Log InRegister
Home PageAbout MindatThe Mindat ManualHistory of MindatCopyright StatusWho We AreContact UsAdvertise on Mindat
Donate to MindatCorporate SponsorshipSponsor a PageSponsored PagesMindat AdvertisersAdvertise on Mindat
Learning CenterWhat is a mineral?The most common minerals on earthInformation for EducatorsMindat Articles
Minerals by PropertiesMinerals by ChemistryAdvanced Locality SearchRandom MineralRandom LocalitySearch by minIDLocalities Near MeSearch ArticlesSearch GlossaryMore Search Options
Search For:
Mineral Name:
Locality Name:
Keyword(s):
 
The Mindat ManualAdd a New PhotoRate PhotosLocality Edit ReportCoordinate Completion ReportAdd Glossary Item
Mining CompaniesStatisticsThe ElementsUsersBooks & MagazinesMineral MuseumsMineral Shows & EventsThe Mindat DirectoryDevice Settings
Photo SearchPhoto GalleriesNew Photos TodayNew Photos YesterdayMembers' Photo GalleriesPast Photo of the Day Gallery

Kelmis (La Calamine), Plombières-Vieille Montagne-Moresnet (Plombières-Altenberg-Moresnet) mining district, Verviers, Liège, Wallonia, Belgiumi
Regional Level Types
Kelmis (La Calamine)- not defined -
Plombières-Vieille Montagne-Moresnet (Plombières-Altenberg-Moresnet) mining districtMining District
Verviers- not defined -
LiègeProvince
WalloniaRegion
BelgiumCountry

This page is currently not sponsored. Click here to sponsor this page.
Key
Lock Map
Name(s) in local language(s):La Calamine
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 50° 42' 57'' North , 6° 0' 47'' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 50.71611,6.01333
GeoHash:G#: u1h28bdfb
Köppen climate type:Cfb : Temperate oceanic climate
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
La Calamine10,232 (2011)0.3km
Lontzen4,862 (2011)3.9km
Plombières9,596 (2011)4.4km
Wolfhaag125 (2017)4.8km
Raren175 (2017)5.8km


Kelmis (La Calamine) the village.

Kelmis (La Calamine) is located in the border triangle between Belgium, Germany, and the Netherlands.
It is the northernmost town in the German-speaking Community.
Kelmis is grown around the Altenberg zinc mine.

The current municipality of Kelmis (La Calamine) was formed in 1977 by the merger of the municipality of Kelmis, Neu-Moresnet, and Hergenrath. Kelmis was the triangular area of the once independent Neutral-Moresnet, on which the Altenberg mine once stood. Neu-Moresnet the area to the east and south, the former Prussian Moresnet and as third Hergenrath the neighboring municipality.

Because of the fact that, after the fall of Napoleon, Prussia and the Netherlands could not agree on the distribution of the profits of the mine, this area has been an independent state for more than 100 years "Neutral-Moresnet" (1816-1918).
The director of the Vieille Montagne mine was also head of state. So it was an independent region even after the independence of Belgium in 1830.

Both the old zinc mine (until 1884) and the zinc factory "Vieille Montagne" were located in Kelmis (in the Neutral-Moresnet area).

The zinc mine produced zinc ore called “Galmei” or “Calamine” (an intergrowth of Smithsonite, Hemimorphite, and Willemite) until 1884.

The produced ore was roasted in local shaft furnaces and then the zinc ore was converted into zinc metal by reduction with coal in muffle furnaces.

The old dumps and a settling pond are located opposite the open cut south of the Aachen-Liège road. In this area, the former mineral processing plant was situated. Starting in 1900, the S.A. de la Vielle Montagne processed the tailings from the old Altenberg mine, ashes from the old zinc plant and handpicked ores from other mines in the area (the Schmalgraf, Fossey, Welkenraedt, and Lontzen mines).

All these mines were concentrated in one concession, the “Vielle-Montagne zinc-lead concession of Moresnet”, with head office at the “Altenberg zinc plant” in Kelmis.

The Altenberg mine was the largest "galmei" mine in Kelmis.
Later, the Schmalgraf mine became the principal mine for zinc sulfides.

A small museum, with an extraordinarily beautiful and complete collection of zinc ores, is the silent reminder of the zinc industries in Kelmis.
Now the council of Kelmis has bought the old head-office building of Vieille-Montagne and has plans to move the museum to this historic building.

Regions containing this locality

Eurasian PlateTectonic Plate
EuropeContinent
Rhenish Massif, EuropeMassif

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Commodity List

This is a list of exploitable or exploited mineral commodities recorded from this region.


Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

22 valid minerals. 3 (TL) - type locality of valid minerals.

Rock Types Recorded

Note: this is a very new system on mindat.org and data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

Rock list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

Select Rock List Type

Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

Detailed Mineral List:

Brianyoungite
Formula: Zn3(CO3,SO4)(OH)4
'Calamine'
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Cerussite
Formula: PbCO3
Dolomite
Formula: CaMg(CO3)2
Fraipontite (TL)
Formula: (Zn,Al)3((Si,Al)2O5)(OH)4
Type Locality:
Galena
Formula: PbS
Goslarite
Formula: ZnSO4 · 7H2O
Greenockite
Formula: CdS
Gypsum
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Hemimorphite
Formula: Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Hopeite (TL)
Formula: Zn3(PO4)2 · 4H2O
Type Locality:
Hydrozincite
Formula: Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Kaolinite
Formula: Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
'Limonite'
Formula: (Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Marcasite
Formula: FeS2
'Petrified Wood'
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Quartz var: Agate
Quartz var: Chalcedony
Formula: SiO2
Sauconite
Formula: Na0.3Zn3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2O
Siderite
Formula: FeCO3
Smithsonite
Formula: ZnCO3
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Sphalerite var: Schalenblende
'Strickblende'
Formula: PbS
Willemite (TL)
Formula: Zn2SiO4
Wurtzite
Formula: (Zn,Fe)S

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Galena2.CD.10PbS
Greenockite2.CB.45CdS
Marcasite2.EB.10aFeS2
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
var: Schalenblende2.CB.05aZnS
Wurtzite2.CB.45(Zn,Fe)S
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
var: Agate4.DA.05SiO2
var: Chalcedony4.DA.05SiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Brianyoungite5.BF.30Zn3(CO3,SO4)(OH)4
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Cerussite5.AB.15PbCO3
Dolomite5.AB.10CaMg(CO3)2
Hydrozincite5.BA.15Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Siderite5.AB.05FeCO3
Smithsonite5.AB.05ZnCO3
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Goslarite7.CB.40ZnSO4 · 7H2O
Gypsum7.CD.40CaSO4 · 2H2O
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Hopeite (TL)8.CA.30Zn3(PO4)2 · 4H2O
Group 9 - Silicates
Fraipontite (TL)9.ED.15(Zn,Al)3((Si,Al)2O5)(OH)4
Hemimorphite9.BD.10Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Kaolinite9.ED.05Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Sauconite9.EC.45Na0.3Zn3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2O
Willemite (TL)9.AA.05Zn2SiO4
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Calamine'-
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
'Petrified Wood'-
'Strickblende'-PbS

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Greenockite2.8.7.2CdS
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
Wurtzite2.8.7.1(Zn,Fe)S
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Marcasite2.12.2.1FeS2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Cerussite14.1.3.4PbCO3
Siderite14.1.1.3FeCO3
Smithsonite14.1.1.6ZnCO3
AB(XO3)2
Dolomite14.2.1.1CaMg(CO3)2
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Hydrozincite16a.4.1.1Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4·xH2O
Goslarite29.6.11.2ZnSO4 · 7H2O
Gypsum29.6.3.1CaSO4 · 2H2O
Group 40 - HYDRATED NORMAL PHOSPHATES,ARSENATES AND VANADATES
A3(XO4)2·xH2O
Hopeite (TL)40.3.4.1Zn3(PO4)2 · 4H2O
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in [4] coordination
Willemite (TL)51.1.1.2Zn2SiO4
Group 56 - SOROSILICATES Si2O7 Groups, With Additional O, OH, F and H2O
Si2O7 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [4] coordination
Hemimorphite56.1.2.1Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 1:1 layers
Fraipontite (TL)71.1.2c.4(Zn,Al)3((Si,Al)2O5)(OH)4
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 clays
Sauconite71.3.1b.3Na0.3Zn3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2O
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
Brianyoungite-Zn3(CO3,SO4)(OH)4
'Calamine'-
Kaolinite-Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
'Petrified Wood'-
Quartz
var: Agate
-SiO2
var: Chalcedony-SiO2
Sphalerite
var: Schalenblende
-ZnS
'Strickblende'-PbS

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H Fraipontite(Zn,Al)3((Si,Al)2O5)(OH)4
H HopeiteZn3(PO4)2 · 4H2O
H HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
H GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
H SauconiteNa0.3Zn3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2O
H GoslariteZnSO4 · 7H2O
H HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
H KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
H Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
H BrianyoungiteZn3(CO3,SO4)(OH)4
CCarbon
C SmithsoniteZnCO3
C CalciteCaCO3
C DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
C HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
C SideriteFeCO3
C CerussitePbCO3
C BrianyoungiteZn3(CO3,SO4)(OH)4
OOxygen
O Fraipontite(Zn,Al)3((Si,Al)2O5)(OH)4
O WillemiteZn2SiO4
O HopeiteZn3(PO4)2 · 4H2O
O SmithsoniteZnCO3
O HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
O QuartzSiO2
O CalciteCaCO3
O GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
O DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
O SauconiteNa0.3Zn3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2O
O GoslariteZnSO4 · 7H2O
O HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
O KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
O SideriteFeCO3
O Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
O Quartz (var: Chalcedony)SiO2
O CerussitePbCO3
O BrianyoungiteZn3(CO3,SO4)(OH)4
NaSodium
Na SauconiteNa0.3Zn3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2O
MgMagnesium
Mg DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
AlAluminium
Al Fraipontite(Zn,Al)3((Si,Al)2O5)(OH)4
Al SauconiteNa0.3Zn3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2O
Al KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
SiSilicon
Si Fraipontite(Zn,Al)3((Si,Al)2O5)(OH)4
Si WillemiteZn2SiO4
Si HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Si QuartzSiO2
Si SauconiteNa0.3Zn3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2O
Si KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Si Quartz (var: Chalcedony)SiO2
PPhosphorus
P HopeiteZn3(PO4)2 · 4H2O
SSulfur
S StrickblendePbS
S GalenaPbS
S SphaleriteZnS
S MarcasiteFeS2
S GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
S PyriteFeS2
S GreenockiteCdS
S GoslariteZnSO4 · 7H2O
S BrianyoungiteZn3(CO3,SO4)(OH)4
S Wurtzite(Zn,Fe)S
CaCalcium
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
Ca DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
FeIron
Fe MarcasiteFeS2
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe SideriteFeCO3
Fe Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
ZnZinc
Zn Fraipontite(Zn,Al)3((Si,Al)2O5)(OH)4
Zn WillemiteZn2SiO4
Zn HopeiteZn3(PO4)2 · 4H2O
Zn SmithsoniteZnCO3
Zn SphaleriteZnS
Zn HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Zn SauconiteNa0.3Zn3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2O
Zn GoslariteZnSO4 · 7H2O
Zn HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Zn BrianyoungiteZn3(CO3,SO4)(OH)4
Zn Wurtzite(Zn,Fe)S
CdCadmium
Cd GreenockiteCdS
PbLead
Pb StrickblendePbS
Pb GalenaPbS
Pb CerussitePbCO3

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Carboniferous
298.9 - 358.9 Ma



ID: 3152767
Carboniferous limestone

Age: Carboniferous (298.9 - 358.9 Ma)

Lithology: Major:{limestone}, Minor{dolomite/dolostone,coal,claystone}

Reference: Asch, K. The 1:5M International Geological Map of Europe and Adjacent Areas: Development and Implementation of a GIS-enabled Concept. Geologisches Jahrbuch, SA 3. [147]

Late Devonian
358.9 - 382.7 Ma



ID: 2601725

Age: Late Devonian (358.9 - 382.7 Ma)

Description: marine deposits

Comments: vgl.671

Lithology: Argillaceous shale, slate, and/or schist, sandstone, graywacke, quartzite, limestone

Reference: Toloczyki, M., P. Trurnit, A. Voges, H. Wittekindt, A. Zitzmann. Geological Map of Germany 1:M. Bundesanstalt für Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe. [94]

Devonian
358.9 - 419.2 Ma



ID: 3186341
Paleozoic sedimentary rocks

Age: Devonian (358.9 - 419.2 Ma)

Lithology: Sedimentary rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

Localities in this Region
Show map


This page contains all mineral locality references listed on mindat.org. This does not claim to be a complete list. If you know of more minerals from this site, please register so you can add to our database. This locality information is for reference purposes only. You should never attempt to visit any sites listed in mindat.org without first ensuring that you have the permission of the land and/or mineral rights holders for access and that you are aware of all safety precautions necessary.
Mineral and/or Locality  
Mindat.org is an outreach project of the Hudson Institute of Mineralogy, a 501(c)(3) not-for-profit organization.
Copyright © mindat.org and the Hudson Institute of Mineralogy 1993-2019, except where stated. Mindat.org relies on the contributions of thousands of members and supporters.
Privacy Policy - Terms & Conditions - Contact Us Current server date and time: January 17, 2019 11:30:48 Page generated: January 13, 2019 09:51:12
Go to top of page