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Perseverance Gold Mine (Boulder Perseverance Mine), Golden Mile Mines, Kalgoorlie-Boulder, Kalgoorlie-Boulder Shire, Western Australia, Australia

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 30° 46' 55'' South , 121° 30' 22'' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): -30.78185,121.50601
GeoHash:G#: qdw2uumfx
Locality type:Mine
Köppen climate type:BSh : Hot semi-arid (steppe) climate


The lease was spoken as the richest 24 acre block on the Golden Mile in 1901. Ten shafts were on the lease, but the two most important was Main Shaft (700feet 1901) in the centre of the block accessing the Perseverance Lode, and No6 Shaft (600 feet 1901) near the southern boundary on the Consols Lode. Measurements are in imperial in keeping with the historic references. Lake View Consols was to its north, South Kalgurli to its south, Associated to its east, and Great Boulder Proprietary to its west.

The general manager of the mine was Ralph Nicholls who arrived in July 1899, about three years after the mine opened. He was in for a torrid time later. A new mill was constructed shortly after to process the sulphide ore, while remaining oxidised ore was taken to Hannan's Public Crushing Company, which the mine owned. All ore was processed at a new mill constructed on the lease in 1910.

Around 1900 a series of scandals hit the Golden Mile mines. From 1896-1900 they had mined incredibly rich ore loads, but as these became exhausted, lower (but still very profitable) gold grades became the norm. Several of the mines had over estimated the potential gold which could be extracted, leading to wild flucuations in share prices. Employees of the companies were accused of what we would now call insider trading of shares they owned.

Around 1903, the Boulder Perseverance Mine was the latest to be caught in the scandal. The outcry finally forced the Government's hand which launched a Royal Commission. Delivering its report in 1904, it was scathing of the company.

It found the underground mine manager, Michael Flynn, had grossly over estimated ore reserves, had relied on memory, and kept little in the way of paperwork. It found he must have known from his intimate knowledge of the mine his valuations were too high. It stated mine manager, Ralph Nicholls had accepted these valuations at face value, and had done little to search for new lodes. He had been warned several times by his brother, Harry Nicholls, the estimates were too high, but did nothing. It accused the men of working in collusion to fix the share price.

It found the directors had true knowledge of the state of the mine, and sold their shares as a result. That people in the company were taking action on reports from the mine, before this information was released to shareholders. As all the companies on the Golden Mile were managed from London, only one local director, Zebina Bartholomew Lane, could be examined by the commission. They found he had a woeful knowledge of the mine despite many years experience in the mining business. He stated he had to go to London to get information about the mine. This must have pleased unionists who hanged a burning effigy of him in 1892.

The commssion recommended:
1. mines be open to shareholder inspection.
2. officials from the Mines Department be able to inspect the mines and test samples.
3. the mine manager be held responsible for misrepresenting ore reserves.
4. all information from the mine be sent to the company secretary and be open to shareholder inspection.
5. mines should hold one month bullion reserve to guard against shareholder speculation.
6. it dismissed calls for the mines to be managed from Western Australia.

The chairman (Frank Gardiner) and several directors resigned. However, the new chairman launched an attack on the commission. He stated no proof had been forthcoming that directors were buying and selling shares with insider knowledge. They had sold their shares on advice from London financiers Bewick Moreing and Co, who were concerned about a potential conflict of interest. The board stated the general manager, Ralph Nicholls, had been careless in relying too heavily on estimates made by subordinates, not helped by his absence from the mine during part of the period. They then re-instated him. The board agreed it would not deal in shares for the company in the future.

The Royal Commission did have the effect of stopping this problem and it didn't arise again on the field.

Now with more realistic estimates, gold grades became patchy and generally lower. By 1913 alarm bells were ringing. Then World War One hit, and all the mines on the Golden Mile suffered increased costs and a labour shortage. The mine was let to tributors July 1918, and the company forced into liquidation in 1917.

The tributers found the mine contained much gold and made a fortune. By August 1923 the company had repaid its debts. It was reconstructed from the Great Boulder Perseverance Gold Mining Company to the Boulder Perseverance Limited. It took over again the operation of the mine. In 1924 they aquired the Bank of England lease and the Great Boulder No1 lease. In 1927 the general manager was Ernest Williams. In 1932 a new plant was constructed. In 1937 they purchased the Enterprise lease. In 1933 the general manager was C.E. Blackett.

Little was found beyond this apart from mining till 1954 when Gold Mines of Kalgoorlie (Aust) Limited took over the company. This was a subsidiary of the powerful Western Mining Corporation. It was a late starter on the field, taking over the Iron Duke mine in 1935. Even back in the 1950's the advantages of consolidating the mines could be seen. The mine closed during the 1970's due to depressed gold prices, but re-opened in the 1980's before being taken over for the Superpit in 1989.

The old Perseverance mine is the type locality for the oxide species tomichite. Discovered by geologist S.A. Tomich in 1978, before the mine was swallowed up by the Superpit. At the time of writing (and possibly still) the species is known from only one specimen. It occurs as tabular 0.15mm, black, opaque, doubly terminated, euhedral crystals in milky quartz, associated with finely dispersed green vanadian muscovite and irregular concentrations of pyrite, with accessory rutile, calcite, and calaverite


Commodity List

This is a list of exploitable or exploited mineral commodities recorded at this locality.


Mineral List


33 valid minerals. 1 (TL) - type locality of valid minerals.

Rock Types Recorded

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Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Archean
2500 - 4000 Ma



ID: 794157
mafic intrusive rocks 74263

Age: Archean (2500 - 4000 Ma)

Description: Mafic intrusive rocks, medium to coarse-grained; layered mafic to ultramafic intrusions - dolerite, gabbro, olivine gabbro, peridotite, pyroxenite, leucogabbro, quartz dolerite, quartz gabbro, gabbronorite

Comments: igneous mafic intrusive; synthesis of multiple published descriptions

Lithology: Igneous mafic intrusive

Reference: Raymond, O.L., Liu, S., Gallagher, R., Zhang, W., Highet, L.M. Surface Geology of Australia 1:1 million scale dataset 2012 edition. Commonwealth of Australia (Geoscience Australia). [5]

Neoarchean - Mesoarchean
2500 - 3200 Ma



ID: 3187518
Archean volcanic rocks

Age: Archean (2500 - 3200 Ma)

Comments: Yilgarn Craton

Lithology: Greenstone belt; mafic-ultramafic volcanic rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License



This page contains all mineral locality references listed on mindat.org. This does not claim to be a complete list. If you know of more minerals from this site, please register so you can add to our database. This locality information is for reference purposes only. You should never attempt to visit any sites listed in mindat.org without first ensuring that you have the permission of the land and/or mineral rights holders for access and that you are aware of all safety precautions necessary.

References

Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Kalgoorlie Miner newspaper (1902): The Great Boulder Perseverance Ore Reserves and their Treatment (25 Oct 1902)
Sunday Times newspaper (Perth) (1937): Boulder Perseverance
(06 June 1937)
The Register newspaper (Adelaide) (1913): Boulder Perseverance
(28 Jul 1913)
Western Argus newspaper (Kalgoorlie) (1925): Boulder Perseverance
(10 Feb 1925)
Western Mail newspaper (Perth) (1901): Boulder Perseverance
(22 Dec 1901)
Kalgoorlie Miner newspaper (1899): Boulder Perseverance (11 Jul 1899)
Sunday Times newspaper (1931): Boulder Perseverance (07 Jun 1931)
KaLgoorlie Western Argus newspaper (1896): Boulder Perseverance
(30 Apr 1896)
Examiner newspaper (Launceston) (1905): Great Boulder Perseverance Royal Commissions Report (07 Jan 1905)
The Argus newspaper (Melbourne) (1905): Boulder Perseverance Report. Managements Methods Condemned (07 Jan 1905)
Nickel, E.H., Grey, I.E.(1979): Tomachite a New Oxide Mineral from western Australia, Mineralogical Magazine(Dec 1979):43: 469-471
Simpson, E.S. (1948), Minerals of Western Australia, Vol 1, 2 & 3, State Government of Western Australia, 1948

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