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N'Chwaning III Mine, N'Chwaning Mines, Kuruman, Kalahari manganese field, Northern Cape, South Africai
Regional Level Types
N'Chwaning III MineMine
N'Chwaning MinesGroup of Mines
KurumanTown
Kalahari manganese fieldOre Field
Northern CapeProvince
South AfricaCountry

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Key
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
27° South , 22° East (est.)
Estimate based on other nearby localities or region boundaries.
Margin of Error:
~1km
Locality type:


Development of this mine was initiated in 1997 although production did not commence until 2004 and by 2006 the mine became fully operational.

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


27 valid minerals. 4 (TL) - type locality of valid minerals. 2 erroneous literature entries.

Detailed Mineral List:

Aluminosugilite
Formula: KNa2Al2Li3Si12O30
Reference: Frank K. Mazdab collection: "Al-dominant analog of sugilite", sugilite, and associated minerals in thin section [thin section FKM-173] https://www.rockptx.com/fkm-151-to-fkm-175/#FKM-173
Andradite
Formula: Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
Description: Andradite from this mine is mentioned in the Cairncross reference (2013) as a general comment on page 151.
Reference: Cairncross, B., and Beukes, N. J., (2013) The Kalahari Manganese Field, the adventure continues .. Struik Nature Publishers, Cape Town, South Africa; Jesse Crawford
Baryte
Formula: BaSO4
Reference: Pierre Rondelez
Bixbyite
Formula: Mn3+2O3
Description: Entry was based on dealer photo, reference (Cairncross 2014) for recent finds does not record this mineral at this mine but does confirm finds from N'Chwaning II mine in recent years 2010/2011.
Reference: Van King
Braunite
Formula: Mn2+Mn3+6(SiO4)O8
Reference: Jordi Fabre specimen
Brucite
Formula: Mg(OH)2
Reference: Pierre Rondelez specimens.
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Jordi Fabre specimen
Calcite var: Manganoan Calcite
Formula: (Ca,Mn)CO3
Reference: Geoff Krasnov collection
Celestine
Formula: SrSO4
Description: Discovered at this mine in October 2009 and April 2010 (Cairncross and Beukes 2013).
Reference: Cairncross, B., and Beukes, N. J., (2013) The Kalahari Manganese Field, the adventure continues .. Struik Nature Publishers, Cape Town, South Africa.
Despujolsite
Formula: Ca3Mn4+(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Description: Rob Lavinsky (specimens analyzed by Dr. Robert Downs - University of Arizona) Despujolsite is said to be first discovered at this mine in late 2010. Earlier finds 2005/2006 came from N'Chwaning II mine (Cairncross 2013).
Reference: Barkley M C, Yang H, Evans S H, Downs R T, Origlieri M J (2011) Redetermination of despujolsite, Ca3Mn4+(SO4)2(OH)6·3H2O. Acta Crystallographica E67, i47-i48; Cairncross, B., and Beukes, N. J., (2013) The Kalahari Manganese Field, the adventure continues ... Struik Nature Publishers, Cape Town, South Africa
Ettringite
Formula: Ca6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12 · 26H2O
Description: A specimen from the recent jouravskite find in 2016 which has been analysed by SEM and microprobe has aluminium present and as such is ettringite.
Reference: Debbie Woolf - Bruce Cairncross private communication
Gaudefroyite
Formula: Ca4Mn3+2-3(BO3)3(CO3)(O,OH)3
Description: Members photo used as reference is erroneous, the specimen is from N'Chwaning II mine, gaudefroyite has not been recorded from the # III mine. (Debbie Woolf)
Goethite
Formula: α-Fe3+O(OH)
Description: Goethite coating and partly replacing kutnahorite associated with fluorescent calcite, came from this mine in 2010.
Reference: Cairncross, B., and Beukes, N. J., (2013) The Kalahari Manganese Field, the adventure continues ... Struik Nature Publishers, Cape Town, South Africa
Hausmannite
Formula: Mn2+Mn3+2O4
Reference: Cairncross, B., and Beukes, N. J., (2013) The Kalahari Manganese Field, the adventure continues ... Struik Nature Publishers, Cape Town, South Africa
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Reference: Danny Jones
Jouravskite
Formula: Ca3Mn4+(SO4)(CO3)(OH)6 · 12H2O
Description: A specimen from the recent jouravskite find in 2016 which has been analysed by SEM and microprobe has aluminium present and as such is ettringite.
Reference: In the collection of Brent Thorne. Acquired from Rob Lavinsky.
Lipuite (TL)
Formula: KNa8Mn3+5 Mg0.5[Si12O30(OH)4](PO4)O2(OH)2·4H2O
Type Locality:
Reference: Yang, H., Gu, X., Xie, X., van Nieuwenhuizen, J.J., Evans, S.H. and Downs, R.T. (2015) Lipuite, IMA 2014-085. CNMNC Newsletter No. 23, February 2015, page 58; Mineralogical Magazine, 79, 51-58.
'Manganese Oxides'
Reference: Geoff Krasnov collection
Manganvesuvianite
Formula: Ca19Mn3+Al4(Al6Mg2)(☐4)☐[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10]O(OH)9
Reference: Jesse Crawford
Olmiite
Formula: CaMn2+[SiO3(OH)](OH)
Reference: P.Rondelez
Oyelite
Formula: Ca10Si8B2O29 · 12.5H2O
Reference: Van King
Pectolite
Formula: NaCa2Si3O8(OH)
Fluorescence: cathodoluminescence: pale yellow CL cores and bright yellow CL thin rims
Description: abundant crystals within quartz segregations in sugilite-rich rock
Reference: Frank K. Mazdab collection (thin section FKM-173)
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Geoff Krasnov collection
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Description: Quartz var Amethyst erroneously reported here, from a dealer label, they were found at N'Chwaning II mine as documented.
Rhodochrosite
Formula: MnCO3
Reference: Dan Weinrich photo
Saccoite (TL)
Formula: Ca2Mn3+2F(OH)8·0.5(SO4)
Type Locality:
Reference: Giester, G., Lengauer, C.L., Topa, D., Gutzmer, J., Von Bezing, K.-L. (2019): Saccoite, IMA 2019-056. CNMNC Newsletter No. 52; Mineralogical Magazine: 83; https://doi.org/10.1180/mgm.2019.73; http://forum.amiminerals.it/viewtopic.php?f=5&t=15946
Strontioruizite (TL)
Formula: Sr2Mn3+2Si4O11(OH)4 · 2H2O
Type Locality:
Reference: Yang, H., Cairncross, B., Gu, X., Yong, T. and Downs, R.T. (2017) Strontioruizite, IMA 2017-045. CNMNC Newsletter No. 39, October 2017, page 1280; Mineralogical Magazine; 81: 1279–1286
Sturmanite
Formula: Ca6(Fe3+,Al,Mn3+)2(SO4)2[B(OH)4](OH)12 · 25H2O
Reference: Van King
Sugilite
Formula: KNa2Fe3+2(Li3Si12)O30
Reference: Yang, H., Gu, X., Xie, X., van Nieuwenhuizen, J.J., Evans, S.H. and Downs, R.T. (2015) Lipuite, IMA 2014-085. CNMNC Newsletter No. 23, February 2015, page 58; Mineralogical Magazine, 79, 51-58.
Taniajacoite (TL)
Formula: SrCaMn3+2Si4O11(OH)4·2H2O
Type Locality:
Reference: Yang, H., Gu, X., Downs, R.T. and Xie, X. (2015) Taniajacoite, IMA 2014-107. CNMNC Newsletter No. 25, June 2015, page 531; Mineralogical Magazine, 79, 529-535.
Xonotlite
Formula: Ca6(Si6O17)(OH)2
Description: In association with jouravskite.
Reference: In the collection of Brent Thorne. Acquired from Rob Lavinsky.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Bixbyite ?4.CB.10Mn3+2O3
Brucite4.FE.05Mg(OH)2
Goethite4.00.α-Fe3+O(OH)
Hausmannite4.BB.10Mn2+Mn3+2O4
Hematite4.CB.05Fe2O3
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
var: Manganoan Calcite5.AB.05(Ca,Mn)CO3
Rhodochrosite5.AB.05MnCO3
Group 6 - Borates
Gaudefroyite ?6.AB.60Ca4Mn3+2-3(BO3)3(CO3)(O,OH)3
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Baryte7.AD.35BaSO4
Celestine7.AD.35SrSO4
Despujolsite7.DF.25Ca3Mn4+(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Ettringite7.DG.15Ca6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12 · 26H2O
Jouravskite7.DG.15Ca3Mn4+(SO4)(CO3)(OH)6 · 12H2O
Sturmanite7.DG.15Ca6(Fe3+,Al,Mn3+)2(SO4)2[B(OH)4](OH)12 · 25H2O
Group 9 - Silicates
Aluminosugilite9.CM.9.CM.KNa2Al2Li3Si12O30
Andradite9.AD.25Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
Braunite9.AG.05Mn2+Mn3+6(SiO4)O8
Manganvesuvianite9.BG.35Ca19Mn3+Al4(Al6Mg2)(☐4)☐[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10]O(OH)9
Olmiite9.AF.90CaMn2+[SiO3(OH)](OH)
Oyelite9.HA.80Ca10Si8B2O29 · 12.5H2O
Pectolite9.DG.05NaCa2Si3O8(OH)
Sugilite9.CM.05KNa2Fe3+2(Li3Si12)O30
Xonotlite9.DG.35Ca6(Si6O17)(OH)2
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
Lipuite (TL)-KNa8Mn3+5 Mg0.5[Si12O30(OH)4](PO4)O2(OH)2·4H2O
'Manganese Oxides'-
Saccoite (TL)-Ca2Mn3+2F(OH)8·0.5(SO4)
Strontioruizite (TL)-Sr2Mn3+2Si4O11(OH)4 · 2H2O
Taniajacoite (TL)- SrCaMn3+2Si4O11(OH)4·2H2O

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X3
Bixbyite ?4.3.7.2Mn3+2O3
Hematite4.3.1.2Fe2O3
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
XO(OH)
Goethite6.1.1.2α-Fe3+O(OH)
X(OH)2
Brucite6.2.1.1Mg(OH)2
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB2X4
Hausmannite7.2.7.1Mn2+Mn3+2O4
(AB)2X3
Braunite7.5.1.3Mn2+Mn3+6(SiO4)O8
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Rhodochrosite14.1.1.4MnCO3
Group 27 - COMPOUND BORATES
Miscellaneous
Gaudefroyite ?27.1.2.1Ca4Mn3+2-3(BO3)3(CO3)(O,OH)3
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Baryte28.3.1.1BaSO4
Celestine28.3.1.2SrSO4
Group 31 - HYDRATED SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)2(XO4)Zq·xH2O
Despujolsite31.7.6.1Ca3Mn4+(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Miscellaneous
Ettringite31.10.2.1Ca6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12 · 26H2O
Group 32 - COMPOUND SULFATES
Hydrated Compound Sulfates containing Hydroxyl or Halogen
Jouravskite32.4.4.3Ca3Mn4+(SO4)(CO3)(OH)6 · 12H2O
Sturmanite32.4.4.2Ca6(Fe3+,Al,Mn3+)2(SO4)2[B(OH)4](OH)12 · 25H2O
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in [6] and >[6] coordination
Andradite51.4.3b.1Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
Group 63 - CYCLOSILICATES Condensed Rings
Condensed Rings (Milarite - Osumilite group)
Sugilite63.2.1a.9KNa2Fe3+2(Li3Si12)O30
Group 65 - INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=3
Pectolite65.2.1.4aNaCa2Si3O8(OH)
Group 66 - INOSILICATES Double-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=2)
Amphiboles - Ca-Na subgroup
Xonotlite66.3.1.1Ca6(Si6O17)(OH)2
Group 72 - PHYLLOSILICATES Two-Dimensional Infinite Sheets with Other Than Six-Membered Rings
Two-Dimensional Infinite Sheets with Other Than Six-Membered Rings with 3-, 4-, or 5-membered rings and 8-membered rings
Oyelite72.3.2.8Ca10Si8B2O29 · 12.5H2O
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
Aluminosugilite-KNa2Al2Li3Si12O30
Calcite
var: Manganoan Calcite
-(Ca,Mn)CO3
Lipuite (TL)-KNa8Mn3+5 Mg0.5[Si12O30(OH)4](PO4)O2(OH)2·4H2O
'Manganese Oxides'-
Manganvesuvianite-Ca19Mn3+Al4(Al6Mg2)(☐4)☐[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10]O(OH)9
Olmiite-CaMn2+[SiO3(OH)](OH)
Saccoite (TL)-Ca2Mn3+2F(OH)8·0.5(SO4)
Strontioruizite (TL)-Sr2Mn3+2Si4O11(OH)4 · 2H2O
Taniajacoite (TL)- SrCaMn3+2Si4O11(OH)4·2H2O

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H LipuiteKNa8Mn53+ Mg0.5[Si12O30(OH)4](PO4)O2(OH)2·4H2O
H Taniajacoite SrCaMn23+Si4O11(OH)4·2H2O
H StrontioruiziteSr2Mn23+Si4O11(OH)4 · 2H2O
H SaccoiteCa2Mn23+F(OH)8·0.5(SO4)
H ManganvesuvianiteCa19Mn3+Al4(Al6Mg2)(☐4)☐[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10]O(OH)9
H OyeliteCa10Si8B2O29 · 12.5H2O
H SturmaniteCa6(Fe3+,Al,Mn3+)2(SO4)2[B(OH)4](OH)12 · 25H2O
H DespujolsiteCa3Mn4+(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
H OlmiiteCaMn2+[SiO3(OH)](OH)
H BruciteMg(OH)2
H Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
H JouravskiteCa3Mn4+(SO4)(CO3)(OH)6 · 12H2O
H XonotliteCa6(Si6O17)(OH)2
H EttringiteCa6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12 · 26H2O
H PectoliteNaCa2Si3O8(OH)
LiLithium
Li SugiliteKNa2Fe23+(Li3Si12)O30
Li AluminosugiliteKNa2Al2Li3Si12O30
BBoron
B OyeliteCa10Si8B2O29 · 12.5H2O
B SturmaniteCa6(Fe3+,Al,Mn3+)2(SO4)2[B(OH)4](OH)12 · 25H2O
B GaudefroyiteCa4Mn3+2-3(BO3)3(CO3)(O,OH)3
CCarbon
C CalciteCaCO3
C Calcite (var: Manganoan Calcite)(Ca,Mn)CO3
C RhodochrositeMnCO3
C JouravskiteCa3Mn4+(SO4)(CO3)(OH)6 · 12H2O
C GaudefroyiteCa4Mn3+2-3(BO3)3(CO3)(O,OH)3
OOxygen
O LipuiteKNa8Mn53+ Mg0.5[Si12O30(OH)4](PO4)O2(OH)2·4H2O
O Taniajacoite SrCaMn23+Si4O11(OH)4·2H2O
O StrontioruiziteSr2Mn23+Si4O11(OH)4 · 2H2O
O SaccoiteCa2Mn23+F(OH)8·0.5(SO4)
O BrauniteMn2+Mn63+(SiO4)O8
O CalciteCaCO3
O Calcite (var: Manganoan Calcite)(Ca,Mn)CO3
O AndraditeCa3Fe23+(SiO4)3
O ManganvesuvianiteCa19Mn3+Al4(Al6Mg2)(☐4)☐[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10]O(OH)9
O HematiteFe2O3
O OyeliteCa10Si8B2O29 · 12.5H2O
O QuartzSiO2
O SturmaniteCa6(Fe3+,Al,Mn3+)2(SO4)2[B(OH)4](OH)12 · 25H2O
O DespujolsiteCa3Mn4+(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
O RhodochrositeMnCO3
O OlmiiteCaMn2+[SiO3(OH)](OH)
O BaryteBaSO4
O BruciteMg(OH)2
O HausmanniteMn2+Mn23+O4
O SugiliteKNa2Fe23+(Li3Si12)O30
O CelestineSrSO4
O Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
O JouravskiteCa3Mn4+(SO4)(CO3)(OH)6 · 12H2O
O XonotliteCa6(Si6O17)(OH)2
O EttringiteCa6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12 · 26H2O
O PectoliteNaCa2Si3O8(OH)
O AluminosugiliteKNa2Al2Li3Si12O30
O GaudefroyiteCa4Mn3+2-3(BO3)3(CO3)(O,OH)3
O BixbyiteMn23+O3
FFluorine
F SaccoiteCa2Mn23+F(OH)8·0.5(SO4)
NaSodium
Na LipuiteKNa8Mn53+ Mg0.5[Si12O30(OH)4](PO4)O2(OH)2·4H2O
Na SugiliteKNa2Fe23+(Li3Si12)O30
Na PectoliteNaCa2Si3O8(OH)
Na AluminosugiliteKNa2Al2Li3Si12O30
MgMagnesium
Mg LipuiteKNa8Mn53+ Mg0.5[Si12O30(OH)4](PO4)O2(OH)2·4H2O
Mg ManganvesuvianiteCa19Mn3+Al4(Al6Mg2)(☐4)☐[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10]O(OH)9
Mg BruciteMg(OH)2
AlAluminium
Al ManganvesuvianiteCa19Mn3+Al4(Al6Mg2)(☐4)☐[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10]O(OH)9
Al SturmaniteCa6(Fe3+,Al,Mn3+)2(SO4)2[B(OH)4](OH)12 · 25H2O
Al EttringiteCa6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12 · 26H2O
Al AluminosugiliteKNa2Al2Li3Si12O30
SiSilicon
Si LipuiteKNa8Mn53+ Mg0.5[Si12O30(OH)4](PO4)O2(OH)2·4H2O
Si Taniajacoite SrCaMn23+Si4O11(OH)4·2H2O
Si StrontioruiziteSr2Mn23+Si4O11(OH)4 · 2H2O
Si BrauniteMn2+Mn63+(SiO4)O8
Si AndraditeCa3Fe23+(SiO4)3
Si ManganvesuvianiteCa19Mn3+Al4(Al6Mg2)(☐4)☐[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10]O(OH)9
Si OyeliteCa10Si8B2O29 · 12.5H2O
Si QuartzSiO2
Si OlmiiteCaMn2+[SiO3(OH)](OH)
Si SugiliteKNa2Fe23+(Li3Si12)O30
Si XonotliteCa6(Si6O17)(OH)2
Si PectoliteNaCa2Si3O8(OH)
Si AluminosugiliteKNa2Al2Li3Si12O30
PPhosphorus
P LipuiteKNa8Mn53+ Mg0.5[Si12O30(OH)4](PO4)O2(OH)2·4H2O
SSulfur
S SaccoiteCa2Mn23+F(OH)8·0.5(SO4)
S PyriteFeS2
S SturmaniteCa6(Fe3+,Al,Mn3+)2(SO4)2[B(OH)4](OH)12 · 25H2O
S DespujolsiteCa3Mn4+(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
S BaryteBaSO4
S CelestineSrSO4
S JouravskiteCa3Mn4+(SO4)(CO3)(OH)6 · 12H2O
S EttringiteCa6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12 · 26H2O
KPotassium
K LipuiteKNa8Mn53+ Mg0.5[Si12O30(OH)4](PO4)O2(OH)2·4H2O
K SugiliteKNa2Fe23+(Li3Si12)O30
K AluminosugiliteKNa2Al2Li3Si12O30
CaCalcium
Ca Taniajacoite SrCaMn23+Si4O11(OH)4·2H2O
Ca SaccoiteCa2Mn23+F(OH)8·0.5(SO4)
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca Calcite (var: Manganoan Calcite)(Ca,Mn)CO3
Ca AndraditeCa3Fe23+(SiO4)3
Ca ManganvesuvianiteCa19Mn3+Al4(Al6Mg2)(☐4)☐[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10]O(OH)9
Ca OyeliteCa10Si8B2O29 · 12.5H2O
Ca SturmaniteCa6(Fe3+,Al,Mn3+)2(SO4)2[B(OH)4](OH)12 · 25H2O
Ca DespujolsiteCa3Mn4+(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Ca OlmiiteCaMn2+[SiO3(OH)](OH)
Ca JouravskiteCa3Mn4+(SO4)(CO3)(OH)6 · 12H2O
Ca XonotliteCa6(Si6O17)(OH)2
Ca EttringiteCa6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12 · 26H2O
Ca PectoliteNaCa2Si3O8(OH)
Ca GaudefroyiteCa4Mn3+2-3(BO3)3(CO3)(O,OH)3
MnManganese
Mn LipuiteKNa8Mn53+ Mg0.5[Si12O30(OH)4](PO4)O2(OH)2·4H2O
Mn Taniajacoite SrCaMn23+Si4O11(OH)4·2H2O
Mn StrontioruiziteSr2Mn23+Si4O11(OH)4 · 2H2O
Mn SaccoiteCa2Mn23+F(OH)8·0.5(SO4)
Mn BrauniteMn2+Mn63+(SiO4)O8
Mn Calcite (var: Manganoan Calcite)(Ca,Mn)CO3
Mn ManganvesuvianiteCa19Mn3+Al4(Al6Mg2)(☐4)☐[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10]O(OH)9
Mn SturmaniteCa6(Fe3+,Al,Mn3+)2(SO4)2[B(OH)4](OH)12 · 25H2O
Mn DespujolsiteCa3Mn4+(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Mn RhodochrositeMnCO3
Mn OlmiiteCaMn2+[SiO3(OH)](OH)
Mn HausmanniteMn2+Mn23+O4
Mn JouravskiteCa3Mn4+(SO4)(CO3)(OH)6 · 12H2O
Mn GaudefroyiteCa4Mn3+2-3(BO3)3(CO3)(O,OH)3
Mn BixbyiteMn23+O3
FeIron
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe AndraditeCa3Fe23+(SiO4)3
Fe HematiteFe2O3
Fe SturmaniteCa6(Fe3+,Al,Mn3+)2(SO4)2[B(OH)4](OH)12 · 25H2O
Fe SugiliteKNa2Fe23+(Li3Si12)O30
Fe Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
SrStrontium
Sr Taniajacoite SrCaMn23+Si4O11(OH)4·2H2O
Sr StrontioruiziteSr2Mn23+Si4O11(OH)4 · 2H2O
Sr CelestineSrSO4
BaBarium
Ba BaryteBaSO4

References

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Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Cairncross, B. and Beukes, N. J., (2013) The Kalahari Manganese Field, the adventure continues. Struik Nature Publishers, Cape Town, South Africa.

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