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Mantos Blancos Mine, Antofagasta Province, Antofagasta, Chilei
Regional Level Types
Mantos Blancos MineMine
Antofagasta ProvinceProvince
AntofagastaRegion
ChileCountry

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Key
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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
23° 29' 8'' South , 70° 9' 57'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal):
Locality type:
Köppen climate type:
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Antofagasta309,832 (2013)29.8km


Magmatic-hydrothermal, stratabound copper-(silver) deposit with breccia-style mineralization, hosted in Jurassic volcanic rocks. Mining started in 1960.

Regions containing this locality

Pacific OceanOcean
South America PlateTectonic Plate
South AmericaContinent
Atacama Desert, ChileDesert

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


29 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Albite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Reference: Oliveros, V., Féraud, G., Aguirre, L., Ramírez, L., Fornari, M., Palacios, C., and Parada, M. (2008): Mineralium Deposita 43, 281-293.
Anatase
Formula: TiO2
Reference: Maksaev, V., Townley, B., Palacios, C., and Camus, F. (2007): Metallic ore deposits. In: Moreno, T., and Gibbons, W. (editors): The Geology of Chile. The Geological Society (London), pp. 414.
Anhydrite
Formula: CaSO4
Reference: Cameron, E.M., Leybourne, M.I., and Palacios, C. (2007): Mineralium Deposita 42, 205-218.
Atacamite
Formula: Cu2(OH)3Cl
Reference: Cameron, E.M., Leybourne, M.I., and Palacios, C. (2007): Mineralium Deposita 42, 205-218; Reich, M. et al. (2008): Atacamite formation by deep saline waters in copper deposits from the Atacama Desert, Chile: evidence from fluid inclusions, groundwater geochemistry, TEM, and 36Cl data. Mineralium Deposita 43, 663-675.
'Biotite'
Reference: Oliveros, V., Féraud, G., Aguirre, L., Ramírez, L., Fornari, M., Palacios, C., and Parada, M. (2008): Mineralium Deposita 43, 281-293.
Boleite
Formula: KPb26Ag9Cu24(OH)48Cl62
Reference: Anthony, J. W. et al. (1997): Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 72
Bornite
Formula: Cu5FeS4
Reference: Oliveros, V., Féraud, G., Aguirre, L., Ramírez, L., Fornari, M., Palacios, C., and Parada, M. (2008): Mineralium Deposita 43, 281-293.
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Oliveros, V., Féraud, G., Aguirre, L., Ramírez, L., Fornari, M., Palacios, C., and Parada, M. (2008): Mineralium Deposita 43, 281-293.
Chalcanthite
Formula: CuSO4 · 5H2O
Reference: Cameron, E.M., Leybourne, M.I., and Palacios, C. (2007): Mineralium Deposita 42, 205-218.
Chalcocite
Formula: Cu2S
Reference: Ramírez, L.E., Palacios, C., Townley, B., Parada, M.A., Sial, A.N., Fernandez-Turiel, J.L., Gimeno, D., Garcia-Valles, M., and Lehmann, B. (2006): Mineralium Deposita 41, 246-258.
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Reference: Oliveros, V., Féraud, G., Aguirre, L., Ramírez, L., Fornari, M., Palacios, C., and Parada, M. (2008): Mineralium Deposita 43, 281-293.
'Chlorite Group'
Reference: Oliveros, V., Féraud, G., Aguirre, L., Ramírez, L., Fornari, M., Palacios, C., and Parada, M. (2008): Mineralium Deposita 43, 281-293.
Chrysocolla
Formula: Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Reference: Ramírez, L.E., Palacios, C., Townley, B., Parada, M.A., Sial, A.N., Fernandez-Turiel, J.L., Gimeno, D., Garcia-Valles, M., and Lehmann, B. (2006): Mineralium Deposita 41, 246-258.
Copper
Formula: Cu
Reference: Ramírez, L.E., Palacios, C., Townley, B., Parada, M.A., Sial, A.N., Fernandez-Turiel, J.L., Gimeno, D., Garcia-Valles, M., and Lehmann, B. (2006): Mineralium Deposita 41, 246-258.
Covellite
Formula: CuS
Reference: Ramírez, L.E., Palacios, C., Townley, B., Parada, M.A., Sial, A.N., Fernandez-Turiel, J.L., Gimeno, D., Garcia-Valles, M., and Lehmann, B. (2006): Mineralium Deposita 41, 246-258.
Cuprite
Formula: Cu2O
Reference: Ramírez, L.E., Palacios, C., Townley, B., Parada, M.A., Sial, A.N., Fernandez-Turiel, J.L., Gimeno, D., Garcia-Valles, M., and Lehmann, B. (2006): Mineralium Deposita 41, 246-258.
Digenite
Formula: Cu9S5
Reference: Oliveros, V., Féraud, G., Aguirre, L., Ramírez, L., Fornari, M., Palacios, C., and Parada, M. (2008): Mineralium Deposita 43, 281-293.
Epidote
Formula: {Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Reference: Oliveros, V., Féraud, G., Aguirre, L., Ramírez, L., Fornari, M., Palacios, C., and Parada, M. (2008): Mineralium Deposita 43, 281-293.
Galena
Formula: PbS
Reference: Oliveros, V., Féraud, G., Aguirre, L., Ramírez, L., Fornari, M., Palacios, C., and Parada, M. (2008): Mineralium Deposita 43, 281-293.
Gypsum
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Reference: Cameron, E.M., Leybourne, M.I., and Palacios, C. (2007): Mineralium Deposita 42, 205-218.
Halite
Formula: NaCl
Reference: Cameron, E.M., Leybourne, M.I., and Palacios, C. (2007): Mineralium Deposita 42, 205-218.
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Reference: Oliveros, V., Féraud, G., Aguirre, L., Ramírez, L., Fornari, M., Palacios, C., and Parada, M. (2008): Mineralium Deposita 43, 281-293.
Hematite var: Specularite
Formula: Fe2O3
Reference: Maksaev, V., Townley, B., Palacios, C., and Camus, F. (2007): Metallic ore deposits. In: Moreno, T., and Gibbons, W. (editors): The Geology of Chile. The Geological Society (London), pp. 414.
'K Feldspar'
Reference: Oliveros, V., Féraud, G., Aguirre, L., Ramírez, L., Fornari, M., Palacios, C., and Parada, M. (2008): Mineralium Deposita 43, 281-293.; Maksaev, V., Townley, B., Palacios, C., and Camus, F. (2007): Metallic ore deposits. In: Moreno, T., and Gibbons, W. (editors): The Geology of Chile. The Geological Society (London), pp. 414.
Magnetite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Reference: Oliveros, V., Féraud, G., Aguirre, L., Ramírez, L., Fornari, M., Palacios, C., and Parada, M. (2008): Mineralium Deposita 43, 281-293.
Malachite
Formula: Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Reference: Ramírez, L.E., Palacios, C., Townley, B., Parada, M.A., Sial, A.N., Fernandez-Turiel, J.L., Gimeno, D., Garcia-Valles, M., and Lehmann, B. (2006): Mineralium Deposita 41, 246-258.
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Oliveros, V., Féraud, G., Aguirre, L., Ramírez, L., Fornari, M., Palacios, C., and Parada, M. (2008): Mineralium Deposita 43, 281-293.
Muscovite var: Sericite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Oliveros, V., Féraud, G., Aguirre, L., Ramírez, L., Fornari, M., Palacios, C., and Parada, M. (2008): Mineralium Deposita 43, 281-293.
Paratacamite
Formula: Cu3(Cu,Zn)(OH)6Cl2
Reference: Cameron, E.M., Leybourne, M.I., and Palacios, C. (2007): Mineralium Deposita 42, 205-218.
'Percylite'
Reference: R Munoz collection
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Oliveros, V., Féraud, G., Aguirre, L., Ramírez, L., Fornari, M., Palacios, C., and Parada, M. (2008): Mineralium Deposita 43, 281-293.
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Oliveros, V., Féraud, G., Aguirre, L., Ramírez, L., Fornari, M., Palacios, C., and Parada, M. (2008): Mineralium Deposita 43, 281-293.
Sampleite
Formula: NaCaCu5(PO4)4Cl · 5H2O
Reference: Knobler, R. and Joseph, W., 1962. Mining Engin. 14, 40-45; http://rruff.geo.arizona.edu/doclib/hom/sampleite.pdf
'Scapolite'
Reference: Maksaev, V., Townley, B., Palacios, C., and Camus, F. (2007): Metallic ore deposits. In: Moreno, T., and Gibbons, W. (editors): The Geology of Chile. The Geological Society (London), pp. 414.
Tenorite
Formula: CuO
Reference: Ramírez, L.E., Palacios, C., Townley, B., Parada, M.A., Sial, A.N., Fernandez-Turiel, J.L., Gimeno, D., Garcia-Valles, M., and Lehmann, B. (2006): Mineralium Deposita 41, 246-258.
Titanite
Formula: CaTi(SiO4)O
Reference: Oliveros, V., Féraud, G., Aguirre, L., Ramírez, L., Fornari, M., Palacios, C., and Parada, M. (2008): Mineralium Deposita 43, 281-293.
'Tourmaline'
Formula: A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Reference: Oliveros, V., Féraud, G., Aguirre, L., Ramírez, L., Fornari, M., Palacios, C., and Parada, M. (2008): Mineralium Deposita 43, 281-293.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Copper1.AA.05Cu
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Bornite2.BA.15Cu5FeS4
Chalcocite2.BA.05Cu2S
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Covellite2.CA.05aCuS
Digenite2.BA.10Cu9S5
Galena2.CD.10PbS
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Group 3 - Halides
Atacamite3.DA.10aCu2(OH)3Cl
Boleite3.DB.15KPb26Ag9Cu24(OH)48Cl62
Halite3.AA.20NaCl
Paratacamite3.DA.10cCu3(Cu,Zn)(OH)6Cl2
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Anatase4.DD.05TiO2
Cuprite4.AA.10Cu2O
Hematite4.CB.05Fe2O3
var: Specularite4.CB.05Fe2O3
Magnetite4.BB.05Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Tenorite4.AB.10CuO
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Malachite5.BA.10Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Anhydrite7.AD.30CaSO4
Chalcanthite7.CB.20CuSO4 · 5H2O
Gypsum7.CD.40CaSO4 · 2H2O
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Sampleite8.DG.05NaCaCu5(PO4)4Cl · 5H2O
Group 9 - Silicates
Albite9.FA.35Na(AlSi3O8)
Chrysocolla9.ED.20Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Epidote9.BG.05a{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Muscovite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
var: Sericite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Titanite9.AG.15CaTi(SiO4)O
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Biotite'-
'Chlorite Group'-
'K Feldspar'-
'Percylite'-
'Scapolite'-
'Tourmaline'-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Copper1.1.1.3Cu
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:1
Chalcocite2.4.7.1Cu2S
Digenite2.4.7.3Cu9S5
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 3:2
Bornite2.5.2.1Cu5FeS4
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Covellite2.8.12.1CuS
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X
Cuprite4.1.1.1Cu2O
AX
Tenorite4.2.3.1CuO
A2X3
Hematite4.3.1.2Fe2O3
AX2
Anatase4.4.4.1TiO2
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB2X4
Magnetite7.2.2.3Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Group 9 - NORMAL HALIDES
AX
Halite9.1.1.1NaCl
Group 10 - OXYHALIDES AND HYDROXYHALIDES
A2(O,OH)3Xq
Atacamite10.1.1.1Cu2(OH)3Cl
Paratacamite10.1.2.1Cu3(Cu,Zn)(OH)6Cl2
AmBn(O,OH)pXq
Boleite10.6.6.1KPb26Ag9Cu24(OH)48Cl62
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Malachite16a.3.1.1Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Anhydrite28.3.2.1CaSO4
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4·xH2O
Chalcanthite29.6.7.1CuSO4 · 5H2O
Gypsum29.6.3.1CaSO4 · 2H2O
Group 42 - HYDRATED PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)7(XO4)4Zq·xH2O
Sampleite42.9.4.1NaCaCu5(PO4)4Cl · 5H2O
Group 52 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] and/or >[6] coordination
Titanite52.4.3.1CaTi(SiO4)O
Group 58 - SOROSILICATES Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups
Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups with cations in [6] and higher coordination; single and double groups (n = 1, 2)
Epidote58.2.1a.7{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Group 74 - PHYLLOSILICATES Modulated Layers
Modulated Layers with joined strips
Chrysocolla74.3.2.1Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
Albite76.1.3.1Na(AlSi3O8)
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
'Biotite'-
'Chlorite Group'-
Hematite
var: Specularite
-Fe2O3
'K Feldspar'-
Muscovite
var: Sericite
-KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
'Percylite'-
'Scapolite'-
'Tourmaline'-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H BoleiteKPb26Ag9Cu24(OH)48Cl62
H Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H AtacamiteCu2(OH)3Cl
H ParatacamiteCu3(Cu,Zn)(OH)6Cl2
H ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
H ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2O
H GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
H MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
H SampleiteNaCaCu5(PO4)4Cl · 5H2O
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
BBoron
B TourmalineA(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
CCarbon
C CalciteCaCO3
C MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
OOxygen
O BoleiteKPb26Ag9Cu24(OH)48Cl62
O QuartzSiO2
O Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O TourmalineA(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
O MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
O Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O CalciteCaCO3
O AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
O HematiteFe2O3
O TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
O AtacamiteCu2(OH)3Cl
O ParatacamiteCu3(Cu,Zn)(OH)6Cl2
O ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
O ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2O
O GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
O AnhydriteCaSO4
O MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
O CupriteCu2O
O TenoriteCuO
O SampleiteNaCaCu5(PO4)4Cl · 5H2O
O Hematite (var: Specularite)Fe2O3
O AnataseTiO2
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
NaSodium
Na AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Na HaliteNaCl
Na SampleiteNaCaCu5(PO4)4Cl · 5H2O
AlAluminium
Al Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Al AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Al ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
SiSilicon
Si QuartzSiO2
Si Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Si TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Si ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
PPhosphorus
P SampleiteNaCaCu5(PO4)4Cl · 5H2O
SSulfur
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S PyriteFeS2
S BorniteCu5FeS4
S GalenaPbS
S DigeniteCu9S5
S ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2O
S GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
S AnhydriteCaSO4
S ChalcociteCu2S
S CovelliteCuS
ClChlorine
Cl BoleiteKPb26Ag9Cu24(OH)48Cl62
Cl AtacamiteCu2(OH)3Cl
Cl ParatacamiteCu3(Cu,Zn)(OH)6Cl2
Cl HaliteNaCl
Cl SampleiteNaCaCu5(PO4)4Cl · 5H2O
KPotassium
K BoleiteKPb26Ag9Cu24(OH)48Cl62
K Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
CaCalcium
Ca Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Ca GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
Ca AnhydriteCaSO4
Ca SampleiteNaCaCu5(PO4)4Cl · 5H2O
TiTitanium
Ti TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Ti AnataseTiO2
FeIron
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe BorniteCu5FeS4
Fe MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
Fe Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Fe HematiteFe2O3
Fe Hematite (var: Specularite)Fe2O3
CuCopper
Cu BoleiteKPb26Ag9Cu24(OH)48Cl62
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Cu BorniteCu5FeS4
Cu DigeniteCu9S5
Cu AtacamiteCu2(OH)3Cl
Cu ParatacamiteCu3(Cu,Zn)(OH)6Cl2
Cu ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Cu ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2O
Cu MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
Cu ChalcociteCu2S
Cu CovelliteCuS
Cu CupriteCu2O
Cu CopperCu
Cu TenoriteCuO
Cu SampleiteNaCaCu5(PO4)4Cl · 5H2O
ZnZinc
Zn ParatacamiteCu3(Cu,Zn)(OH)6Cl2
AgSilver
Ag BoleiteKPb26Ag9Cu24(OH)48Cl62
PbLead
Pb BoleiteKPb26Ag9Cu24(OH)48Cl62
Pb GalenaPbS

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Tertiary - Jurassic
2.588 - 201.3 Ma



ID: 3186158
Mesozoic-Cenozoic intrusive rocks

Age: Phanerozoic (2.588 - 201.3 Ma)

Lithology: Intrusive igneous rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Chili Komitee Nederland and Onderzoeksgroep Multinationale Ondernemingen Latijns-Amerika (MOL) (1983) Het koper van Chili. Amsterdam, 55 pp. (in Dutch) (p. 25).
Ramírez, L.E., Palacios, C., Townley, B., Parada, M.A., Sial, A.N., Fernandez-Turiel, J.L., Gimeno, D., Garcia-Valles, M., and Lehmann, B. (2006) The Mantos Blancos copper deposit: an upper Jurassic breccia-style hydrothermal system in the Coastal Range of Northern Chile. Mineralium Deposita, 41, 246-258.
Oliveros, V., Féraud, G., Aguirre, L., Ramírez, L., Fornari, M., Palacios, C., and Parada, M.A. (2008) Detailed 40Ar/39Ar dating of geologic events associated with the Mantos Blancos copper deposit, northern Chile. Mineralium Deposita, 43, 281-293.
Maksaev, V., Townley, B., Palacios, C., and Camus, F. (2007) Metallic ore deposits. In: Moreno, T. and Gibbons, W. (Eds.) The Geology of Chile. The Geological Society (London), 414 pp.
Reich, M. et al. (2008) Atacamite formation by deep saline waters in copper deposits from the Atacama Desert, Chile: evidence from fluid inclusions, groundwater geochemistry, TEM, and 36Cl data. Mineralium Deposita, 43, 663-675.


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