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Waiotahi Mine, Thames, Thames-Coromandel District, Waikato Region, North Island, New Zealand

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 37° 7' 50'' South , 175° 32' 28'' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): -37.13075,175.54137
GeoHash:G#: rckuf893d
Locality type:Mine
Köppen climate type:Cfb : Temperate oceanic climate


The Thames mining area involved exploitation of well defined quartz veins with local bonanza gold concentrations.

Many mine excavations are now exposed as underground workings, shallow tunnels, or quarries, although these are commonly dry. Groundwater drains from the host rock-mass and is chemically affected by that rock, so that surface seepages reflect the chemistry of the immediate host rock. Water issuing from pyritic altered rock near mineralised zones on Una Hill and Waiotahi mine is acidic, with pH as low as 2.
Metal Distribution in historic mine wastes, Coromandel Peninsula. Craw & Chappell, NZJGG, 2000.

Various mines in the Waiotahi area produced in excess of 500,000 ounces of gold (McMahon, 1986)

When gold was discovered at the Shotover claim in 1868, it soon became apparent other nearby areas were likely gold bearing. These areas were controlled by Maori tribes who were reticent about allowing hundreds of miners onto their land. Early pictures of gold mining areas around Thames show a scorched earth scene, prove this fear was valid. Two sons of a chief who opposed mining, had been arrested after assaulting a trespassing miner. They were fined, but unable to pay, were due for two months imprisonment. The chief, Aperahama Te Reiroa approached government agent James McKay for a loan. At the time McKay was trying to convince the Maoris to open the Waiotahi block for gold mining, and offered to pay the fine, on the proviso the land was opened for development.

The country rock is pyroxene andesite, highly propylitised altered in the upper levels, however there was a belt of dark hard un-altered andesite in the southern portion of the lease.

The Waiotahi lode (sometimes called the Waiotahi-Cambria lode) was 12 feet wide, trending north-east to south-west, and dipping north-west by up to 45 degrees. Smaller branch veins have a steeper dip, and specimen stone was found where veins intersect. The gold is associated with considerable quantities of crystallised stibnite, encrusted in turn by dark ruby coloured pyrargyrite. Pyrite is abundant, black, often decomposed in the upper levels, forming stalactites with manganese oxides and gypsum from the roof and walls of the tunnels, some described as hanging in long threads from the roof to the floor. There is no reason why these should not still be there, in areas not collapsed, however accessing it is another matter. The lode contains irregular solid pyrite bands, and other un-named sulphide minerals. The quartz in the upper levels show comb structures, and cavities with quartz drusy linings, sometimes filled with clay.

In 1904, long after other gold bonanzas had been exhausted in other mines in the area, a large patch of gold was found at the junction of the No. 1, No. 2 reefs and Specimen Leader, where the reefs changed dip to almost vertical. Gold was so plentiful it had to be cut out in places with a chisel. Half a million pounds in dividends was issued in six months. The patch was described as a lensoidal pipe, 107 feet long by 32 feet by 4 feet in cross-section. It was unusual compared to other Thames bonanzas, as the gold was found in boulder like fragments of specimen stone in cavenous veinstone. Gold was also liberally found in the surrounding wall rock to 4 feet. The good times did not last long, as the rest of the veins were average grades.

The original prospectors were Parnell and Tournley (surnames) the claim registered in April 1868. The mine was located near the mouth of the Waiotahi Stream valley, bounded by the Kuranui-Caledonian to the east, the New Moanataiari to the south, Victoria to the west. The lease in 1908 contained the old claims Waiotahi, Imperial City, Cure, Manukau, and part of the Golden Crown.

The Waiotahi Gold Mining Company operated the mine from 1873, and had conducted considerable development since 1877. The total produced by 1908 had been 97 704 tonnes of ore producing 241 690 ounces of gold. The first mine manager was J.H. Burnside.

The size of the lease operated by the Waiotahi Gold Mining Company in 1896 was reported at 22 acres. It is stated as a steady earner, paying dividends. The mine was accessed from the Waiotahi shaft with three levels (Fraser states seven levels in 1908), and the Mary Ann shaft with two levels. In 1895 as an example, 2194 tonnes of ore was extracted producing 2321 ounces of gold.

The twenty year old, 20 stamp mill was replaced in 1905 by a new 20 stamp battery. The new Waiotahi battery closed in 1907. The tailings generated by the battery now has houses built across it along the present foreshore.

Alternative Label Names

This is a list of additional names that have been recorded for mineral labels associated with this locality in the minID database. This may include previous versions of the locality name hierarchy from mindat.org, data entry errors, and it may also include unconfirmed sublocality names or other names that can only be matched to this level.

Waiotahi Mine

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


26 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Albite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Reference: Hauraki goldfield, Braithwaite, Cristie and Skinner. Mineral deposits of NZ, 1987
Alunite
Formula: KAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Reference: Hauraki goldfield, Braithwaite, Cristie and Skinner. Mineral deposits of NZ, 1987
Ankerite
Formula: Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Reference: Hauraki goldfield, Braithwaite, Cristie and Skinner. Mineral deposits of NZ, 1987
Arsenopyrite
Formula: FeAsS
Reference: FRASER, C. 1910: The Geology of the Thames Subdivision, Hauraki, Auckland. N.Z. Geol. Suru. Bull. 10.
Baryte
Formula: BaSO4
Reference: Hauraki goldfield, Braithwaite, Cristie and Skinner. Mineral deposits of NZ, 1987
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Hauraki goldfield, Braithwaite, Cristie and Skinner. Mineral deposits of NZ, 1987
Cervantite ?
Formula: Sb3+Sb5+O4
Reference: Stephanie Martin specimen
Chalcanthite
Formula: CuSO4 · 5H2O
Reference: Hauraki goldfield, Braithwaite, Cristie and Skinner. Mineral deposits of NZ, 1987
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Reference: Hauraki goldfield, Braithwaite, Cristie and Skinner. Mineral deposits of NZ, 1987
Cinnabar
Formula: HgS
Reference: FRASER, C. 1910: The Geology of the Thames Subdivision, Hauraki, Auckland. N.Z. Geol. Suru. Bull. 10.
'Electrum'
Formula: (Au, Ag)
Reference: Hauraki goldfield, Braithwaite, Cristie and Skinner. Mineral deposits of NZ, 1987
Enargite
Formula: Cu3AsS4
Reference: FRASER, C. 1910: The Geology of the Thames Subdivision, Hauraki, Auckland. N.Z. Geol. Suru. Bull. 10.
Epsomite
Formula: MgSO4 · 7H2O
Reference: Hauraki goldfield, Braithwaite, Cristie and Skinner. Mineral deposits of NZ, 1987
Gold
Formula: Au
Reference: Hauraki goldfield, Braithwaite, Cristie and Skinner. Mineral deposits of NZ, 1987
Gypsum
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Reference: Rod Martin specimen
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Reference: McOnie, A.. Mineral Report 3050, 1991.
Kaolinite
Formula: Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Reference: Hauraki goldfield, Braithwaite, Cristie and Skinner. Mineral deposits of NZ, 1987
Malachite
Formula: Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Reference: Hauraki goldfield, Braithwaite, Cristie and Skinner. Mineral deposits of NZ, 1987
Marcasite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: FRASER, C. 1910: The Geology of the Thames Subdivision, Hauraki, Auckland. N.Z. Geol. Suru. Bull. 10.
Melanterite
Formula: Fe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
Reference: Hauraki goldfield, Braithwaite, Cristie and Skinner. Mineral deposits of NZ, 1987
Pyrargyrite
Formula: Ag3SbS3
Reference: Hauraki goldfield, Braithwaite, Cristie and Skinner. Mineral deposits of NZ, 1987
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Hauraki goldfield, Braithwaite, Cristie and Skinner. Mineral deposits of NZ, 1987
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Hauraki goldfield, Braithwaite, Cristie and Skinner. Mineral deposits of NZ, 1987
Siderite
Formula: FeCO3
Reference: McOnie, A.. Mineral Report 3050, 1991.
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Reference: FRASER, C. 1910: The Geology of the Thames Subdivision, Hauraki, Auckland. N.Z. Geol. Suru. Bull. 10.
Stibnite
Formula: Sb2S3
Reference: Hauraki goldfield, Braithwaite, Cristie and Skinner. Mineral deposits of NZ, 1987
Tetrahedrite
Formula: Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Reference: Harris S.G. Mineral Report 2279, 1981.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
'Electrum'1.AA.05(Au, Ag)
'Gold'1.AA.05Au
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
'Arsenopyrite'2.EB.20FeAsS
'Chalcopyrite'2.CB.10aCuFeS2
'Cinnabar'2.CD.15aHgS
'Enargite'2.KA.05Cu3AsS4
'Marcasite'2.EB.10aFeS2
'Pyrargyrite'2.GA.05Ag3SbS3
'Pyrite'2.EB.05aFeS2
'Sphalerite'2.CB.05aZnS
'Stibnite'2.DB.05Sb2S3
'Tetrahedrite'2.GB.05Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
'Cervantite' ?4.DE.30Sb3+Sb5+O4
'Hematite'4.CB.05Fe2O3
'Quartz'4.DA.05SiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
'Ankerite'5.AB.10Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
'Calcite'5.AB.05CaCO3
'Malachite'5.BA.10Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
'Siderite'5.AB.05FeCO3
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
'Alunite'7.BC.10KAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
'Baryte'7.AD.35BaSO4
'Chalcanthite'7.CB.20CuSO4 · 5H2O
'Epsomite'7.CB.40MgSO4 · 7H2O
'Gypsum'7.CD.40CaSO4 · 2H2O
'Melanterite'7.CB.35Fe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
Group 9 - Silicates
'Albite'9.FA.35Na(AlSi3O8)
'Kaolinite'9.ED.05Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Gold1.1.1.1Au
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Cinnabar2.8.14.1HgS
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:3
Stibnite2.11.2.1Sb2S3
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Arsenopyrite2.12.4.1FeAsS
Marcasite2.12.2.1FeS2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 3 - SULFOSALTS
ø = 4
Enargite3.2.1.1Cu3AsS4
3 <ø < 4
Tetrahedrite3.3.6.1Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
ø = 3
Pyrargyrite3.4.1.2Ag3SbS3
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X3
Hematite4.3.1.2Fe2O3
AX2
Cervantite ?4.4.16.1Sb3+Sb5+O4
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Siderite14.1.1.3FeCO3
AB(XO3)2
Ankerite14.2.1.2Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Malachite16a.3.1.1Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Baryte28.3.1.1BaSO4
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4·xH2O
Chalcanthite29.6.7.1CuSO4 · 5H2O
Epsomite29.6.11.1MgSO4 · 7H2O
Gypsum29.6.3.1CaSO4 · 2H2O
Melanterite29.6.10.1Fe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
Group 30 - ANHYDROUS SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)2(XO4)Zq
Alunite30.2.4.1KAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
Albite76.1.3.1Na(AlSi3O8)
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Electrum'-(Au, Ag)
Kaolinite-Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
H ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2O
H EpsomiteMgSO4 · 7H2O
H GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
H KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
H MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
H MelanteriteFe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
CCarbon
C AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
C CalciteCaCO3
C MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
C SideriteFeCO3
OOxygen
O AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
O AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
O AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
O BaryteBaSO4
O CalciteCaCO3
O CervantiteSb3+Sb5+O4
O ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2O
O EpsomiteMgSO4 · 7H2O
O GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
O HematiteFe2O3
O KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
O MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
O MelanteriteFe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
O QuartzSiO2
O SideriteFeCO3
NaSodium
Na AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
MgMagnesium
Mg AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Mg EpsomiteMgSO4 · 7H2O
AlAluminium
Al AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Al AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Al KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
SiSilicon
Si AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Si KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Si QuartzSiO2
SSulfur
S AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
S ArsenopyriteFeAsS
S BaryteBaSO4
S ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2O
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S CinnabarHgS
S EnargiteCu3AsS4
S EpsomiteMgSO4 · 7H2O
S GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
S MarcasiteFeS2
S MelanteriteFe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
S PyrargyriteAg3SbS3
S PyriteFeS2
S SphaleriteZnS
S StibniteSb2S3
S TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
KPotassium
K AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
CaCalcium
Ca AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
FeIron
Fe AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Fe ArsenopyriteFeAsS
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe HematiteFe2O3
Fe MarcasiteFeS2
Fe MelanteriteFe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe SideriteFeCO3
Fe TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
CuCopper
Cu ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2O
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Cu EnargiteCu3AsS4
Cu MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
Cu TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
ZnZinc
Zn SphaleriteZnS
Zn TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
AsArsenic
As ArsenopyriteFeAsS
As EnargiteCu3AsS4
AgSilver
Ag Electrum(Au, Ag)
Ag PyrargyriteAg3SbS3
SbAntimony
Sb CervantiteSb3+Sb5+O4
Sb PyrargyriteAg3SbS3
Sb StibniteSb2S3
Sb TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
BaBarium
Ba BaryteBaSO4
AuGold
Au Electrum(Au, Ag)
Au GoldAu
HgMercury
Hg CinnabarHgS

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Miocene
5.333 - 23.03 Ma



ID: 1308094
Coromandel Group Miocene andesite and basaltic andesite lava

Age: Miocene (5.333 - 23.03 Ma)

Stratigraphic Name: Coromandel Group

Description: Andesite and basaltic andesite lava, tuff and tuff breccia, agglomerate and pyroclastic flow deposits; andesite, diorite and dacite dikes and subvolcanic intusions.

Comments: Zealandia Megasequence Extrusive and Intrusive Rocks (Neogene)

Lithology: Andesite, tuffite, tuff-breccia, agglomerate, pyroclastic material, andesite, diorite, dacite

Reference: Edbrooke, S.W., Heron, D.W., Forsyth, P.J., Jongens, R. (compilers). Geology Map of New Zealand 1:1 000 000. GNS Science Geological Map 2. [12]

Tortonian - Burdigalian
7.246 - 20.44 Ma



ID: 1315860
Kuaotunu Subgroup andesite and dacite (Coromandel Group) of Coromandel Volcanic Zone

Age: Miocene (7.246 - 20.44 Ma)

Stratigraphic Name: Kuaotunu Subgroup

Description: Basaltic andesite, andesite and dacite intrusives, flows, volcaniclastites and volcanic epiclastites.

Comments: Neogene igneous rocks. Age based on K-Ar

Lithology: Major:: {andesite},Minor:: {dacite}

Reference: Heron, D.W. . Geology Map of New Zealand 1:250 000. GNS Science Geological Map 1. [13]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
The Thames Miner's Guide (1868) sold for the proprietors by Edward Wayte, Queen Street, Auckland.
The Goldfields of New Zealand: report on roads water races mining machinery and other works in connection with mining, Appendix to the Journals of the House of Representatives, Session 1, C.-03, New Zealand Government, Wellington, 1896.
New Zealand Herald newspaper (1907) The Waiotahi Gold Mining Company (to the Ed.), Vol. XLIV, issue 13472, 24 June 1907.
Fraser, C. (1910) The Geology of the Thames Subdivision, Hauraki, Auckland. New Zealand Geological Survey, Bulletin No. 10 (New Series), New Zealand Government, Wellington, 136 pages.
McMahon, T. (1986) Report on Waiotahi-Moanataiari area, Thames Goldfield: for Mineral Reources NZ Ltd. Unpublished mining company report, Ministry of Commerce MR502.
Monin, P. (2001) Hauraki Contested 1769-1875, Chapter 7 Gold and the Overwhelming of Hauraki, Bridget William Books, p211.

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