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Wadi Nuqrus (Wadi Nugrus), Emerald mines (incl. Gebel Zabara; Wadi Abu Rusheid; Wadi Gimal; Wadi Sikait; Wadi Umm Debaa; Wadi Umm Kabu), Sikait-Zabara region, Eastern Desert, Red Sea, Egypti
Regional Level Types
Wadi Nuqrus (Wadi Nugrus)- not defined -
Emerald mines (incl. Gebel Zabara; Wadi Abu Rusheid; Wadi Gimal; Wadi Sikait; Wadi Umm Debaa; Wadi Umm Kabu)Group of Mines
Sikait-Zabara regionRegion
Eastern DesertDesert
Red SeaGovernorate
EgyptCountry

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Key
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
24° 37' North , 34° 48' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal):
Köppen climate type:


The following description of the locality can be found in Shaw & Bunbury (2003):

"Wadi Nuqrus (6th - 9th centuries AD)

The Wadi Nuqrus mines and settlement (34° 48.98' E, 24° 37.27' N) are located on the east side of the Wadi Nuqrus, a few kilometres to the north of Wadi Gimal B. The mines in the Wadi Nuqrus were far more extensive and richer in emeralds than the two Wadi Gimal mines, and were therefore presumably exploited over a longer period. There would thus have been more incentive to invest in the settlement. On the northern side of the wadi, the buildings are situated over a band of metamorphosed sandy material that marks the upper limit of this part of the site.

Unfortunately, the geological context in which the emeralds formed in the Wadi Nuqrus mines has proved somewhat difficult to elucidate, given the fact that the location in which they formed (just below the main area of settlement) is now almost entirely covered by the miners' tip heaps, each consisting of a central depression surrounded by debris. It seems, however, that the lode formed an inclined slab parallel to the surface of the hill. This slab appears to have been worked from the bottom of the slope upwards, and the discarded material would thus have been tipped back onto the already exhausted workings. The dimensions of the tips 3 to 4m wide and about 2m deep - are much greater than those at Wadi Gimal A and B, and there is no evidence for the two-tier tipping described at the Wadi Gimal sites. Grains of emerald and clasts containing emerald are common among the tips, and the great variation in the size of the clasts (ranging from pieces with a width of 20cm to fine grains of sand) suggests that the minerals were extracted in one stage. On the south side of the wadi there are fewer tips and some indications of ancient excavation of the rock, consisting of a number of pits and a tunnel, focusing on the margins of a quartz band about one metre thick at the bottom of the hillside. A small rockfall shows that part of the hillside had been undermined, and a thick quartz band rises to the crest of the ridge northwest of the area of undermining. In the immediate proximity of the quartz band, two pits have been excavated, and to the east of these, large slabs of schist have been partly exposed."

Regions containing this locality

African PlateTectonic Plate
Sahara Desert, North AfricaDesert

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


15 valid minerals.

Rock Types Recorded

Note: this is a very new system on mindat.org and data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

Select Rock List Type

Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

Detailed Mineral List:

'Albite-Anorthite Series'
Reference: Ibrahim, M. E., Saleh, G. M., Dawood, N. A., & Aly, G. M. (2013). Ocellar lamprophyre dyke bearing mineralization, Wadi Nugrus, Eastern Desert, Egypt: Geology, mineralogy and geochemical implications. Journal of Geology and Mining Research, 2(4), 74-86.
'Allanite Group'
Formula: {A12+REE3+}{M3+2M32+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Reference: Ibrahim, M. E., Saleh, G. M., Dawood, N. A., & Aly, G. M. (2013). Ocellar lamprophyre dyke bearing mineralization, Wadi Nugrus, Eastern Desert, Egypt: Geology, mineralogy and geochemical implications. Journal of Geology and Mining Research, 2(4), 74-86.
'Apatite'
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
Reference: Ibrahim, M. E., Saleh, G. M., Dawood, N. A., & Aly, G. M. (2013). Ocellar lamprophyre dyke bearing mineralization, Wadi Nugrus, Eastern Desert, Egypt: Geology, mineralogy and geochemical implications. Journal of Geology and Mining Research, 2(4), 74-86.
Atacamite
Formula: Cu2(OH)3Cl
Reference: Ibrahim, M. E., Saleh, G. M., Dawood, N. A., & Aly, G. M. (2013). Ocellar lamprophyre dyke bearing mineralization, Wadi Nugrus, Eastern Desert, Egypt: Geology, mineralogy and geochemical implications. Journal of Geology and Mining Research, 2(4), 74-86.
Augite
Formula: (CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Reference: Ibrahim, M. E., Saleh, G. M., Dawood, N. A., & Aly, G. M. (2013). Ocellar lamprophyre dyke bearing mineralization, Wadi Nugrus, Eastern Desert, Egypt: Geology, mineralogy and geochemical implications. Journal of Geology and Mining Research, 2(4), 74-86.
Autunite
Formula: Ca(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 11H2O
Reference: Ibrahim, M. E., Saleh, G. M., Dawood, N. A., & Aly, G. M. (2013). Ocellar lamprophyre dyke bearing mineralization, Wadi Nugrus, Eastern Desert, Egypt: Geology, mineralogy and geochemical implications. Journal of Geology and Mining Research, 2(4), 74-86.
'Biotite'
Formula: K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Reference: Ibrahim, M. E., Saleh, G. M., Dawood, N. A., & Aly, G. M. (2013). Ocellar lamprophyre dyke bearing mineralization, Wadi Nugrus, Eastern Desert, Egypt: Geology, mineralogy and geochemical implications. Journal of Geology and Mining Research, 2(4), 74-86.
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Ibrahim, M. E., Saleh, G. M., Dawood, N. A., & Aly, G. M. (2013). Ocellar lamprophyre dyke bearing mineralization, Wadi Nugrus, Eastern Desert, Egypt: Geology, mineralogy and geochemical implications. Journal of Geology and Mining Research, 2(4), 74-86.
'Chlorite Group'
Reference: Ibrahim, M. E., Saleh, G. M., Dawood, N. A., & Aly, G. M. (2013). Ocellar lamprophyre dyke bearing mineralization, Wadi Nugrus, Eastern Desert, Egypt: Geology, mineralogy and geochemical implications. Journal of Geology and Mining Research, 2(4), 74-86.
'Clinopyroxene Subgroup'
Reference: Ibrahim, M. E., Saleh, G. M., Dawood, N. A., & Aly, G. M. (2013). Ocellar lamprophyre dyke bearing mineralization, Wadi Nugrus, Eastern Desert, Egypt: Geology, mineralogy and geochemical implications. Journal of Geology and Mining Research, 2(4), 74-86.
'Columbite-(Fe)-Columbite-(Mn) Series'
Reference: Von Knorring & Fadipe (1981): On the mineralogy and geochemistry of niobium and tantalum in some granite pegmatites and alkali granites of Africa. Bull.Minéral.104, 496-507
Epidote
Formula: {Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Reference: Ibrahim, M. E., Saleh, G. M., Dawood, N. A., & Aly, G. M. (2013). Ocellar lamprophyre dyke bearing mineralization, Wadi Nugrus, Eastern Desert, Egypt: Geology, mineralogy and geochemical implications. Journal of Geology and Mining Research, 2(4), 74-86.
'Fayalite-Forsterite Series'
Reference: Ibrahim, M. E., Saleh, G. M., Dawood, N. A., & Aly, G. M. (2013). Ocellar lamprophyre dyke bearing mineralization, Wadi Nugrus, Eastern Desert, Egypt: Geology, mineralogy and geochemical implications. Journal of Geology and Mining Research, 2(4), 74-86.
Fluorite
Formula: CaF2
Reference: Ibrahim, M. E., Saleh, G. M., Dawood, N. A., & Aly, G. M. (2013). Ocellar lamprophyre dyke bearing mineralization, Wadi Nugrus, Eastern Desert, Egypt: Geology, mineralogy and geochemical implications. Journal of Geology and Mining Research, 2(4), 74-86.
Gold
Formula: Au
Reference: Ibrahim, M. E., Saleh, G. M., Dawood, N. A., & Aly, G. M. (2013). Ocellar lamprophyre dyke bearing mineralization, Wadi Nugrus, Eastern Desert, Egypt: Geology, mineralogy and geochemical implications. Journal of Geology and Mining Research, 2(4), 74-86.
Graphite
Formula: C
Reference: Ibrahim, M. E., Saleh, G. M., Dawood, N. A., & Aly, G. M. (2013). Ocellar lamprophyre dyke bearing mineralization, Wadi Nugrus, Eastern Desert, Egypt: Geology, mineralogy and geochemical implications. Journal of Geology and Mining Research, 2(4), 74-86.
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Reference: Ibrahim, M. E., Saleh, G. M., Dawood, N. A., & Aly, G. M. (2013). Ocellar lamprophyre dyke bearing mineralization, Wadi Nugrus, Eastern Desert, Egypt: Geology, mineralogy and geochemical implications. Journal of Geology and Mining Research, 2(4), 74-86.
Kaolinite
Formula: Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Reference: Ibrahim, M. E., Saleh, G. M., Dawood, N. A., & Aly, G. M. (2013). Ocellar lamprophyre dyke bearing mineralization, Wadi Nugrus, Eastern Desert, Egypt: Geology, mineralogy and geochemical implications. Journal of Geology and Mining Research, 2(4), 74-86.
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Ibrahim, M. E., Saleh, G. M., Dawood, N. A., & Aly, G. M. (2013). Ocellar lamprophyre dyke bearing mineralization, Wadi Nugrus, Eastern Desert, Egypt: Geology, mineralogy and geochemical implications. Journal of Geology and Mining Research, 2(4), 74-86.
Rutile
Formula: TiO2
Reference: Ibrahim, M. E., Saleh, G. M., Dawood, N. A., & Aly, G. M. (2013). Ocellar lamprophyre dyke bearing mineralization, Wadi Nugrus, Eastern Desert, Egypt: Geology, mineralogy and geochemical implications. Journal of Geology and Mining Research, 2(4), 74-86.
Titanite
Formula: CaTi(SiO4)O
Reference: Ibrahim, M. E., Saleh, G. M., Dawood, N. A., & Aly, G. M. (2013). Ocellar lamprophyre dyke bearing mineralization, Wadi Nugrus, Eastern Desert, Egypt: Geology, mineralogy and geochemical implications. Journal of Geology and Mining Research, 2(4), 74-86.
Uranophane
Formula: Ca(UO2)2(SiO3OH)2 · 5H2O
Reference: Ibrahim, M. E., Saleh, G. M., Dawood, N. A., & Aly, G. M. (2013). Ocellar lamprophyre dyke bearing mineralization, Wadi Nugrus, Eastern Desert, Egypt: Geology, mineralogy and geochemical implications. Journal of Geology and Mining Research, 2(4), 74-86.
Zincite
Formula: ZnO
Reference: Ibrahim, M. E., Saleh, G. M., Dawood, N. A., & Aly, G. M. (2013). Ocellar lamprophyre dyke bearing mineralization, Wadi Nugrus, Eastern Desert, Egypt: Geology, mineralogy and geochemical implications. Journal of Geology and Mining Research, 2(4), 74-86.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Gold1.AA.05Au
Graphite1.CB.05aC
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Group 3 - Halides
Atacamite3.DA.10aCu2(OH)3Cl
Fluorite3.AB.25CaF2
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Hematite4.CB.05Fe2O3
Rutile4.DB.05TiO2
Zincite4.AB.20ZnO
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Autunite8.EB.05Ca(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 11H2O
Group 9 - Silicates
Augite9.DA.15(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Epidote9.BG.05a{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Kaolinite9.ED.05Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Titanite9.AG.15CaTi(SiO4)O
Uranophane9.AK.15Ca(UO2)2(SiO3OH)2 · 5H2O
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Albite-Anorthite Series'-
'Allanite Group'-{A12+REE3+}{M3+2M32+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
'Apatite'-Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
'Biotite'-K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
'Chlorite Group'-
'Clinopyroxene Subgroup'-
'Columbite-(Fe)-Columbite-(Mn) Series'-
'Fayalite-Forsterite Series'-

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Gold1.1.1.1Au
Semi-metals and non-metals
Graphite1.3.6.2C
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
AX
Zincite4.2.2.1ZnO
A2X3
Hematite4.3.1.2Fe2O3
AX2
Rutile4.4.1.1TiO2
Group 9 - NORMAL HALIDES
AX2
Fluorite9.2.1.1CaF2
Group 10 - OXYHALIDES AND HYDROXYHALIDES
A2(O,OH)3Xq
Atacamite10.1.1.1Cu2(OH)3Cl
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Group 40 - HYDRATED NORMAL PHOSPHATES,ARSENATES AND VANADATES
AB2(XO4)2·xH2O, containing (UO2)2+
Autunite40.2a.1.1Ca(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 11H2O
Group 52 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] and/or >[6] coordination
Titanite52.4.3.1CaTi(SiO4)O
Group 53 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and Other Anions or Complex Cations
Insular SiO4 Groups and Other Anions of Complex Cations with (UO2)
Uranophane53.3.1.2Ca(UO2)2(SiO3OH)2 · 5H2O
Group 58 - SOROSILICATES Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups
Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups with cations in [6] and higher coordination; single and double groups (n = 1, 2)
Epidote58.2.1a.7{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Group 65 - INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=2
Augite65.1.3a.3(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
'Albite-Anorthite Series'-
'Allanite Group'-{A12+REE3+}{M3+2M32+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
'Apatite'-Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
'Biotite'-K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
'Chlorite Group'-
'Clinopyroxene Subgroup'-
'Columbite-(Fe)-Columbite-(Mn) Series'-
'Fayalite-Forsterite Series'-
Kaolinite-Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H Allanite Group{A12+REE3+}{M23+M32+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
H AtacamiteCu2(OH)3Cl
H AutuniteCa(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 11H2O
H BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
H Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
H UranophaneCa(UO2)2(SiO3OH)2 · 5H2O
CCarbon
C CalciteCaCO3
C GraphiteC
OOxygen
O Allanite Group{A12+REE3+}{M23+M32+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
O AtacamiteCu2(OH)3Cl
O Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
O AutuniteCa(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 11H2O
O BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
O CalciteCaCO3
O Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O HematiteFe2O3
O KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
O RutileTiO2
O TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
O UranophaneCa(UO2)2(SiO3OH)2 · 5H2O
O ZinciteZnO
FFluorine
F ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
F BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
F FluoriteCaF2
MgMagnesium
Mg Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Mg BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
AlAluminium
Al BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Al Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Al KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
SiSilicon
Si Allanite Group{A12+REE3+}{M23+M32+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Si BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Si Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Si TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Si UranophaneCa(UO2)2(SiO3OH)2 · 5H2O
PPhosphorus
P ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
P AutuniteCa(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 11H2O
SSulfur
S PyriteFeS2
ClChlorine
Cl ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
Cl AtacamiteCu2(OH)3Cl
KPotassium
K BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
CaCalcium
Ca ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
Ca Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Ca AutuniteCa(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 11H2O
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Ca FluoriteCaF2
Ca TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Ca UranophaneCa(UO2)2(SiO3OH)2 · 5H2O
TiTitanium
Ti RutileTiO2
Ti TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
FeIron
Fe Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Fe BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Fe Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Fe HematiteFe2O3
Fe PyriteFeS2
CuCopper
Cu AtacamiteCu2(OH)3Cl
ZnZinc
Zn ZinciteZnO
AuGold
Au GoldAu
UUranium
U AutuniteCa(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 11H2O
U UranophaneCa(UO2)2(SiO3OH)2 · 5H2O

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Shaw, I. and Bunbury, J. (2003) A petrological study of the emerald mines in the Egyptian Eastern Desert. Lithics at the Millennium, ed. N. Moloney and M.J. Shott (London: Archaeopress, 2003), 203-213.
Ibrahim, M.E., Saleh, G.M., Dawood, N.A., and Aly, G.M. (2013) Ocellar lamprophyre dyke bearing mineralization, Wadi Nugrus, Eastern Desert, Egypt: Geology, mineralogy and geochemical implications. Journal of Geology and Mining Research, 2(4), 74-86.

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