhosgenitePb2CO3Cl2
Pb PlumbogummitePbAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
Pb PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
Pb SegnititePbFe33+AsO4(AsO3OH)(OH)6
Pb HidalgoitePbAl3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Pb LaurionitePbCl(OH)
Pb DundasitePbAl2(CO3)2(OH)4 · H2O
Pb StolzitePb(WO4)
Pb WulfenitePb(MoO4)
Pb Beaverite-(Cu)Pb(Fe23+Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6
Pb PlumbojarositePb0.5Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
Pb MottramitePbCu(VO4)(OH)
Pb VanadinitePb5(VO4)3Cl
BiBismuth
Bi Bismutite(BiO)2CO3
Bi MixiteBiCu6(AsO4)3(OH)6 · 3H2O
Bi BismuthiniteBi2S3

Geochronology

Geologic TimeRocks, Minerals and Events
Phanerozoic
 Paleozoic
  Permian
   Guadalupian
ⓘ Major polymetallic mineralization~270 MaCornwall, England, UK
   Cisuralian
ⓘ Porphyry dikes intruded (latest age)~275 MaCornwall, England, UK
ⓘ Greisenization (latest age)~280 MaCornwall, England, UK
ⓘ Porphyry dikes intruded (earliest age)~280 MaCornwall, England, UK
ⓘ Formation of metallized pegmatites~285 MaCornwall, England, UK
ⓘ Greisenization (earliest age)~285 MaCornwall, England, UK
ⓘ Emplacement of major plutons~295 MaCornwall, England, UK

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Early Carboniferous
323.2 - 358.9 Ma



ID: 3192903
Paleozoic sedimentary rocks

Age: Mississippian (323.2 - 358.9 Ma)

Lithology: Sedimentary rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Late Devonian
358.9 - 382.7 Ma



ID: 2033495
Upper Devonian Rocks (Undifferentiated)

Age: Late Devonian (358.9 - 382.7 Ma)

Lithology: Mudstone, siltstone and sandstone

Reference: British Geological Survey. DiGMapGB-625. British Geological Survey ©NERC. [23]

Late Devonian
358.9 - 382.7 Ma



ID: 3135052
Late Devonian claystone

Age: Late Devonian (358.9 - 382.7 Ma)

Lithology: Claystone

Reference: Asch, K. The 1:5M International Geological Map of Europe and Adjacent Areas: Development and Implementation of a GIS-enabled Concept. Geologisches Jahrbuch, SA 3. [147]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Kingsbury, A.W.G. (1954) Transactions of the Royal Geological Society of Cornwall, vol. 18, part 4 (for 1952), 392 and 395.
Dines, H.G. (1956) The metalliferous mining region of south-west England. Economic memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great Britain.
Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1956) Atacamite from Cumberland and Cornwall. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(235), 349-350.
Kingsbury, A.W.G. (1957) New occurrences of phosgenite. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(237), 500-501.
Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1957) New occurrences of arseniosiderite. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(237), 499-500.
Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1957) New occurrences of rosasite in Britain. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(237), 501-502.
Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1960) Carminite and beudantite from the northern part of the Lake District and from Cornwall. Mineralogical Magazine, 32(249), 423-432 (referring to Kingsbury 1954).
Sumin De Portilla, V., Portilla Quevedo, M., and Stepanov, V.I. (1981) The structure of bayldonite: chemical analysis, differential thermal analysis, and IR spectroscopy. American Mineralogist, 66, 148-153.
Goode, A.J.J. and Taylor, R.T. (1988) Geology of the country around Penzance. British Geological Survey, London, 52 pages and map.
Betterton, J. (1989) Birnessite from Penberthy Croft Mine, Cornwall - a Second English Occurrence. Journal of the Russell Society, 2(2), 48.
Camm, G.S. and Merry, M. (1991) Bayldonite and its associates from Penberthy Croft, Cornwall. UK Journal of Mines & Minerals, 9, 6-15.
Golley, P. and Williams, R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications, Truro, Cornwall.
Rust, S.A. (1995) Bismutite from Penberthy Croft Mine, St. Hilary, Cornwall. UK Journal of Mines & Minerals, 15, 18.
Betterton, J. (1996) Monazite-(La) and Anatase from Penberthy Croft Mine, St. Hilary, Cornwall. UK Journal of Mines & Minerals, 16, 13.
Betterton, J. (1996) Tenorite from Penberthy Croft Mine, Cornwall. UK Journal of Mines & Minerals, 17, 18.
Betterton, J., Green, D.I., Jewson, C., Spratt, J., and Tandy, P. (1998) The composition and structure of jeanbandyite and natanite. Mineralogical Magazine, 62(5), 707-712.
Betterton, J. (2000) Famous Mineral Localities: Penberthy Croft Mine, St. Hilary, Cornwall, England. UK Journal of Mines & Minerals, 20, 7-37.
Ryback, G., Hart, A.D., and Stanley, C.J. (2001) A.W.G. Kingsbury 's specimens of British minerals. Part I: Some examples of falsified localities. Journal of the Russell Society, 7(2).
Moulding, D., Hooper, J., and Green, D.I. (2008) Stolzite from Penberthy Croft Mine, St Hilary, Cornwall. Journal of the Russell Society, 11, 88-90.
Braithwaite, R.S.W., Green, D.I., and Tindle, A.G. (2009) The distribution and composition of adamite and zincolivenite in Britain and Ireland. Journal of the Russell Society, 12, 3–9.
Grey, I.E., Kampf, A.R., Price, J.R., and Macrae, C.M. (2015) Bettertonite, [Al₆(AsO₄)₃(OH)₉ (H₂O)₅ ]·11H₂O, a new mineral from the Penberthy Croft mine, St. Hilary, Cornwall, UK, with a structure based on polyoxometalate clusters. Mineralogical Magazine, 79(7), 1849-1858.
Grey, I.E., Betterton, J., Kampf, A.R., Macrae, C.M., Shanks, F.L., and Price, J.R. (2016) Penberthycroftite, [Al₆(AsO₄)₃(OH)₉ (H₂O)₅ ]·8H₂O, a second new hydrated aluminium arsenate mineral from the Penberthy Croft mine, St. Hilary, Cornwall, UK. Mineralogical Magazine, 80(7), 1149-1160.
Grey, I.E., Brand, H.E.A., and Betterton, J. (2016) Dehydration phase transitions in new aluminium arsenate minerals from the Penberthy Croft mine, Cornwall, UK. Mineralogical Magazine, 80(7), 1205-1217.

Localities in this Region
Show map

  • England

This page contains all mineral locality references listed on mindat.org. This does not claim to be a complete list. If you know of more minerals from this site, please register so you can add to our database. This locality information is for reference purposes only. You should never attempt to visit any sites listed in mindat.org without first ensuring that you have the permission of the land and/or mineral rights holders for access and that you are aware of all safety precautions necessary.
Mineral and/or Locality  
Mindat.org is an outreach project of the Hudson Institute of Mineralogy, a 501(c)(3) not-for-profit organization.
Copyright © mindat.org and the Hudson Institute of Mineralogy 1993-2019, except where stated. Mindat.org relies on the contributions of thousands of members and supporters.
Privacy Policy - Terms & Conditions - Contact Us Current server date and time: January 16, 2019 04:44:57 Page generated: January 9, 2019 15:13:40
Go to top of page