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Penberthy Croft Mine, St Hilary, Cornwall, England, UKi
Regional Level Types
Penberthy Croft MineMine
St HilaryCivil Parish
CornwallCounty
EnglandConstituent Country
UKCountry

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
50° 8' 28'' North , 5° 25' 26'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal):
UK National Grid Reference:
SW555324
Locality type:
Köppen climate type:
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Marazion1,294 (2017)4.0km
Germoe175 (2017)4.3km
Hayle8,210 (2017)4.7km
Uny Lelant1,056 (2017)4.8km
Leedstown267 (2017)5.4km


Penberthy Croft mine is situated approximately one mile northeast of the village of Goldsithney in the parish of St. Hilary, Cornwall, England (NGR SW 555 324). The locality is a prolific source of rare and unusual secondary minerals of which the Cu-Pb-Fe-Al arsenates are the best known. Penberthy Croft is the type locality for the following species: the copper lead arsenate bayldonite and the aluminium arsenates bettertonite and penberthycroftite.

Penberthy Croft is the first, or joint first recorded site for the tin hydroxide minerals jeanbandyite and natanite in the British Isles. Segnitite is also first recorded at this location.

The land is owned by the St. Aubyn Estate. Permission for site visits and bona fide research must be made prior to any visit through the Agent for the St. Aubyn Estates. The address is Manor Office, Marazion, Cornwall, TR17 0EF, England. Telephone: +44 (0) 1736 710507.

History:


The mine is quite ancient and records of output give approximately 3,000 tons of copper ore toward the end of the 18th century. Mixed copper and tin mining took place at depth at a later date, the lodes being stoped out to a depth of 53 fathoms below adit level.

The mine closed around 1840. There being no further activity until recent years when at a time of high tin prices the dumps were sampled to evaluate their cassiterite content. The mine became listed as an SSSI by English Nature for its mineralisation in 1993.

Geology:


The sett is situated in Devonian metasediments consisting of lower-grade-greenschist facies (killas) slates between the Land's End and Godolphin granite masses. The slates belong to the Mylor Slates Formation and are a series of dark coloured rocks with a slaty cleavage and well-developed foliation. They are generally characterised by a series of siltstones and mudstones, with occasional impersistent sandstone sequences. A series of interbedded metabasic rocks strikes east-west within the sett. The main Penberthy lode strikes east-west and dips to the south. The lode is associated with a rhyolite porphyry elvan dyke and cross course structures and is probably related to a shear zone. There are in addition five other named lodes within the sett.

Mineralisation:


The mineralisation is of a multi-stage, polymetallic and hydrothermal character. The deposit consists of several, but distinct overlapping assemblages: Minor, burial-related quartz-albite-anatase-monazite veins of a pre-tectonic, metamorphic origin; main-stage high-temperature hypothermal-mesothermal Sn-Cu-As-W veins; later lower-temperature epithermal Pb-Zn sulphide mineralisation; and a late-stage, low-temperature Fe-Mn mineralisation. Subsequent supergene oxidation and weathering of lodes resulted in the formation of complex gossans with oxide and supergene enrichment zones. Post-mining formation of other minerals both underground and on the dumps has resulted in a very large variety of mineral species in a small area. These in order of approximate abundance include arsenates, arsenate-sulphates, and phosphates. The greatest diversity in terms of species has been located in five main areas of the old dumps: Three in the western and two in the eastern section of the workings. Most minerals here are found as good quality subhedral to euhedral microcrystals with occasional miniature specimens. Brecciation, fracturing, silicification, chloritization, and carbonatization are abundant. The mineralisation formed over a very wide period of time extending from the Upper Palaeozoic through to the Cenozoic.

A major comprehensive mineralogical study was recently completed on this important locality by Betterton (2000) and was published in the UK Journal of Mines & Minerals, 20, 7-37.

Note on the mineral list:


Reference to adamite at Penberthy Croft is from Kingsbury. Given the doubts about the provenance of other Kingsbury specimens (Ryback et al. 1998, 2001), investigated this and discredited the occurrence.

Unknowns (UK PC = Unknown Penberthy Croft) from the John Betterton Collection under investigations:
UK PC2? MnxOx
UK PC3? Cu+Zn+As+Mn+Fe+Co??+La???+O
Additional work is required on these unknowns.

Regions containing this locality

Eurasian PlateTectonic Plate
EuropeContinent
British IslesGroup of Islands
Devon and Cornwall metalliferous mining district, England, UKMining District
Mount's Bay Mining District, Cornwall, England, UKMining District

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

110 valid minerals. 3 (TL) - type locality of valid minerals. 10 erroneous literature entries.

Detailed Mineral List:

Adamite
Formula: Zn2(AsO4)(OH)
Description: A review of British occurrences by Braithwaite et al (2009) shows that most of the material that has been reported as adamite is in fact zincolivenite, included the studied adamite from Penberthy Croft Mine.
Reference: Golley, P., Williams, R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications, Truro, Cornwall. Braithwaite, R.S.W., Green, D.I., Tindle, A.G. (2009) The distribution and composition of adamite and zincolivenite in Britain and Ireland. Journal of the Russell Society, 12, 3–9.
Agardite-(Ce)
Formula: CeCu6(AsO4)3(OH)6 · 3H2O
Reference: Golley, P., Williams, R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications, Truro, Cornwall.
Agardite-(La)
Formula: LaCu6(AsO4)3(OH)6 · 3H2O
Reference: Betterton, J. (2000) Famous Mineral Localities: Penberthy Croft Mine, St. Hilary, Cornwall, England. UK Journal of Mines & Minerals, 20, 7-37.
Alloclasite
Formula: Co1-xFexAsS
Reference: Betterton, J. (2000) Famous Mineral Localities: Penberthy Croft Mine, St. Hilary, Cornwall, England. UK Journal of Mines & Minerals, 20, 7-37.
Anatase
Formula: TiO2
Habit: Thin platy
Colour: Black
Reference: Betterton, J. (1996) Monazite-(La) and Anatase from Penberthy Croft Mine, St. Hilary, Cornwall. UK Journal of Mines & Minerals, 16, 13.
Anglesite
Formula: PbSO4
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. (1957) New occurrences of phosgenite. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(237), 500-501. Betterton, J. (2000) Famous Mineral Localities: Penberthy Croft Mine, St. Hilary, Cornwall, England. UK Journal of Mines & Minerals, 20, 7-37.
Ankerite
Formula: Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Reference: Betterton, J. (2000) Famous Mineral Localities: Penberthy Croft Mine, St. Hilary, Cornwall, England. UK Journal of Mines & Minerals, 20, 7-37.
Annabergite
Formula: Ni3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
Reference: Betterton, J. (2000) Famous Mineral Localities: Penberthy Croft Mine, St. Hilary, Cornwall, England. UK Journal of Mines & Minerals, 20, 7-37.
'Apatite Group' ?
Description: Originally recorded from the A.W.G. Kingsbury Collection, however given the discreditation of other Kingsbury specimens, apatite is considered unconfirmed.
Reference: No reference listed
Aragonite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Betterton, J. (2000) Famous Mineral Localities: Penberthy Croft Mine, St. Hilary, Cornwall, England. UK Journal of Mines & Minerals, 20, 7-37.
Arseniosiderite ?
Formula: Ca2Fe3+3(AsO4)3O2 · 3H2O
Description: Kingsbury Collection at the NHM. May be fraudulent.
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G., Hartley, J. (1957) New occurrences of arseniosiderite. Mineralogical Magazine, 31 (237) 499-500. Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. IV. Golley, P., Williams, R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications, Truro, Cornwall.
Arsenolite
Formula: As2O3
Habit: Octahedral
Colour: Colourless-white
Reference: Betterton, J. (2000) Famous Mineral Localities: Penberthy Croft Mine, St. Hilary, Cornwall, England. UK Journal of Mines & Minerals, 20, 7-37.
Arsenopyrite
Formula: FeAsS
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G., Hartley, J. (1957) New occurrences of arseniosiderite. Mineralogical Magazine, 31 (237) 499-500. Kingsbury, A.W.G., Hartley, J. (1960) Carminite and beudantite from the northern part of the Lake District and from Cornwall. Mineralogical Magazine, 32 (249), 423-432. Betterton, J., Green, D.I., Jewson, C., Spratt, J., Tandy, P. (1998) The composition and structure of jeanbandyite and natanite. Mineralogical Magazine, 62:5, 707-712. Betterton, J. (2000) Famous Mineral Localities: Penberthy Croft Mine, St. Hilary, Cornwall, England. UK Journal of Mines & Minerals, 20, 7-37. Moulding, D., Hooper, J., Green, D.I. (2008) Stolzite from Penberthy Croft Mine, St Hilary, Cornwall. Journal of the Russell Society, 11, 88-90.
Atacamite ?
Formula: Cu2(OH)3Cl
Description: Kingsbury Collection at the NHM. May be fraudulent.
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G., Hartley, J. (1956) Atacamite from Cumberland and Cornwall. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(235), 349-350. Golley, P., Williams, R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications, Truro, Cornwall. Anthony, J. W. et al. (1997) Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 29.
Aurichalcite
Formula: (Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
Reference: Golley, P., Williams, R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications, Truro, Cornwall. Betterton, J. (2000) Famous Mineral Localities: Penberthy Croft Mine, St. Hilary, Cornwall, England. UK Journal of Mines & Minerals, 20, 7-37.
Azurite
Formula: Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Reference: Betterton, J. (2000) Famous Mineral Localities: Penberthy Croft Mine, St. Hilary, Cornwall, England. UK Journal of Mines & Minerals, 20, 7-37.
Bayldonite (TL)
Formula: PbCu3(AsO4)2(OH)2
Type Locality:
Reference: Sumin De Portilla, V., Portilla Quevedo, M., and Stepanov, V.I. (1981) The structure of bayldonite: chemical analysis, differential thermal analysis, and IR spectroscopy. American Mineralogist, 66, 148-153.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.; Camm, G.S. and Merry, M. (1991) Bayldonite & its associates from Penberthy Croft, Cornwall. U.K. Journal of Mines and Minerals, 9, 6-15. ; Golley, P. and Williams, R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications, Truro, Cornwall.
Beaverite-(Cu) ?
Formula: Pb(Fe3+2Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6
Description: Kingsbury reference, hence must be regarded as doubtful.
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. , Hartley, J. (1960) Carminite and beudantite from the northern part of the Lake District and from Cornwall. Mineralogical Magazine, 32(249), 423-432 (referring to Kingsbury 1954). Golley, P., Williams, R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications, Truro, Cornwall.
Beraunite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+5(PO4)4(OH)5 · 6H2O
Description: Kingsbury Collection at the NHM. Showed to be fraudulent. See http://www.mindat.org/mesg-104-355275.html
Reference: Golley, P., Williams, R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications, Truro, Cornwall.
Bettertonite (TL)
Formula: [Al6(AsO4)3(OH)9(H2O)5]·11H2O
Type Locality:
Description: It occurs as tufts of white, ultrathin (sub-micrometre) rectangular laths, with lateral dimensions generally <20 μm. The laths are flattened on {010} and exhibit the forms {010}, {100} and {001}. The mineral is associated closely with arsenopyrite, chamosite, liskeardite, pharmacoalumite, pharmacosiderite and quartz. Bettertonite is translucent with a white streak and a vitreous to pearly, somewhat silky lustre.[[1]]
Reference: Grey, I.E., Kampf, A.R., Price, J.R., MacRae, C.M. (2015) Bettertonite, IMA 2014-074. CNMNC Newsletter No. 23, February 2015, page 55. Williams, P.A., Hatert, F., Pasero, M., Mills, S.J. (2015) New minerals and nomenclature modifications approved in 2014 and 2015. Mineralogical Magazine, 79:1, 51-58. [[1]] Grey, I.E., Kampf, A.R., Price, J.R., Macrae, C.M. (2015) Bettertonite, [Al₆(AsO₄)₃(OH)₉ (H₂O)₅ ]·11H₂O, a new mineral from the Penberthy Croft mine, St. Hilary, Cornwall, UK, with a structure based on polyoxometalate clusters. Mineralogical Magazine, 79:7, 1849-1858.
Beudantite
Formula: PbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Habit: crusts, globular aggregates and "cuboid" rhombohedra
Colour: yellow, green, brown to black
Description: Kingsbury reference?
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. (1954) Transactions of the Royal Geological Society of Cornwall, vol. 18, part 4 (for 1952), p. 392. Kingsbury, A.W.G. , Hartley, J. (1960) Carminite and beudantite from the northern part of the Lake District and from Cornwall. Mineralogical Magazine, 32(249), 423-432 (referring to Kingsbury 1954). Golley, P., Williams, R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications, Truro, Cornwall. Betterton, J. (2000) Famous Mineral Localities: Penberthy Croft Mine, St. Hilary, Cornwall, England. UK Journal of Mines & Minerals, 20, 7-37.
Bieberite
Formula: CoSO4 · 7H2O
Description: Kingsbury Collection at the NHM. Showed to be fraudulent. See http://www.mindat.org/mesg-104-355275.html
Reference: Golley, P., Williams, R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications, Truro, Cornwall.
Birnessite
Formula: (Na,Ca)0.5(Mn4+,Mn3+)2O4 · 1.5H2O
Description: According to Betterton (1989) "Birnessite has been identified by X-ray diffraction methods at the British Museum (Natural History),(X-ray number 6713F) on specimens submitted in 1987 from the Penberthy Croft Mine, St Hilary, Cornwall [SW 558 324]. The mineral occurs here in weathered blocks of partially-cemented slate-rich veinstone below the surface of an old dump. It forms black glossy coatings up to 2 mm thick on massive quartz, botryoidal woodwardite (6712F), earthy goethite, and dolomite with brochantite crystals (6711F), connellite (7407F), wroewolfeite (6710F), and chalcopyrite."
Reference: Betterton, J. (1989) Birnessite from Penberthy Croft Mine, Cornwall - a Second English Occurrence. Journal of the Russell Society, 2:2, 48. Golley, P., Williams, R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications, Truro, Cornwall.
Bismuthinite
Formula: Bi2S3
Habit: Acicular
Reference: Betterton, J. (2000) Famous Mineral Localities: Penberthy Croft Mine, St. Hilary, Cornwall, England. UK Journal of Mines & Minerals, 20, 7-37. Betterton, J. (1998) Bismuthinite from Penberthy Croft Mine, Cornwall. U.K. Journal of Mines and Minerals, 19, 11.
Bismutite
Formula: (BiO)2CO3
Reference: Rust, S.A. (1995) Bismutite from Penberthy Croft Mine, St. Hilary, Cornwall. UK Journal of Mines & Mines, 15, 18.
Bornite
Formula: Cu5FeS4
Reference: Betterton, J. (2000) Famous Mineral Localities: Penberthy Croft Mine, St. Hilary, Cornwall, England. UK Journal of Mines & Minerals, 20, 7-37.
Brochantite
Formula: Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
Reference: Golley, P., Williams, R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications, Truro, Cornwall. Betterton, J. (2000) Famous Mineral Localities: Penberthy Croft Mine, St. Hilary, Cornwall, England. UK Journal of Mines & Minerals, 20, 7-37.
Bulachite
Formula: Al2(AsO4)(OH)3 · 3H2O
Reference: http://collections.museumvictoria.com.au/object.php?irn=37102; Grey, I.E., Betterton, J., Kampf, A.R., Macrae, C.M., Shanks, F.L., Price, J.R. (2016) Penberthycroftite, [Al₆(AsO₄)₃(OH)₉ (H₂O)₅ ]·8H₂O, a second new hydrated aluminium arsenate mineral from the Penberthy Croft mine, St. Hilary, Cornwall, UK. Mineralogical Magazine, 80:7, 1149-1160.
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Betterton, J. (2000) Famous Mineral Localities: Penberthy Croft Mine, St. Hilary, Cornwall, England. UK Journal of Mines & Minerals, 20, 7-37.
Caledonite
Formula: Pb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
Description: Suspected occurrences of Caledonite from the mine are usually associated with other basic copper/lead sulphates such as Brochantite and Linarite with Cerussite and occasionally Mimetite.
Reference: Golley, P., Williams, R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications, Truro, Cornwall. Betterton, J. (2000) Famous Mineral Localities: Penberthy Croft Mine, St. Hilary, Cornwall, England. UK Journal of Mines & Minerals, 20, 7-37.
Carminite
Formula: PbFe3+2(AsO4)2(OH)2
Description: Kingsbury reference?
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. (1954) Transactions of the Royal Geological Society of Cornwall, vol. 18, part 4 (for 1952), p. 395. Kingsbury, A.W.G. , Hartley, J. (1960) Carminite and beudantite from the northern part of the Lake District and from Cornwall. Mineralogical Magazine, 32(249), 423-432 (referring to Kingsbury 1954). Golley, P., Williams, R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications, Truro, Cornwall. Betterton, J. (2000) Famous Mineral Localities: Penberthy Croft Mine, St. Hilary, Cornwall, England. UK Journal of Mines & Minerals, 20, 7-37.
Cassiterite
Formula: SnO2
Reference: Betterton, J. (2000) Famous Mineral Localities: Penberthy Croft Mine, St. Hilary, Cornwall, England. UK Journal of Mines & Minerals, 20, 7-37.
Cattiite ?
Formula: Mg3(PO4)2 · 22H2O
Description: Kingsbury Collection at the NHM. May be fraudulent
Reference: http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:8rDhWIquacQJ:rruff.info/doclib/hom/cattiite.pdf+penberthy+croft+mine&cd=48&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=uk
Ceruleite
Formula: Cu2Al7(AsO4)4(OH)13 · 11.5H2O
Description: Kingsbury Collection at the NHM. Showed to be fraudulent. See http://www.mindat.org/mesg-104-355275.html
Reference: Golley, P., Williams, R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications, Truro, Cornwall.
Cerussite
Formula: PbCO3
Reference: Golley, P. and Williams, R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications, Truro, 71pp; Betterton, J. (2000) Famous Mineral Localities: Penberthy Croft Mine, St. Hilary, Cornwall, England. UK Journal of Mines & Minerals, 20, 7-37
Chalcoalumite
Formula: CuAl4(SO4)(OH)12 · 3H2O
Description: Identified by X-Ray diffraction at the Natural History Museum, London. (http://users.breathe.com/minerals/minloc/pencroft/pencroft2.htm)
Reference: Golley, P., Williams, R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications, Truro, Cornwall. Betterton, J. (2000) Famous Mineral Localities: Penberthy Croft Mine, St. Hilary, Cornwall, England. UK Journal of Mines & Minerals, 20, 7-37.
Chalcophyllite
Formula: Cu18Al2(AsO4)4(SO4)3(OH)24 · 36H2O
Reference: Golley, P., Williams, R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications, Truro, Cornwall. Betterton, J. (2000) Famous Mineral Localities: Penberthy Croft Mine, St. Hilary, Cornwall, England. UK Journal of Mines & Minerals, 20, 7-37.
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Reference: Betterton, J. (2000) Famous Mineral Localities: Penberthy Croft Mine, St. Hilary, Cornwall, England. UK Journal of Mines & Minerals, 20, 7-37. Moulding, D., Hooper, J., Green, D.I. (2008) Stolzite from Penberthy Croft Mine, St Hilary, Cornwall. Journal of the Russell Society, 11, 88-90.
Chamosite
Formula: (Fe2+,Mg,Al,Fe3+)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH,O)8
Reference: Grey, I.E., Kampf, A.R., Price, J.R. and Macrae, C.M. (2015): Bettertonite, [Al6(AsO4)3(OH)9(H2O)5]·11H2O, a new mineral from the Penberthy Croft mine, St. Hilary, Cornwall, UK, with a structure based on polyoxometalate clusters. Mineralogical Magazine 49, 1849-1858.
'Chlorite Group'
Reference: Betterton, J., Green D.I, Jewson, C., Spratt, J., and Tandy, P. (1998) The composition and structure of jeanbandyite and natanite. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 62, n° 5, 707-712.; Moulding, D., Hooper, J., and Green, D.I. (2008) Stolzite from Penberthy Croft Mine, St Hilary, Cornwall. Journal of the Russell Society, vol. 11, 88-90.
Chrysocolla
Formula: Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Reference: Betterton, J. (2000) Famous Mineral Localities: Penberthy Croft Mine, St. Hilary, Cornwall, England. UK Journal of Mines & Minerals, 20, 7-37
Churchite-(Y) ?
Formula: Y(PO4) · 2H2O
Colour: Brown
Description: Lack of analytical data, see also http://www.mindat.org/forum.php?read,6,346170,352193
Reference: Manchester University Museum; Steve Rust photo & collection photo ID: 198168
Clinochlore
Formula: Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Reference: Betterton, J. (2000) Famous Mineral Localities: Penberthy Croft Mine, St. Hilary, Cornwall, England. UK Journal of Mines & Minerals, 20, 7-37.
Connellite
Formula: Cu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2O
Reference: Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications; Betterton, J. (2000) Famous Mineral Localities: Penberthy Croft Mine, St. Hilary, Cornwall, England. UK Journal of Mines & Minerals, 20, 7-37.
Copper
Formula: Cu
Reference: Betterton, J. (2000) Famous Mineral Localities: Penberthy Croft Mine, St. Hilary, Cornwall, England. UK Journal of Mines & Minerals, 20, 7-37.
Corkite
Formula: PbFe3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Description: Requires analytical confirmation.
Reference: Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications
Cornubite
Formula: Cu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
Reference: Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications
Cornwallite
Formula: Cu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
Reference: Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications
Covellite
Formula: CuS
Description: Can be associated with Native Sulphur.
Reference: Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications
Cuprite
Formula: Cu2O
Reference: No reference listed
Cuprite var: Chalcotrichite
Formula: Cu2O
Reference: Golley, P., Williams, R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications, Truro, Cornwall.
Cyanotrichite
Formula: Cu4Al2(SO4)(OH)12 · 2H2O
Reference: Camm, G.S., Merry, M. (1991) Bayldonite and its associates from Penberthy Croft, Cornwall. UK Journal of Mines & Minerals, 9, 6-15.
Devilline
Formula: CaCu4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Reference: Golley, P., Williams, R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications, Truro, Cornwall.
Dolomite
Formula: CaMg(CO3)2
Reference: No reference listed
Duftite
Formula: PbCu(AsO4)(OH)
Reference: Golley, P., Williams, R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications, Truro, Cornwall.
Dundasite
Formula: PbAl2(CO3)2(OH)4 · H2O
Reference: John Betterton at Haslemere Educational Museum.
Erythrite
Formula: Co3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
Reference: Golley, P., Williams, R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications, Truro, Cornwall.
Fluorapatite
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3F
Reference: Betterton, J. (2000) Famous Mineral Localities: Penberthy Croft Mine, St. Hilary, Cornwall, England. UK Journal of Mines & Minerals, 20, 7-37.
Galena
Formula: PbS
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. (1957) New occurrences of phosgenite. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(237) 500-501. Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications. Betterton, J., Green, D.I., Jewson, C., Spratt, J., Tandy, P. (1998) The composition and structure of jeanbandyite and natanite. Mineralogical Magazine, 62:5, 707-712. Betterton, J. (2000) Famous Mineral Localities: Penberthy Croft Mine, St. Hilary, Cornwall, England. UK Journal of Mines & Minerals, 20, 7-37. Moulding, D., Hooper, J., Green, D.I. (2008) Stolzite from Penberthy Croft Mine, St Hilary, Cornwall. Journal of the Russell Society, 11, 88-90.
Goethite
Formula: α-Fe3+O(OH)
Reference: Grey, I.E., Betterton, J., Kampf, A.R., Macrae, C.M., Shanks, F.L., Price, J.R. (2016) Penberthycroftite, [Al₆(AsO₄)₃(OH)₉ (H₂O)₅ ]·8H₂O, a second new hydrated aluminium arsenate mineral from the Penberthy Croft mine, St. Hilary, Cornwall, UK. Mineralogical Magazine, 80:7, 1149-1160.
Gypsum
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Reference: No reference listed
Halite
Formula: NaCl
Description: Needs analytical verification.
Reference: Golley, P., Williams, R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications, Truro, Cornwall.
'Halloysite'
Formula: Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Reference: No reference listed
Hidalgoite
Formula: PbAl3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Habit: Drusey crusts
Colour: Colourless, shades of, yellow, green, brown
Reference: Betterton, J. (2000) Famous Mineral Localities: Penberthy Croft Mine, St. Hilary, Cornwall, England. UK Journal of Mines & Minerals, 20, 7-37.
'Hornblende'
Description: Kingsbury Collection at the NHM. Showed to be fraudulent. See http://www.mindat.org/mesg-104-355275.html
Reference: Golley, P., Williams, R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications, Truro, Cornwall.
Jarosite
Formula: KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Reference: Betterton, J. (2000) Famous Mineral Localities: Penberthy Croft Mine, St. Hilary, Cornwall, England. UK Journal of Mines & Minerals, 20, 7-37. Golley, P., Williams, R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications, Truro, Cornwall.
Jeanbandyite
Formula: Fe3+xFe2+1-xSn(OH)6-xOx (1 ≥ x > 0.5)
Description: [[1]]"Specimens from Penberthy Croft Mine were identified at thc Natural History Muscum (London) using a combination of X-ray diffractometry and electron probe microanalysis." [[1]]"Jeanbandyite occurs in intimate intergrowth with natanite in lustrous, yellow, transparent to translucent, pseudo-octahedral crystals up to 0.4 mm across."
Reference: Betterton, J. (2000) Famous Mineral Localities: Penberthy Croft Mine, St. Hilary, Cornwall, England. UK Journal of Mines & Minerals, 20, 7-37. [[1]] Betterton, J., Green, D.I., Jewson, C., Spratt, J., Tandy, P. (1998) The composition and structure of jeanbandyite and natanite. Mineralogical Magazine, 62:5, 707-712.
Langite
Formula: Cu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
Reference: No reference listed
Laurionite
Formula: PbCl(OH)
Habit: Bladed, thin tabular
Colour: Colourless
Reference: Betterton, J. (2000) Famous Mineral Localities: Penberthy Croft Mine, St. Hilary, Cornwall, England. UK Journal of Mines & Minerals, 20, 7-37.
Leadhillite
Formula: Pb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
Reference: Golley, P., Williams, R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications, Truro, Cornwall.
Lepidocrocite ?
Formula: γ-Fe3+O(OH)
Description: Lack of analytical data
Reference: S Rust
Libethenite
Formula: Cu2(PO4)(OH)
Description: Needs analytical verification.
Reference: Golley, P., Williams, R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications, Truro, Cornwall.
Linarite
Formula: PbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Reference: Golley, P., Williams, R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications, Truro, Cornwall.
Liskeardite
Formula: [(Al,Fe)32(AsO4)18(OH)42(H2O)22] · 52H2O
Description: Note: It has been (erroneously) reported (Michael Merry, pers. comm., 2015) that "all liskeardite at Penberthy Croft is apparently bettertonite".
Reference: Golley, P., Williams, R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications, Truro, Cornwall. Grey, I.E., Kampf, A.R., Price, J.R., Macrae, C.M. (2015) Bettertonite, [Al₆(AsO₄)₃(OH)₉ (H₂O)₅ ]·11H₂O, a new mineral from the Penberthy Croft mine, St. Hilary, Cornwall, UK, with a structure based on polyoxometalate clusters. Mineralogical Magazine, 79:7, 1849-1858.
Malachite
Formula: Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Description: Kingsbury reference. John Betterton Collection.
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G., Hartley, J. (1957) New occurrences of rosasite in Britain. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(237), 501-502.
Mansfieldite
Formula: AlAsO4 · 2H2O
Reference: Golley, P., Williams, R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications, Truro, Cornwall.
Mattheddleite
Formula: Pb5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5(Cl,OH)
Habit: Prismatic
Colour: White
Reference: Betterton, J. (2000) Famous Mineral Localities: Penberthy Croft Mine, St. Hilary, Cornwall, England. UK Journal of Mines & Minerals, 20, 7-37.
Millerite
Formula: NiS
Habit: Prismatic acicular
Colour: Brassy
Reference: [UKJMM 16:15]
Mimetite
Formula: Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
Reference: Golley, P., Williams, R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications, Truro, Cornwall.
Mixite
Formula: BiCu6(AsO4)3(OH)6 · 3H2O
Reference: Golley, P., Williams, R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications, Truro, Cornwall.
'Monazite'
Reference: S Rust collection
Monazite-(La)
Formula: La(PO4)
Habit: Tabular
Colour: Black
Reference: Betterton, J. (1996) Monazite-(La) and Anatase from Penberthy Croft Mine, St. Hilary, Cornwall. UK Journal of Mines & Minerals, 16, 13.
Mottramite
Formula: PbCu(VO4)(OH)
Description: Kingsbury Collection at the NHM. Showed to be fraudulent. See http://www.mindat.org/mesg-104-355275.html
Reference: Golley, P., Williams, R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications, Truro, Cornwall.
Natanite
Formula: Fe2+[Sn(OH)6]
Reference: Betterton, J. (2000) Famous Mineral Localities: Penberthy Croft Mine, St. Hilary, Cornwall, England. UK Journal of Mines & Minerals, 20, 7-37. Betterton, J., Green, D.I., Jewson, C., Spratt, J., Tandy, P. (1998) The composition and structure of jeanbandyite and natanite. Mineralogical Magazine, 62:5, 707-712.
Olivenite
Formula: Cu2(AsO4)(OH)
Reference: Golley, P., Williams, R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications, Truro, Cornwall.
Olivenite var: Leucochalcite
Orthoclase
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Reference: Grey, I.E., Betterton, J., Kampf, A.R., Macrae, C.M., Shanks, F.L., Price, J.R. (2016) Penberthycroftite, [Al₆(AsO₄)₃(OH)₉ (H₂O)₅ ]·8H₂O, a second new hydrated aluminium arsenate mineral from the Penberthy Croft mine, St. Hilary, Cornwall, UK. Mineralogical Magazine, 80:7, 1149-1160.
Paratacamite ?
Formula: Cu3(Cu,Zn)(OH)6Cl2
Description: Kingsbury Collection at the NHM. May be fraudulent
Reference: Golley, P., Williams, R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications, Truro, Cornwall.
Parnauite
Formula: Cu9(AsO4)2(SO4)(OH)10 · 7H2O
Reference: Golley, P., Williams, R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications, Truro, Cornwall.
Penberthycroftite (TL)
Formula: [Al6(AsO4)3(OH)9(H2O)5]·8H2O
Type Locality:
Colour: White
Description: Penberthcroftite occurs as tufts of white, ultrathin (sub-micrometre) rectangular laths, with lateral dimensions generally < 20 μm. The laths are flattened on {010} and elongated on [100] [Grey et.al. 2016].
Reference: Grey, I.E., Betterton, J., Kampf, A.R., Price, J.R. and MacRae, C.M. (2015) Penberthycroftite, IMA 2015-025. CNMNC Newsletter No. 26, August 2015, page 943. Mineralogical Magazine, 79, 941-947. Grey, I.E., Betterton, J., Kampf, A.R., Macrae, C.M., Shanks, F.L., Price, J.R. (2016) Penberthycroftite, [Al₆(AsO₄)₃(OH)₉ (H₂O)₅ ]·8H₂O, a second new hydrated aluminium arsenate mineral from the Penberthy Croft mine, St. Hilary, Cornwall, UK. Mineralogical Magazine, 80:7, 1149-1160.
Pharmacoalumite
Formula: KAl4(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6.5H2O
Reference: Grey, I.E., Kampf, A.R., Price, J.R., Macrae, C.M. (2015) Bettertonite, [Al₆(AsO₄)₃(OH)₉ (H₂O)₅ ]·11H₂O, a new mineral from the Penberthy Croft mine, St. Hilary, Cornwall, UK, with a structure based on polyoxometalate clusters. Mineralogical Magazine, 79:7, 1849-1858.
Pharmacosiderite
Formula: KFe3+4(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
Reference: Golley, P., Williams, R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications, Truro, Cornwall.
Philipsburgite
Formula: (Cu,Zn)6(AsO4,PO4)2(OH)6 · H2O
Reference: Golley, P., Williams, R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications, Truro, Cornwall.
Phosgenite
Formula: Pb2CO3Cl2
Description: Kingsbury (1957): "small but well-defined prismatic crystals of phosgenite, associated with anglesite, on decomposed galena. The crystals of phosgenite are pale wine-yellow in colour, and of long prismatic habit, the larger of the two being about 8mm long and 2mm thick: both show well-developed terminal faces of c(001) and several small faces in the pyramid and prism zones, but the latter are in general very striated, with many small vicinal faces, and owing to the positions of the crystals in the cavity it is difficult to make out what most of the faces are."
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. (1957) New occurrences of phosgenite. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(237), 500-501. Golley, P., Williams, R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications, Truro, Cornwall.
Pitticite
Formula: (Fe, AsO4, H2O) (?)
Reference: Golley, P., Williams, R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications, Truro, Cornwall.
Plumbogummite
Formula: PbAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
Reference: Golley, P., Williams, R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications, Truro, Cornwall.
Plumbojarosite ?
Formula: Pb0.5Fe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6
Description: Kingsbury Collection at the NHM. May be fraudulent.
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. , Hartley, J. (1960) Carminite and beudantite from the northern part of the Lake District and from Cornwall. Mineralogical Magazine, 32(249), 423-432 (referring to Kingsbury 1954). Golley, P., Williams, R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications, Truro, Cornwall.
Pseudomalachite
Formula: Cu5(PO4)2(OH)4
Colour: Per Braithwaite - bright green
Description: Per Braithwaite - bright green minute spherules.
Reference: Golley, P., Williams, R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications, Truro, Cornwall. Braithwaite, R.S.W., Ryback, G. (1994) Reichenbachite from Cornwall and Portugal. Mineralogical Magazine, 58(392), 449-454.
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Moulding, D., Hooper, J., Green, D.I. (2008) Stolzite from Penberthy Croft Mine, St Hilary, Cornwall. Journal of the Russell Society, 11, 88-90.
Pyromorphite
Formula: Pb5(PO4)3Cl
Reference: Hall, T.M. (1868) The Mineralogist's Directory. Edward Stanford (London), 168 pages.
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. (1957) New occurrences of phosgenite. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(237), 500-501. Betterton, J., Green, D.I., Jewson, C., Spratt, J., Tandy, P. (1998) The composition and structure of jeanbandyite and natanite. Mineralogical Magazine, 62:5, 707-712. Betterton, J. (2000) Famous Mineral Localities: Penberthy Croft Mine, St. Hilary, Cornwall, England. UK Journal of Mines & Minerals, 20, 7-37. Moulding, D., Hooper, J., Green, D.I. (2008) Stolzite from Penberthy Croft Mine, St Hilary, Cornwall. Journal of the Russell Society, 11, 88-90.
Redgillite
Formula: Cu6(SO4)(OH)10 · H2O
Reference: Betterton, J. (2000) Famous Mineral Localities: Penberthy Croft Mine, St. Hilary, Cornwall, England. UK Journal of Mines & Minerals, 20, 7-37. Pluth, J.J., Steele, I.M., Kampf, A.R., Green, D.I. (2005) Redgillite, Cu₆(OH)₁₀(SO₄ )•H₂O, a new mineral from Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England: description and crystal structure. Mineralogical Magazine, 69:6, 973-980.
Rosasite ?
Formula: (Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
Description: Kingsbury Collection at the NHM. May be fraudulent.
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G., Hartley, J. (1957) New occurrences of rosasite in Britain. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(237), 501-502. Golley, P., Williams, R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications, Truro, Cornwall.
Scheelite
Formula: Ca(WO4)
Colour: pale yellow with resinous lustre
Reference: Betterton, J. (2000) Famous Mineral Localities: Penberthy Croft Mine, St. Hilary, Cornwall, England. UK Journal of Mines & Minerals, 20, 7-37. Moulding, D., Hooper, J., Green, D.I. (2008) Stolzite from Penberthy Croft Mine, St Hilary, Cornwall. Journal of the Russell Society, 11, 88-90.
Schulenbergite
Formula: (Cu,Zn)7(SO4)2(OH)10 · 3H2O
Habit: Botryoidal
Colour: Light turquoise- greenish blue
Reference: Betterton, J. (2000) Famous Mineral Localities: Penberthy Croft Mine, St. Hilary, Cornwall, England. UK Journal of Mines & Minerals, 20, 7-37.
Scorodite
Formula: Fe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G., Hartley, J. (1957) New occurrences of arseniosiderite. Mineralogical Magazine, 31 (237) 499-500. Golley, P., Williams, R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications, Truro, Cornwall.
Segnitite
Formula: PbFe3+3AsO4(AsO3OH)(OH)6
Reference: Golley, P., Williams, R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications, Truro, Cornwall.
Serpierite
Formula: Ca(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Description: Kingsbury Collection at the NHM. Showed to be fraudulent. See http://www.mindat.org/mesg-104-355275.html
Reference: Golley, P., Williams, R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications, Truro, Cornwall.
Siderite
Formula: FeCO3
Reference: Betterton, J. (2000) Famous Mineral Localities: Penberthy Croft Mine, St. Hilary, Cornwall, England. UK Journal of Mines & Minerals, 20, 7-37.
Silver ?
Formula: Ag
Description: Kingsbury reference. John Betterton Collection.
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G., Hartley, J. (1957) New occurrences of rosasite in Britain. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(237), 501-502. Golley, P., Williams, R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications, Truro, Cornwall.
Smithsonite
Formula: ZnCO3
Description: Needs analytical confirmation, the specimen could be botryoidal Scorodite.
Reference: Betterton, J. (2000) Famous Mineral Localities: Penberthy Croft Mine, St. Hilary, Cornwall, England. UK Journal of Mines & Minerals, 20, 7-37.
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Reference: Betterton, J., Green, D.I., Jewson, C., Spratt, J., Tandy, P. (1998) The composition and structure of jeanbandyite and natanite. Mineralogical Magazine, 62:5, 707-712. Moulding, D., Hooper, J., Green, D.I. (2008) Stolzite from Penberthy Croft Mine, St Hilary, Cornwall. Journal of the Russell Society, 11, 88-90.
Stannite
Formula: Cu2FeSnS4
Reference: Moulding, D., Hooper, J., Green, D.I. (2008) Stolzite from Penberthy Croft Mine, St Hilary, Cornwall. Journal of the Russell Society, 11, 88-90. Betterton, J. (2000) Famous Mineral Localities: Penberthy Croft Mine, St. Hilary, Cornwall, England. UK Journal of Mines & Minerals, 20, 7-37.
Stilpnomelane
Formula: (K,Ca,Na)(Fe2+,Mg,Al)8(Si,Al)12(O,OH)36 · nH2O
Reference: Betterton, J. (2000) Famous Mineral Localities: Penberthy Croft Mine, St. Hilary, Cornwall, England. UK Journal of Mines & Minerals, 20, 7-37. Betterton, J. (1997) Stilpnomelane from Penberthy Croft Mine, a Second Cornish Occurrence. UK Journal of Mines & Minerals, 18, 15.
Stolzite
Formula: Pb(WO4)
Habit: bipyramidal
Colour: colourless, pale buff, pale to dark brown
Description: The largest stolzite crystal on the specimen is an isolated double-terminated dark brown tetragonal bipyramid, which is 1.1 mm in length. The pale brown to buff crystal aggregates lining the polyhedral cavity are made up of smaller crystals, not usually exceeding 0.5 mm long. They cover areas up to 4 mm across and are commonly aggregated into masses that exhibit parallel growth. Most of the crystals are bounded by eight well-developed faces belonging to the common steeply pyramidal form n {11O}; this is sometimes truncated by the pinacoid c {001}, which is most often present on the larger crystals, and occasionally modified by A {111}. Less steeply pyramidal forms are present on a few crystals, but they are too small to measure reliably. Moulding, D., Hooper, J., Green, D.I. (2008) Stolzite from Penberthy Croft Mine, St Hilary, Cornwall. Journal of the Russell Society, 11, 88-90.
Reference: Moulding, D., Hooper, J., Green, D.I. (2008) Stolzite from Penberthy Croft Mine, St Hilary, Cornwall. Journal of the Russell Society, 11, 88-90.
Sulphur
Formula: S8
Reference: No reference listed
Tenorite
Formula: CuO
Habit: Earthy
Colour: Black
Reference: Betterton, J. (2000) Famous Mineral Localities: Penberthy Croft Mine, St. Hilary, Cornwall, England. UK Journal of Mines & Minerals, 20, 7-37. Betterton, J. (1996) Tenorite from Penberthy Croft Mine, Cornwall. UK Journal of Mines & Minerals, 17, 18.
Tyrolite
Formula: Ca2Cu9(AsO4)4(CO3)(OH)8 · 11H2O
Description: Kingsbury Collection at the NHM. Showed to be fraudulent. See http://www.mindat.org/mesg-104-355275.html
Reference: Golley, P., Williams, R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications, Truro, Cornwall.
Vanadinite
Formula: Pb5(VO4)3Cl
Description: Kingsbury Collection at the NHM. Showed to be fraudulent. See http://www.mindat.org/mesg-104-355275.html
Reference: Golley, P., Williams, R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications, Truro, Cornwall.
Varlamoffite
Formula: (Sn,Fe)(O,OH)2
Description: Yellow earthy masses in veinstone maybe Varlamoffite, or perhaps Bindheimite. Needs analytical confirmation.
Reference: Golley, P., Williams, R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications, Truro, Cornwall.
Woodwardite
Formula: Cu1-xAlx(OH)2(SO4)x/2 · nH2O
Reference: Betterton, J. (1989) Birnessite from Penberthy Croft Mine, Cornwall - a Second English Occurrence. Journal of the Russell Society, 2:2, 48. Golley, P., Williams, R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications, Truro, Cornwall.
Wroewolfeite
Formula: Cu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
Reference: Golley, P., Williams, R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications, Truro, Cornwall. Betterton, J. (1989) Birnessite from Penberthy Croft Mine, Cornwall - a Second English Occurrence. Journal of the Russell Society, 2:2, 48.
Wulfenite
Formula: Pb(MoO4)
Habit: Bipyramiddle
Colour: Yellowish
Description: Tiny >0.1mm bipyramidal crystals which may well be Stolzite
Reference: S Rust, Mindat.org
Wurtzite ?
Formula: (Zn,Fe)S
Description: Lack of analytical data
Zálesíite
Formula: CaCu6(AsO4)2(AsO3OH)(OH)6 · 3H2O
Description: Kingsbury Collection at the NHM. Showed to be fraudulent. See http://www.mindat.org/mesg-104-355275.html
Reference: Golley, P., Williams, R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications, Truro, Cornwall.
Zincolivenite
Formula: CuZn(AsO4)(OH)
Description: A review of British occurrences by Braithwaite et al (2009) shows that most of the material that has been reported as adamite is in fact zincolivenite, including the studied adamite from Penberthy Croft Mine.
Reference: Braithwaite, R.S.W., Green, D.I., Tindle, A.G. (2009) The distribution and composition of adamite and zincolivenite in Britain and Ireland. Journal of the Russell Society, 12, 3–9.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Copper1.AA.05Cu
Silver ?1.AA.05Ag
Sulphur1.CC.05S8
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Alloclasite2.EB.10bCo1-xFexAsS
Arsenopyrite2.EB.20FeAsS
Bismuthinite2.DB.05Bi2S3
Bornite2.BA.15Cu5FeS4
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Covellite2.CA.05aCuS
Galena2.CD.10PbS
Millerite2.CC.20NiS
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
Stannite2.CB.15aCu2FeSnS4
Wurtzite ?2.CB.45(Zn,Fe)S
Group 3 - Halides
Atacamite ?3.DA.10aCu2(OH)3Cl
Connellite3.DA.25Cu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2O
Halite3.AA.20NaCl
Laurionite3.DC.05PbCl(OH)
Paratacamite ?3.DA.10cCu3(Cu,Zn)(OH)6Cl2
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Anatase4.DD.05TiO2
Arsenolite4.CB.50As2O3
Birnessite4.FL.45(Na,Ca)0.5(Mn4+,Mn3+)2O4 · 1.5H2O
Cassiterite4.DB.05SnO2
Cuprite4.AA.10Cu2O
var: Chalcotrichite4.AA.10Cu2O
Goethite4.00.α-Fe3+O(OH)
Jeanbandyite4.FC.15Fe3+xFe2+1-xSn(OH)6-xOx (1 ≥ x > 0.5)
Lepidocrocite ?4.FE.15γ-Fe3+O(OH)
Natanite4.FC.10Fe2+[Sn(OH)6]
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Tenorite4.AB.10CuO
Varlamoffite4.DB.05(Sn,Fe)(O,OH)2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Ankerite5.AB.10Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Aragonite5.AB.15CaCO3
Aurichalcite5.BA.15(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
Azurite5.BA.05Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Bismutite5.BE.25(BiO)2CO3
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Cerussite5.AB.15PbCO3
Dolomite5.AB.10CaMg(CO3)2
Dundasite5.DB.10PbAl2(CO3)2(OH)4 · H2O
Leadhillite5.BF.40Pb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
Malachite5.BA.10Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Phosgenite5.BE.20Pb2CO3Cl2
Rosasite ?5.BA.10(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
Siderite5.AB.05FeCO3
Smithsonite5.AB.05ZnCO3
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Anglesite7.AD.35PbSO4
Beaverite-(Cu) ?7.BC.10Pb(Fe3+2Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6
Bieberite ?7.CB.35CoSO4 · 7H2O
Brochantite7.BB.25Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
Caledonite7.BC.50Pb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
Chalcoalumite7.DD.75CuAl4(SO4)(OH)12 · 3H2O
Cyanotrichite7.DE.10Cu4Al2(SO4)(OH)12 · 2H2O
Devilline7.DD.30CaCu4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Gypsum7.CD.40CaSO4 · 2H2O
Jarosite7.BC.10KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Langite7.DD.10Cu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
Linarite7.BC.65PbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Plumbojarosite ?7.BC.10Pb0.5Fe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6
Redgillite7.DD.70Cu6(SO4)(OH)10 · H2O
Scheelite7.GA.05Ca(WO4)
Schulenbergite7.DD.80(Cu,Zn)7(SO4)2(OH)10 · 3H2O
Serpierite ?7.DD.30Ca(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Stolzite7.GA.05Pb(WO4)
Woodwardite7.DD.35Cu1-xAlx(OH)2(SO4)x/2 · nH2O
Wroewolfeite7.DD.10Cu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
Wulfenite7.GA.05Pb(MoO4)
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Adamite ?8.BB.30Zn2(AsO4)(OH)
Agardite-(Ce)8.DL.15CeCu6(AsO4)3(OH)6 · 3H2O
Agardite-(La)8.DL.15LaCu6(AsO4)3(OH)6 · 3H2O
Annabergite8.CE.40Ni3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
Arseniosiderite ?8.DH.30Ca2Fe3+3(AsO4)3O2 · 3H2O
Bayldonite (TL)8.BH.45PbCu3(AsO4)2(OH)2
Beraunite ?8.DC.27Fe2+Fe3+5(PO4)4(OH)5 · 6H2O
Beudantite8.BL.05PbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Bulachite8.DE.15Al2(AsO4)(OH)3 · 3H2O
Carminite8.BH.30PbFe3+2(AsO4)2(OH)2
Cattiite ?8.CE.50Mg3(PO4)2 · 22H2O
Ceruleite ?8.DE.25Cu2Al7(AsO4)4(OH)13 · 11.5H2O
Chalcophyllite8.DF.30Cu18Al2(AsO4)4(SO4)3(OH)24 · 36H2O
Churchite-(Y) ?8.CJ.50Y(PO4) · 2H2O
Corkite8.BL.05PbFe3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Cornubite8.BD.30Cu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
Cornwallite8.BD.05Cu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
Duftite8.BH.35PbCu(AsO4)(OH)
Erythrite8.CE.40Co3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
Fluorapatite8.BN.05Ca5(PO4)3F
Hidalgoite8.BL.05PbAl3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Libethenite8.BB.30Cu2(PO4)(OH)
Liskeardite8.DF.10[(Al,Fe)32(AsO4)18(OH)42(H2O)22] · 52H2O
Mansfieldite8.CD.10AlAsO4 · 2H2O
Mimetite8.BN.05Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
Mixite8.DL.15BiCu6(AsO4)3(OH)6 · 3H2O
Monazite-(La)8.AD.50La(PO4)
Mottramite ?8.BH.40PbCu(VO4)(OH)
Olivenite8.BB.30Cu2(AsO4)(OH)
var: Leucochalcite8.BB.30Cu2(AsO4)(OH)
Parnauite8.DF.35Cu9(AsO4)2(SO4)(OH)10 · 7H2O
Pharmacoalumite8.DK.12KAl4(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6.5H2O
Pharmacosiderite8.DK.10KFe3+4(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
Philipsburgite8.DA.35(Cu,Zn)6(AsO4,PO4)2(OH)6 · H2O
Pitticite8.DB.05(Fe, AsO4, H2O) (?)
Plumbogummite8.BL.10PbAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
Pseudomalachite8.BD.05Cu5(PO4)2(OH)4
Pyromorphite8.BN.05Pb5(PO4)3Cl
Scorodite8.CD.10Fe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
Segnitite8.BL.10PbFe3+3AsO4(AsO3OH)(OH)6
Tyrolite ?8.DM.10Ca2Cu9(AsO4)4(CO3)(OH)8 · 11H2O
Vanadinite ?8.BN.05Pb5(VO4)3Cl
Zincolivenite8.BB.30CuZn(AsO4)(OH)
Zálesíite ?8.DL.15CaCu6(AsO4)2(AsO3OH)(OH)6 · 3H2O
Group 9 - Silicates
Chamosite9.EC.55(Fe2+,Mg,Al,Fe3+)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH,O)8
Chrysocolla9.ED.20Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Clinochlore9.EC.55Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
'Halloysite'9.ED.10Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Mattheddleite9.AH.25Pb5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5(Cl,OH)
Orthoclase9.FA.30K(AlSi3O8)
Stilpnomelane9.EG.40(K,Ca,Na)(Fe2+,Mg,Al)8(Si,Al)12(O,OH)36 · nH2O
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Apatite Group' ?-
Bettertonite (TL)-[Al6(AsO4)3(OH)9(H2O)5]·11H2O
'Chlorite Group'-
'Hornblende' ?-
'Monazite'-
Penberthycroftite (TL)-[Al6(AsO4)3(OH)9(H2O)5]·8H2O

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Copper1.1.1.3Cu
Silver ?1.1.1.2Ag
Semi-metals and non-metals
Sulphur1.3.5.1S8
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 3:2
Bornite2.5.2.1Cu5FeS4
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Covellite2.8.12.1CuS
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Millerite2.8.16.1NiS
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
Wurtzite ?2.8.7.1(Zn,Fe)S
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
Stannite2.9.2.1Cu2FeSnS4
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:3
Bismuthinite2.11.2.3Bi2S3
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Alloclasite2.12.6.2Co1-xFexAsS
Arsenopyrite2.12.4.1FeAsS
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X
Cuprite4.1.1.1Cu2O
AX
Tenorite4.2.3.1CuO
A2X3
Arsenolite4.3.9.1As2O3
AX2
Anatase4.4.4.1TiO2
Cassiterite4.4.1.5SnO2
Varlamoffite4.4.2.1(Sn,Fe)(O,OH)2
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
XO(OH)
Goethite6.1.1.2α-Fe3+O(OH)
Lepidocrocite ?6.1.2.2γ-Fe3+O(OH)
X(OH)3
Jeanbandyite6.3.7.3Fe3+xFe2+1-xSn(OH)6-xOx (1 ≥ x > 0.5)
Natanite6.3.6.3Fe2+[Sn(OH)6]
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
(AB)2X3
Birnessite7.5.3.1(Na,Ca)0.5(Mn4+,Mn3+)2O4 · 1.5H2O
Group 9 - NORMAL HALIDES
AX
Halite9.1.1.1NaCl
Group 10 - OXYHALIDES AND HYDROXYHALIDES
A2(O,OH)3Xq
Atacamite ?10.1.1.1Cu2(OH)3Cl
Paratacamite ?10.1.2.1Cu3(Cu,Zn)(OH)6Cl2
A(O,OH)Xq
Laurionite10.2.2.1PbCl(OH)
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Cerussite14.1.3.4PbCO3
Siderite14.1.1.3FeCO3
Smithsonite14.1.1.6ZnCO3
AB(XO3)2
Ankerite14.2.1.2Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Dolomite14.2.1.1CaMg(CO3)2
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Azurite16a.2.1.1Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Bismutite16a.3.5.1(BiO)2CO3
Malachite16a.3.1.1Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Phosgenite16a.3.4.1Pb2CO3Cl2
Rosasite ?16a.3.1.2(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
Aurichalcite16a.4.2.1(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
Group 16b - HYDRATED CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Dundasite16b.2.1.1PbAl2(CO3)2(OH)4 · H2O
Group 17 - COMPOUND CARBONATES
Miscellaneous
Leadhillite17.1.2.1Pb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Anglesite28.3.1.3PbSO4
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4·xH2O
Bieberite ?29.6.10.4CoSO4 · 7H2O
Gypsum29.6.3.1CaSO4 · 2H2O
Group 30 - ANHYDROUS SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)m(XO4)pZq, where m:p>2:1
Brochantite30.1.3.1Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
(AB)2(XO4)Zq
Beaverite-(Cu) ?30.2.5.7Pb(Fe3+2Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6
Jarosite30.2.5.1KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Linarite30.2.3.1PbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Plumbojarosite ?30.2.5.6Pb0.5Fe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6
Group 31 - HYDRATED SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)m(XO4)pZq·xH2O, where m:p > 6:1
Connellite31.1.1.1Cu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2O
Schulenbergite31.1.6.1(Cu,Zn)7(SO4)2(OH)10 · 3H2O
(AB)6(XO4)Zq·xH2O
Cyanotrichite31.2.1.1Cu4Al2(SO4)(OH)12 · 2H2O
Woodwardite31.2.2.1Cu1-xAlx(OH)2(SO4)x/2 · nH2O
(AB)5(XO4)Zq·xH2O
Chalcoalumite31.3.1.1CuAl4(SO4)(OH)12 · 3H2O
(AB)4(XO4)Zq·xH2O
Langite31.4.3.1Cu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
Wroewolfeite31.4.2.1Cu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
(AB)5(XO4)2Zq·xH2O
Devilline31.6.1.1CaCu4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Serpierite ?31.6.2.1Ca(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Group 32 - COMPOUND SULFATES
Anhydrous Compound Sulfates containing Hydroxyl or Halogen
Caledonite32.3.2.1Pb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
Group 38 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, AND VANADATES
AXO4
Monazite-(La)38.4.3.2La(PO4)
Group 40 - HYDRATED NORMAL PHOSPHATES,ARSENATES AND VANADATES
A3(XO4)2·xH2O
Annabergite40.3.6.4Ni3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
Erythrite40.3.6.3Co3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
(AB)5(XO4)2·xH2O
Churchite-(Y) ?40.4.6.1Y(PO4) · 2H2O
Mansfieldite40.4.1.4AlAsO4 · 2H2O
Scorodite40.4.1.3Fe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
Group 41 - ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)5(XO4)2Zq
Cornubite41.4.2.1Cu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
Cornwallite41.4.2.2Cu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
Pseudomalachite41.4.3.1Cu5(PO4)2(OH)4
(AB)2(XO4)Zq
Bayldonite (TL)41.5.14.1PbCu3(AsO4)2(OH)2
Duftite41.5.1.4PbCu(AsO4)(OH)
Mottramite ?41.5.2.2PbCu(VO4)(OH)
A2(XO4)Zq
Adamite ?41.6.6.3Zn2(AsO4)(OH)
Libethenite41.6.6.2Cu2(PO4)(OH)
Olivenite41.6.6.1Cu2(AsO4)(OH)
Zincolivenite41.6.5.6CuZn(AsO4)(OH)
A5(XO4)3Zq
Fluorapatite41.8.1.1Ca5(PO4)3F
Mimetite41.8.4.2Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
Pyromorphite41.8.4.1Pb5(PO4)3Cl
Vanadinite ?41.8.4.3Pb5(VO4)3Cl
(AB)3(XO4)2Zq
Carminite41.10.6.1PbFe3+2(AsO4)2(OH)2
Group 42 - HYDRATED PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
A3(XO4)Zq·xH2O
Liskeardite42.1.1.1[(Al,Fe)32(AsO4)18(OH)42(H2O)22] · 52H2O
(AB)3(XO4)Zq·xH2O
Philipsburgite42.2.4.2(Cu,Zn)6(AsO4,PO4)2(OH)6 · H2O
(AB)5(XO4)2Zq·xH2O
Tyrolite ?42.4.3.1Ca2Cu9(AsO4)4(CO3)(OH)8 · 11H2O
(AB)7(XO4)3Zq·xH2O
Mixite42.5.1.1BiCu6(AsO4)3(OH)6 · 3H2O
Zálesíite ?42.5.1.7CaCu6(AsO4)2(AsO3OH)(OH)6 · 3H2O
A2(XO4)Zq·xH2O
Bulachite42.6.7.2Al2(AsO4)(OH)3 · 3H2O
(AB)2(XO4)Zq·xH2O
Plumbogummite42.7.3.5PbAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
Segnitite42.7.4.4PbFe3+3AsO4(AsO3OH)(OH)6
(AB)5(XO4)3Zq·xH2O
Arseniosiderite ?42.8.4.3Ca2Fe3+3(AsO4)3O2 · 3H2O
Pharmacoalumite42.8.1b.1KAl4(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6.5H2O
Pharmacosiderite42.8.1a.1KFe3+4(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
(AB)3(XO4)2Zq·xH2O
Beraunite ?42.11.16.1Fe2+Fe3+5(PO4)4(OH)5 · 6H2O
Miscellaneous
Ceruleite ?42.13.6.1Cu2Al7(AsO4)4(OH)13 · 11.5H2O
Group 43 - COMPOUND PHOSPHATES, ETC.
Anhydrous Compound Phosphates, etc·, Containing Hydroxyl or Halogen
Beudantite43.4.1.1PbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Corkite43.4.1.2PbFe3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Hidalgoite43.4.1.3PbAl3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Hydrated Compound Phosphates, etc·, Containing Hydroxyl or Halogen
Chalcophyllite43.5.14.1Cu18Al2(AsO4)4(SO4)3(OH)24 · 36H2O
Parnauite43.5.13.1Cu9(AsO4)2(SO4)(OH)10 · 7H2O
Pitticite43.5.3.1(Fe, AsO4, H2O) (?)
Group 48 - ANHYDROUS MOLYBDATES AND TUNGSTATES
AXO4
Scheelite48.1.2.1Ca(WO4)
Stolzite48.1.3.2Pb(WO4)
Wulfenite48.1.3.1Pb(MoO4)
Group 52 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] and/or >[6] coordination
Mattheddleite52.4.9.6Pb5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5(Cl,OH)
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 1:1 layers
'Halloysite'71.1.1.4Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Sheets of 6-membered rings interlayered 1:1, 2:1, and octahedra
Chamosite71.4.1.7(Fe2+,Mg,Al,Fe3+)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH,O)8
Clinochlore71.4.1.4Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Group 74 - PHYLLOSILICATES Modulated Layers
Modulated Layers with joined islands
Stilpnomelane74.1.1.1(K,Ca,Na)(Fe2+,Mg,Al)8(Si,Al)12(O,OH)36 · nH2O
Modulated Layers with joined strips
Chrysocolla74.3.2.1Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
Orthoclase76.1.1.1K(AlSi3O8)
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
Agardite-(Ce)-CeCu6(AsO4)3(OH)6 · 3H2O
Agardite-(La)-LaCu6(AsO4)3(OH)6 · 3H2O
'Apatite Group' ?-
Aragonite-CaCO3
Bettertonite (TL)-[Al6(AsO4)3(OH)9(H2O)5]·11H2O
Cattiite ?-Mg3(PO4)2 · 22H2O
'Chlorite Group'-
Cuprite
var: Chalcotrichite
-Cu2O
'Hornblende' ?-
'Monazite'-
Olivenite
var: Leucochalcite
-Cu2(AsO4)(OH)
Penberthycroftite (TL)-[Al6(AsO4)3(OH)9(H2O)5]·8H2O
Redgillite-Cu6(SO4)(OH)10 · H2O

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H BayldonitePbCu3(AsO4)2(OH)2
H Bettertonite[Al6(AsO4)3(OH)9(H2O)5]·11H2O
H Penberthycroftite[Al6(AsO4)3(OH)9(H2O)5]·8H2O
H Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
H AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
H BeudantitePbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
H Birnessite(Na,Ca)0.5(Mn4+,Mn3+)2O4 · 1.5H2O
H CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
H CarminitePbFe23+(AsO4)2(OH)2
H ChalcoalumiteCuAl4(SO4)(OH)12 · 3H2O
H ChalcophylliteCu18Al2(AsO4)4(SO4)3(OH)24 · 36H2O
H ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
H ConnelliteCu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2O
H CorkitePbFe3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
H CornubiteCu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
H CornwalliteCu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
H CyanotrichiteCu4Al2(SO4)(OH)12 · 2H2O
H DevillineCaCu4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
H DuftitePbCu(AsO4)(OH)
H ErythriteCo3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
H Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
H LangiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
H LeadhillitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
H LibetheniteCu2(PO4)(OH)
H LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
H Liskeardite[(Al,Fe)32(AsO4)18(OH)42(H2O)22] · 52H2O
H MansfielditeAlAsO4 · 2H2O
H MattheddleitePb5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5(Cl,OH)
H MixiteBiCu6(AsO4)3(OH)6 · 3H2O
H OliveniteCu2(AsO4)(OH)
H Agardite-(La)LaCu6(AsO4)3(OH)6 · 3H2O
H ParnauiteCu9(AsO4)2(SO4)(OH)10 · 7H2O
H PharmacosideriteKFe43+(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
H Philipsburgite(Cu,Zn)6(AsO4,PO4)2(OH)6 · H2O
H PlumbogummitePbAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
H PseudomalachiteCu5(PO4)2(OH)4
H ScoroditeFe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
H SegnititePbFe33+AsO4(AsO3OH)(OH)6
H Varlamoffite(Sn,Fe)(O,OH)2
H WoodwarditeCu1-xAlx(OH)2(SO4)x/2 · nH2O
H WroewolfeiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
H BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
H MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
H HalloysiteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
H GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
H ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
H HidalgoitePbAl3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
H JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
H JeanbandyiteFe3+xFe2+1-xSn(OH)6-xOx (1 ≥ x > 0.5)
H LaurionitePbCl(OH)
H NataniteFe2+[Sn(OH)6]
H Stilpnomelane(K,Ca,Na)(Fe2+,Mg,Al)8(Si,Al)12(O,OH)36 · nH2O
H Agardite-(Ce)CeCu6(AsO4)3(OH)6 · 3H2O
H RedgilliteCu6(SO4)(OH)10 · H2O
H BulachiteAl2(AsO4)(OH)3 · 3H2O
H ZincoliveniteCuZn(AsO4)(OH)
H Pitticite(Fe, AsO4, H2O) (?)
H PharmacoalumiteKAl4(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6.5H2O
H Chamosite(Fe2+,Mg,Al,Fe3+)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH,O)8
H DundasitePbAl2(CO3)2(OH)4 · H2O
H AnnabergiteNi3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
H Schulenbergite(Cu,Zn)7(SO4)2(OH)10 · 3H2O
H Lepidocrociteγ-Fe3+O(OH)
H ArseniosideriteCa2Fe33+(AsO4)3O2 · 3H2O
H AtacamiteCu2(OH)3Cl
H CattiiteMg3(PO4)2 · 22H2O
H Beaverite-(Cu)Pb(Fe23+Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6
H ParatacamiteCu3(Cu,Zn)(OH)6Cl2
H PlumbojarositePb0.5Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
H Rosasite(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
H Churchite-(Y)Y(PO4) · 2H2O
H MottramitePbCu(VO4)(OH)
H AdamiteZn2(AsO4)(OH)
H ZálesíiteCaCu6(AsO4)2(AsO3OH)(OH)6 · 3H2O
H BerauniteFe2+Fe53+(PO4)4(OH)5 · 6H2O
H BieberiteCoSO4 · 7H2O
H CeruleiteCu2Al7(AsO4)4(OH)13 · 11.5H2O
H TyroliteCa2Cu9(AsO4)4(CO3)(OH)8 · 11H2O
H SerpieriteCa(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
CCarbon
C AragoniteCaCO3
C Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
C AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
C Bismutite(BiO)2CO3
C CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
C CerussitePbCO3
C LeadhillitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
C PhosgenitePb2CO3Cl2
C MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
C AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
C DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
C CalciteCaCO3
C SideriteFeCO3
C SmithsoniteZnCO3
C DundasitePbAl2(CO3)2(OH)4 · H2O
C Rosasite(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
C TyroliteCa2Cu9(AsO4)4(CO3)(OH)8 · 11H2O
OOxygen
O BayldonitePbCu3(AsO4)2(OH)2
O Bettertonite[Al6(AsO4)3(OH)9(H2O)5]·11H2O
O Penberthycroftite[Al6(AsO4)3(OH)9(H2O)5]·8H2O
O AnglesitePbSO4
O AragoniteCaCO3
O Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
O AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
O BeudantitePbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
O Birnessite(Na,Ca)0.5(Mn4+,Mn3+)2O4 · 1.5H2O
O Bismutite(BiO)2CO3
O CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
O CarminitePbFe23+(AsO4)2(OH)2
O CassiteriteSnO2
O CerussitePbCO3
O ChalcoalumiteCuAl4(SO4)(OH)12 · 3H2O
O Cuprite (var: Chalcotrichite)Cu2O
O ChalcophylliteCu18Al2(AsO4)4(SO4)3(OH)24 · 36H2O
O ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
O ConnelliteCu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2O
O CorkitePbFe3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
O CornubiteCu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
O CornwalliteCu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
O CupriteCu2O
O CyanotrichiteCu4Al2(SO4)(OH)12 · 2H2O
O DevillineCaCu4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
O DuftitePbCu(AsO4)(OH)
O ErythriteCo3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
O Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
O LangiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
O LeadhillitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
O LibetheniteCu2(PO4)(OH)
O LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
O Liskeardite[(Al,Fe)32(AsO4)18(OH)42(H2O)22] · 52H2O
O MansfielditeAlAsO4 · 2H2O
O MattheddleitePb5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5(Cl,OH)
O MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
O MixiteBiCu6(AsO4)3(OH)6 · 3H2O
O OliveniteCu2(AsO4)(OH)
O Agardite-(La)LaCu6(AsO4)3(OH)6 · 3H2O
O ParnauiteCu9(AsO4)2(SO4)(OH)10 · 7H2O
O PharmacosideriteKFe43+(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
O Philipsburgite(Cu,Zn)6(AsO4,PO4)2(OH)6 · H2O
O PhosgenitePb2CO3Cl2
O PlumbogummitePbAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
O PseudomalachiteCu5(PO4)2(OH)4
O PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
O ScheeliteCa(WO4)
O ScoroditeFe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
O SegnititePbFe33+AsO4(AsO3OH)(OH)6
O Varlamoffite(Sn,Fe)(O,OH)2
O WoodwarditeCu1-xAlx(OH)2(SO4)x/2 · nH2O
O WroewolfeiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
O BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
O MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
O AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
O DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
O HalloysiteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
O GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
O OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
O Monazite-(La)La(PO4)
O CalciteCaCO3
O ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
O FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
O HidalgoitePbAl3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
O JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
O JeanbandyiteFe3+xFe2+1-xSn(OH)6-xOx (1 ≥ x > 0.5)
O LaurionitePbCl(OH)
O NataniteFe2+[Sn(OH)6]
O QuartzSiO2
O SideriteFeCO3
O SmithsoniteZnCO3
O Stilpnomelane(K,Ca,Na)(Fe2+,Mg,Al)8(Si,Al)12(O,OH)36 · nH2O
O Agardite-(Ce)CeCu6(AsO4)3(OH)6 · 3H2O
O RedgilliteCu6(SO4)(OH)10 · H2O
O BulachiteAl2(AsO4)(OH)3 · 3H2O
O ZincoliveniteCuZn(AsO4)(OH)
O Pitticite(Fe, AsO4, H2O) (?)
O PharmacoalumiteKAl4(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6.5H2O
O Chamosite(Fe2+,Mg,Al,Fe3+)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH,O)8
O DundasitePbAl2(CO3)2(OH)4 · H2O
O StolzitePb(WO4)
O ArsenoliteAs2O3
O AnataseTiO2
O AnnabergiteNi3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
O Schulenbergite(Cu,Zn)7(SO4)2(OH)10 · 3H2O
O TenoriteCuO
O WulfenitePb(MoO4)
O Lepidocrociteγ-Fe3+O(OH)
O ArseniosideriteCa2Fe33+(AsO4)3O2 · 3H2O
O AtacamiteCu2(OH)3Cl
O CattiiteMg3(PO4)2 · 22H2O
O Beaverite-(Cu)Pb(Fe23+Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6
O ParatacamiteCu3(Cu,Zn)(OH)6Cl2
O PlumbojarositePb0.5Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
O Rosasite(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
O Churchite-(Y)Y(PO4) · 2H2O
O MottramitePbCu(VO4)(OH)
O AdamiteZn2(AsO4)(OH)
O ZálesíiteCaCu6(AsO4)2(AsO3OH)(OH)6 · 3H2O
O BerauniteFe2+Fe53+(PO4)4(OH)5 · 6H2O
O BieberiteCoSO4 · 7H2O
O CeruleiteCu2Al7(AsO4)4(OH)13 · 11.5H2O
O TyroliteCa2Cu9(AsO4)4(CO3)(OH)8 · 11H2O
O VanadinitePb5(VO4)3Cl
O SerpieriteCa(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
FFluorine
F FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
NaSodium
Na Birnessite(Na,Ca)0.5(Mn4+,Mn3+)2O4 · 1.5H2O
Na HaliteNaCl
Na Stilpnomelane(K,Ca,Na)(Fe2+,Mg,Al)8(Si,Al)12(O,OH)36 · nH2O
MgMagnesium
Mg AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Mg DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Mg ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Mg Stilpnomelane(K,Ca,Na)(Fe2+,Mg,Al)8(Si,Al)12(O,OH)36 · nH2O
Mg Chamosite(Fe2+,Mg,Al,Fe3+)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH,O)8
Mg CattiiteMg3(PO4)2 · 22H2O
AlAluminium
Al Bettertonite[Al6(AsO4)3(OH)9(H2O)5]·11H2O
Al Penberthycroftite[Al6(AsO4)3(OH)9(H2O)5]·8H2O
Al ChalcoalumiteCuAl4(SO4)(OH)12 · 3H2O
Al ChalcophylliteCu18Al2(AsO4)4(SO4)3(OH)24 · 36H2O
Al ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Al CyanotrichiteCu4Al2(SO4)(OH)12 · 2H2O
Al Liskeardite[(Al,Fe)32(AsO4)18(OH)42(H2O)22] · 52H2O
Al MansfielditeAlAsO4 · 2H2O
Al PlumbogummitePbAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
Al WoodwarditeCu1-xAlx(OH)2(SO4)x/2 · nH2O
Al HalloysiteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Al OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
Al ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Al HidalgoitePbAl3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Al Stilpnomelane(K,Ca,Na)(Fe2+,Mg,Al)8(Si,Al)12(O,OH)36 · nH2O
Al BulachiteAl2(AsO4)(OH)3 · 3H2O
Al PharmacoalumiteKAl4(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6.5H2O
Al Chamosite(Fe2+,Mg,Al,Fe3+)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH,O)8
Al DundasitePbAl2(CO3)2(OH)4 · H2O
Al CeruleiteCu2Al7(AsO4)4(OH)13 · 11.5H2O
SiSilicon
Si ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Si MattheddleitePb5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5(Cl,OH)
Si HalloysiteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Si OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
Si ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Si QuartzSiO2
Si Stilpnomelane(K,Ca,Na)(Fe2+,Mg,Al)8(Si,Al)12(O,OH)36 · nH2O
Si Chamosite(Fe2+,Mg,Al,Fe3+)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH,O)8
PPhosphorus
P CorkitePbFe3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
P LibetheniteCu2(PO4)(OH)
P Philipsburgite(Cu,Zn)6(AsO4,PO4)2(OH)6 · H2O
P PlumbogummitePbAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
P PseudomalachiteCu5(PO4)2(OH)4
P PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
P Monazite-(La)La(PO4)
P FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
P CattiiteMg3(PO4)2 · 22H2O
P Churchite-(Y)Y(PO4) · 2H2O
P BerauniteFe2+Fe53+(PO4)4(OH)5 · 6H2O
SSulfur
S BorniteCu5FeS4
S AnglesitePbSO4
S ArsenopyriteFeAsS
S BeudantitePbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
S CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
S ChalcoalumiteCuAl4(SO4)(OH)12 · 3H2O
S ChalcophylliteCu18Al2(AsO4)4(SO4)3(OH)24 · 36H2O
S ConnelliteCu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2O
S CorkitePbFe3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
S CovelliteCuS
S CyanotrichiteCu4Al2(SO4)(OH)12 · 2H2O
S DevillineCaCu4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
S GalenaPbS
S LangiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
S LeadhillitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
S LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
S MattheddleitePb5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5(Cl,OH)
S AlloclasiteCo1-xFexAsS
S ParnauiteCu9(AsO4)2(SO4)(OH)10 · 7H2O
S PyriteFeS2
S SphaleriteZnS
S StanniteCu2FeSnS4
S WoodwarditeCu1-xAlx(OH)2(SO4)x/2 · nH2O
S WroewolfeiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
S BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
S GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
S SulphurS8
S BismuthiniteBi2S3
S HidalgoitePbAl3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
S JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S RedgilliteCu6(SO4)(OH)10 · H2O
S MilleriteNiS
S Schulenbergite(Cu,Zn)7(SO4)2(OH)10 · 3H2O
S Wurtzite(Zn,Fe)S
S Beaverite-(Cu)Pb(Fe23+Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6
S PlumbojarositePb0.5Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
S BieberiteCoSO4 · 7H2O
S SerpieriteCa(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
ClChlorine
Cl ConnelliteCu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2O
Cl MattheddleitePb5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5(Cl,OH)
Cl MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
Cl PhosgenitePb2CO3Cl2
Cl PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
Cl HaliteNaCl
Cl LaurionitePbCl(OH)
Cl AtacamiteCu2(OH)3Cl
Cl ParatacamiteCu3(Cu,Zn)(OH)6Cl2
Cl VanadinitePb5(VO4)3Cl
KPotassium
K PharmacosideriteKFe43+(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
K OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
K JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
K Stilpnomelane(K,Ca,Na)(Fe2+,Mg,Al)8(Si,Al)12(O,OH)36 · nH2O
K PharmacoalumiteKAl4(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6.5H2O
CaCalcium
Ca AragoniteCaCO3
Ca Birnessite(Na,Ca)0.5(Mn4+,Mn3+)2O4 · 1.5H2O
Ca DevillineCaCu4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Ca ScheeliteCa(WO4)
Ca AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Ca DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Ca GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
Ca Stilpnomelane(K,Ca,Na)(Fe2+,Mg,Al)8(Si,Al)12(O,OH)36 · nH2O
Ca ArseniosideriteCa2Fe33+(AsO4)3O2 · 3H2O
Ca ZálesíiteCaCu6(AsO4)2(AsO3OH)(OH)6 · 3H2O
Ca TyroliteCa2Cu9(AsO4)4(CO3)(OH)8 · 11H2O
Ca SerpieriteCa(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
TiTitanium
Ti AnataseTiO2
VVanadium
V MottramitePbCu(VO4)(OH)
V VanadinitePb5(VO4)3Cl
MnManganese
Mn Birnessite(Na,Ca)0.5(Mn4+,Mn3+)2O4 · 1.5H2O
FeIron
Fe BorniteCu5FeS4
Fe ArsenopyriteFeAsS
Fe BeudantitePbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Fe CarminitePbFe23+(AsO4)2(OH)2
Fe CorkitePbFe3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Fe Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
Fe Liskeardite[(Al,Fe)32(AsO4)18(OH)42(H2O)22] · 52H2O
Fe AlloclasiteCo1-xFexAsS
Fe PharmacosideriteKFe43+(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe ScoroditeFe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
Fe SegnititePbFe33+AsO4(AsO3OH)(OH)6
Fe StanniteCu2FeSnS4
Fe Varlamoffite(Sn,Fe)(O,OH)2
Fe AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Fe JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Fe JeanbandyiteFe3+xFe2+1-xSn(OH)6-xOx (1 ≥ x > 0.5)
Fe NataniteFe2+[Sn(OH)6]
Fe SideriteFeCO3
Fe Stilpnomelane(K,Ca,Na)(Fe2+,Mg,Al)8(Si,Al)12(O,OH)36 · nH2O
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe Pitticite(Fe, AsO4, H2O) (?)
Fe Chamosite(Fe2+,Mg,Al,Fe3+)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH,O)8
Fe Lepidocrociteγ-Fe3+O(OH)
Fe ArseniosideriteCa2Fe33+(AsO4)3O2 · 3H2O
Fe Beaverite-(Cu)Pb(Fe23+Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6
Fe PlumbojarositePb0.5Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
Fe BerauniteFe2+Fe53+(PO4)4(OH)5 · 6H2O
CoCobalt
Co ErythriteCo3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
Co AlloclasiteCo1-xFexAsS
Co BieberiteCoSO4 · 7H2O
NiNickel
Ni MilleriteNiS
Ni AnnabergiteNi3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
CuCopper
Cu BayldonitePbCu3(AsO4)2(OH)2
Cu BorniteCu5FeS4
Cu Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
Cu AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Cu CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
Cu ChalcoalumiteCuAl4(SO4)(OH)12 · 3H2O
Cu Cuprite (var: Chalcotrichite)Cu2O
Cu ChalcophylliteCu18Al2(AsO4)4(SO4)3(OH)24 · 36H2O
Cu ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Cu ConnelliteCu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2O
Cu CornubiteCu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
Cu CornwalliteCu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
Cu CovelliteCuS
Cu CupriteCu2O
Cu CyanotrichiteCu4Al2(SO4)(OH)12 · 2H2O
Cu CopperCu
Cu DevillineCaCu4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Cu DuftitePbCu(AsO4)(OH)
Cu LangiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
Cu LibetheniteCu2(PO4)(OH)
Cu LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Cu MixiteBiCu6(AsO4)3(OH)6 · 3H2O
Cu OliveniteCu2(AsO4)(OH)
Cu Agardite-(La)LaCu6(AsO4)3(OH)6 · 3H2O
Cu ParnauiteCu9(AsO4)2(SO4)(OH)10 · 7H2O
Cu Philipsburgite(Cu,Zn)6(AsO4,PO4)2(OH)6 · H2O
Cu PseudomalachiteCu5(PO4)2(OH)4
Cu StanniteCu2FeSnS4
Cu WoodwarditeCu1-xAlx(OH)2(SO4)x/2 · nH2O
Cu WroewolfeiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
Cu BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
Cu MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Cu Agardite-(Ce)CeCu6(AsO4)3(OH)6 · 3H2O
Cu RedgilliteCu6(SO4)(OH)10 · H2O
Cu ZincoliveniteCuZn(AsO4)(OH)
Cu Schulenbergite(Cu,Zn)7(SO4)2(OH)10 · 3H2O
Cu TenoriteCuO
Cu AtacamiteCu2(OH)3Cl
Cu Beaverite-(Cu)Pb(Fe23+Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6
Cu ParatacamiteCu3(Cu,Zn)(OH)6Cl2
Cu Rosasite(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
Cu MottramitePbCu(VO4)(OH)
Cu ZálesíiteCaCu6(AsO4)2(AsO3OH)(OH)6 · 3H2O
Cu CeruleiteCu2Al7(AsO4)4(OH)13 · 11.5H2O
Cu TyroliteCa2Cu9(AsO4)4(CO3)(OH)8 · 11H2O
Cu SerpieriteCa(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
ZnZinc
Zn Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
Zn Philipsburgite(Cu,Zn)6(AsO4,PO4)2(OH)6 · H2O
Zn SphaleriteZnS
Zn SmithsoniteZnCO3
Zn ZincoliveniteCuZn(AsO4)(OH)
Zn Schulenbergite(Cu,Zn)7(SO4)2(OH)10 · 3H2O
Zn Wurtzite(Zn,Fe)S
Zn ParatacamiteCu3(Cu,Zn)(OH)6Cl2
Zn Rosasite(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
Zn AdamiteZn2(AsO4)(OH)
Zn SerpieriteCa(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
AsArsenic
As BayldonitePbCu3(AsO4)2(OH)2
As Bettertonite[Al6(AsO4)3(OH)9(H2O)5]·11H2O
As Penberthycroftite[Al6(AsO4)3(OH)9(H2O)5]·8H2O
As ArsenopyriteFeAsS
As BeudantitePbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
As CarminitePbFe23+(AsO4)2(OH)2
As ChalcophylliteCu18Al2(AsO4)4(SO4)3(OH)24 · 36H2O
As CornubiteCu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
As CornwalliteCu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
As DuftitePbCu(AsO4)(OH)
As ErythriteCo3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
As Liskeardite[(Al,Fe)32(AsO4)18(OH)42(H2O)22] · 52H2O
As MansfielditeAlAsO4 · 2H2O
As MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
As MixiteBiCu6(AsO4)3(OH)6 · 3H2O
As AlloclasiteCo1-xFexAsS
As OliveniteCu2(AsO4)(OH)
As Agardite-(La)LaCu6(AsO4)3(OH)6 · 3H2O
As ParnauiteCu9(AsO4)2(SO4)(OH)10 · 7H2O
As PharmacosideriteKFe43+(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
As Philipsburgite(Cu,Zn)6(AsO4,PO4)2(OH)6 · H2O
As ScoroditeFe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
As SegnititePbFe33+AsO4(AsO3OH)(OH)6
As HidalgoitePbAl3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
As Agardite-(Ce)CeCu6(AsO4)3(OH)6 · 3H2O
As BulachiteAl2(AsO4)(OH)3 · 3H2O
As ZincoliveniteCuZn(AsO4)(OH)
As Pitticite(Fe, AsO4, H2O) (?)
As PharmacoalumiteKAl4(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6.5H2O
As ArsenoliteAs2O3
As AnnabergiteNi3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
As ArseniosideriteCa2Fe33+(AsO4)3O2 · 3H2O
As AdamiteZn2(AsO4)(OH)
As ZálesíiteCaCu6(AsO4)2(AsO3OH)(OH)6 · 3H2O
As CeruleiteCu2Al7(AsO4)4(OH)13 · 11.5H2O
As TyroliteCa2Cu9(AsO4)4(CO3)(OH)8 · 11H2O
YYttrium
Y Churchite-(Y)Y(PO4) · 2H2O
MoMolybdenum
Mo WulfenitePb(MoO4)
AgSilver
Ag SilverAg
SnTin
Sn CassiteriteSnO2
Sn StanniteCu2FeSnS4
Sn Varlamoffite(Sn,Fe)(O,OH)2
Sn JeanbandyiteFe3+xFe2+1-xSn(OH)6-xOx (1 ≥ x > 0.5)
Sn NataniteFe2+[Sn(OH)6]
LaLanthanum
La Agardite-(La)LaCu6(AsO4)3(OH)6 · 3H2O
La Monazite-(La)La(PO4)
CeCerium
Ce Agardite-(Ce)CeCu6(AsO4)3(OH)6 · 3H2O
WTungsten
W ScheeliteCa(WO4)
W StolzitePb(WO4)
PbLead
Pb BayldonitePbCu3(AsO4)2(OH)2
Pb AnglesitePbSO4
Pb BeudantitePbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Pb CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
Pb CarminitePbFe23+(AsO4)2(OH)2
Pb CerussitePbCO3
Pb CorkitePbFe3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Pb DuftitePbCu(AsO4)(OH)
Pb GalenaPbS
Pb LeadhillitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
Pb LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Pb MattheddleitePb5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5(Cl,OH)
Pb MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
Pb PhosgenitePb2CO3Cl2
Pb PlumbogummitePbAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
Pb PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
Pb SegnititePbFe33+AsO4(AsO3OH)(OH)6
Pb HidalgoitePbAl3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Pb LaurionitePbCl(OH)
Pb DundasitePbAl2(CO3)2(OH)4 · H2O
Pb StolzitePb(WO4)
Pb WulfenitePb(MoO4)
Pb Beaverite-(Cu)Pb(Fe23+Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6
Pb PlumbojarositePb0.5Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
Pb MottramitePbCu(VO4)(OH)
Pb VanadinitePb5(VO4)3Cl
BiBismuth
Bi Bismutite(BiO)2CO3
Bi MixiteBiCu6(AsO4)3(OH)6 · 3H2O
Bi BismuthiniteBi2S3

Geochronology

Geologic TimeRocks, Minerals and Events
Phanerozoic
 Paleozoic
  Permian
   Guadalupian
ⓘ Major polymetallic mineralization~270 MaCornwall, England, UK
   Cisuralian
ⓘ Porphyry dikes intruded (latest age)~275 MaCornwall, England, UK
ⓘ Greisenization (latest age)~280 MaCornwall, England, UK
ⓘ Porphyry dikes intruded (earliest age)~280 MaCornwall, England, UK
ⓘ Formation of metallized pegmatites~285 MaCornwall, England, UK
ⓘ Greisenization (earliest age)~285 MaCornwall, England, UK
ⓘ Emplacement of major plutons~295 MaCornwall, England, UK

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Early Carboniferous
323.2 - 358.9 Ma



ID: 3192903
Paleozoic sedimentary rocks

Age: Mississippian (323.2 - 358.9 Ma)

Lithology: Sedimentary rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Late Devonian
358.9 - 382.7 Ma



ID: 2033495
Upper Devonian Rocks (Undifferentiated)

Age: Late Devonian (358.9 - 382.7 Ma)

Lithology: Mudstone, siltstone and sandstone

Reference: British Geological Survey. DiGMapGB-625. British Geological Survey ©NERC. [23]

Late Devonian
358.9 - 382.7 Ma



ID: 3135052
Late Devonian claystone

Age: Late Devonian (358.9 - 382.7 Ma)

Lithology: Claystone

Reference: Asch, K. The 1:5M International Geological Map of Europe and Adjacent Areas: Development and Implementation of a GIS-enabled Concept. Geologisches Jahrbuch, SA 3. [147]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

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Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Kingsbury, A.W.G. (1954) Transactions of the Royal Geological Society of Cornwall, vol. 18, part 4 (for 1952), 392 and 395.
Dines, H.G. (1956) The metalliferous mining region of south-west England. Economic memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great Britain.
Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1956) Atacamite from Cumberland and Cornwall. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(235), 349-350.
Kingsbury, A.W.G. (1957) New occurrences of phosgenite. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(237), 500-501.
Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1957) New occurrences of arseniosiderite. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(237), 499-500.
Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1957) New occurrences of rosasite in Britain. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(237), 501-502.
Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1960) Carminite and beudantite from the northern part of the Lake District and from Cornwall. Mineralogical Magazine, 32(249), 423-432 (referring to Kingsbury 1954).
Sumin De Portilla, V., Portilla Quevedo, M., and Stepanov, V.I. (1981) The structure of bayldonite: chemical analysis, differential thermal analysis, and IR spectroscopy. American Mineralogist, 66, 148-153.
Goode, A.J.J. and Taylor, R.T. (1988) Geology of the country around Penzance. British Geological Survey, London, 52 pages and map.
Betterton, J. (1989) Birnessite from Penberthy Croft Mine, Cornwall - a Second English Occurrence. Journal of the Russell Society, 2(2), 48.
Camm, G.S. and Merry, M. (1991) Bayldonite and its associates from Penberthy Croft, Cornwall. UK Journal of Mines & Minerals, 9, 6-15.
Golley, P. and Williams, R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications, Truro, Cornwall.
Rust, S.A. (1995) Bismutite from Penberthy Croft Mine, St. Hilary, Cornwall. UK Journal of Mines & Minerals, 15, 18.
Betterton, J. (1996) Monazite-(La) and Anatase from Penberthy Croft Mine, St. Hilary, Cornwall. UK Journal of Mines & Minerals, 16, 13.
Betterton, J. (1996) Tenorite from Penberthy Croft Mine, Cornwall. UK Journal of Mines & Minerals, 17, 18.
Betterton, J., Green, D.I., Jewson, C., Spratt, J., and Tandy, P. (1998) The composition and structure of jeanbandyite and natanite. Mineralogical Magazine, 62(5), 707-712.
Betterton, J. (2000) Famous Mineral Localities: Penberthy Croft Mine, St. Hilary, Cornwall, England. UK Journal of Mines & Minerals, 20, 7-37.
Ryback, G., Hart, A.D., and Stanley, C.J. (2001) A.W.G. Kingsbury 's specimens of British minerals. Part I: Some examples of falsified localities. Journal of the Russell Society, 7(2).
Moulding, D., Hooper, J., and Green, D.I. (2008) Stolzite from Penberthy Croft Mine, St Hilary, Cornwall. Journal of the Russell Society, 11, 88-90.
Braithwaite, R.S.W., Green, D.I., and Tindle, A.G. (2009) The distribution and composition of adamite and zincolivenite in Britain and Ireland. Journal of the Russell Society, 12, 3–9.
Grey, I.E., Kampf, A.R., Price, J.R., and Macrae, C.M. (2015) Bettertonite, [Al₆(AsO₄)₃(OH)₉ (H₂O)₅ ]·11H₂O, a new mineral from the Penberthy Croft mine, St. Hilary, Cornwall, UK, with a structure based on polyoxometalate clusters. Mineralogical Magazine, 79(7), 1849-1858.
Grey, I.E., Betterton, J., Kampf, A.R., Macrae, C.M., Shanks, F.L., and Price, J.R. (2016) Penberthycroftite, [Al₆(AsO₄)₃(OH)₉ (H₂O)₅ ]·8H₂O, a second new hydrated aluminium arsenate mineral from the Penberthy Croft mine, St. Hilary, Cornwall, UK. Mineralogical Magazine, 80(7), 1149-1160.
Grey, I.E., Brand, H.E.A., and Betterton, J. (2016) Dehydration phase transitions in new aluminium arsenate minerals from the Penberthy Croft mine, Cornwall, UK. Mineralogical Magazine, 80(7), 1205-1217.

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